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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Exposure Assessment and Asbestosis Pulmonum among Inhabitants near Abandoned Asbestos Mines Using Deposited Dust
Ahn, Hoki ; Yang, Wonho ; Hwangbo, Young ; Lee, Yong Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 369~379
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.369
Objectives: The lack of reliable information on environmental pollution and health impacts related to asbestos contamination from abandoned mines has drawn attention to the need for a community health study. This study was performed to evaluate asbestos-related health symptoms among residents near abandoned asbestos mines located in the Chungcheong Provinces. In addition, exposure assessment for asbestos is needed although the exposure to asbestos was in the past. Methods: Past exposure to asbestos among inhabitants near abandoned asbestos mines was estimated by using surface sampling of deposited dust in indoor and outdoor residences. A total of 54 participants were divided into two groups with (34 cases) and without (20 controls) diseases related to asbestos. Surface sampling of deposited dust was carried out in indoor and outdoor residences by collecting 105 samples. Deposited dust for sampling was analyzed by polarization microscope (PLM) and scanning electron microscope?energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) to detect asbestos. Subsequently, the elements of the deposited dust with asbestos were analyzed by SEM-EDX to assess the contribution of sources such as abandoned mines, slate and soil. Results: Among the 105 samples, asbestos was detected by PLM in 29 (27.6%) sampling points, and detected by SEM in 56 (48.6%) sampling points. Asbestos in indoor residences was detected by PLM in four sampling points, and by SEM in 12 sampling points. Asbestos detection in indoor residences may be due to ventilation between indoors and outdoors, and indicates long-term exposure. The asbestos detection rate for outdoor residences in the case group was higher than that in the control group. This can be explained as the case group having had higher exposure to asbestos, and there has been continuous exposure to asbestos in the control group as well as the case group. Conclusion: Past residential asbestos exposure may be associated with asbestosis among local residents near abandoned asbestos mines. Odds ratios were calculated for asbestos detection in outdoor residence by logistic regression analysis. Odds ratio between asbestos detection and asbestosis pulmonum was 3.36 (95% CI 0.90-12.53) (p=0.072), adjusting for age, sex, smoking status and work history with multi-variable logistic regression by PLM analysis method.
An Analysis of the Gap in Recognition between Managers and Experts regarding the Poisonous Substances Designation System
Kim, Mi Na ; Lee, Seung Kil ; Doo, Yong Kyoon ; Cho, Sam Rae ; Choi, Jae-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 380~388
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.380
Objectives: Poisonous substances experts engage in policymaking regarding poisonous substances, whereas poisonous substances managers perform legal duties related to poisonous substances management systems at worksites. To understand and improve poisonous substances designation systems, it is necessary to distinguish the roles of these experts and managers. We further aimed to identify problems with poisonous substances appointment systems and provide basic data for their improvement by investigating the knowledge and recognition of the need for system improvement among managers and experts. Methods: To determine the
awareness of poisonous substances designation systems, a selfadministered questionnaire comprised of items on general characteristics and knowledge and recognition of the need for system improvement was issued. Data were analyzed via t-tests and ANOVA using SPSS v 16.0 Results: Regarding system comprehension, managers (n=213; mean 3.28, SD 0.63) significantly differed from experts (n=35; mean 4.08, SD 0.59) (P<0.001). No differences were found in recognition of need for improvement between managers (mean 3.11, SD 0.34) and experts (mean 3.24, SD 0.31). Significant differences in comprehension were found among managers by education level (P<0.05) and company size (P<0.05). Regarding industry type, comprehension was greater in the electrical/electronic and chemical/environmental industries compared to in other industries (P = 0.066). Comprehension was higher among those with five years or more of experience compared to those with less than five years. Regarding recognition of need for improvement, managers showed significant differences by company size (P<0.05).
comprehension showed no differences by general characteristics, while need for improvement differed according to work experience (P<0.001). Conclusion: The study found that the bigger the company size, the higher the level of comprehension by managers and the experts. In the case of both groups, where a higher comprehension of the poisonous substances designation system was evident, they recognized the necessity of its improvement.
Assessment of Thermal Comfort in a General Hospital in Winter Using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV)
Lee, Boram ; Kim, Jeonghoon ; Kim, KyooSang ; Kim, Hyejin ; Lee, Kiyoung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 389~396
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.389
Objectives: A hospital is a complex building that serves many different purposes. It has a major impact on patient's well-being as well as on the work efficiency of the hospital staff. Thermal comfort is one of the major factors in indoor comfort. The purpose of this study was to determine thermal comfort in various locations in a hospital. Methods: Various indoor environmental conditions in a general hospital were measured in February 2014. The predicted mean vote (PMV) and carbon dioxide (
) concentration were measured simultaneously in the lobby, office, restaurant, and ward. Results: The ward was the most thermally comfortable location (PMV=0.44) and the lobby was the most uncomfortable (PMV = -1.39). However, the
concentration was the highest in the ward (896 ppm) and the lowest in the lobby (572 ppm). The average PMV value was the most comfortable in the ward and the lowest in the lobby. In contrast, for concentration of carbon dioxide, the highest average was in the ward and the lowest in the lobby. Due to air conditioner operation, during operating hours the PMV showed values close to 0 compared to the non-operating time. Correlation between PMV and
differed by location. Conclusion: The PMV and concentration of carbon dioxide of the hospital lobby, office, restaurant and ward varied. The relationship between PMV and carbon dioxide differed by location. Consideration of how to apply PMV and carbon dioxide is needed when evaluating indoor comfort.
Assessment Report of Bacterial Contamination in Some School Dining Services with Table Swabs and Air Samples
Jung, HeaYong ; Sohn, JuHae ; Lee, JaeYoon ; Lee, InAe ; Ko, JiYean ; Ko, NaYun ; Park, SungJun ; Ko, GwangPyo ; Kim, Sungkyoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 397~404
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.397
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate microbial contamination in the school food service environment for the assessment of microbial food safety. Methods: We collected both swab samples from tables and desks and airborne bacterial samples from an elementary school (School A) and a high school (School B). Heterotrophic plate count, total coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus were measured with selective media to quantify microbial concentration. PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA genes was performed to identify the strains of S. aureus and B. cereus isolated. In addition, we made a food service checklist for the locations to evaluate the food service environment. A Wilcoxon test was employed to examine the differences in microbial concentration between before lunchtime and afterwards. Results: Heterotrophic plate counts showed higher levels after-lunch compared to before-lunch at School B. However, levels of S. aureus were higher in the after-lunch period (p<0.05) in both classrooms and in the cafeteria in School A. B. cereus was only sparsely detected in School B. Several samples from food dining carts were found to be contaminated with bacteria, and facilities associated with food delivery were found to be vulnerable to bacterial contamination. Although microbial concentrations in the air showed little difference between before- and after-lunchtime in the cafeteria in School A, those in classrooms were greater after-lunchtime at both schools. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the microbial safety in schools after lunchtime of concern. Necessary preventive measures such as hygiene education for students and food handlers should be required to minimize microbial contamination during food service processes in schools.
Condition Setting for Oral Mucosal Irritation Evaluation using Hamster Cheek Pouch
Park, Kyo-Hyun ; Kim, Kwang-Mahn ; Kim, Bae-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 405~411
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.405
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the optimum conditions for oral mucosal irritation testing using the buccal pouch of hamsters. Methods: Test materials were applied to the buccal pouch of seven-week old male Syrian hamsters (SLC, Japan) four times at one-hour intervals and macroscopic changes were examined at 24 hours after final treatment. After sacrifice, the buccal pouches were removed and prepared for histopathological evaluation. In order to set the exposure time, we performed exposure tests of 5, 12, 18 and 23 minutes using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 1% and set the treatment volume from the test results at 2, 3, or 4 ml treatment using SLS 1%, Triton X-100 1% and ethanol. After setting the experimental conditions, seven groups of materials [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (1%), Triton X-100 (1%), hydrogen peroxide (3%), ethanol (100%), chlorhexidine (0.2%, 2%), phosphate buffer saline (PBS)] were assessed. Results: Experimental conditions of material exposure time were fixed as 18 minutes from the exposure tests of 5, 12, 18 or 23 min using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 1%. Treated volume was set as 4 ml per each pouch from the test results of 2, 3, or 4 ml treatments using SLS 1%, Triton X-100 1% and ethanol. The results in terms of irritation degree were in the order of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (1%) > Triton X-100 (1%)
hydrogen peroxide (3%) > ethanol (100%)
chlorhexidine (0.2%, 2%) > phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Conclusion: From this study, suitable conditions for hamster mucosal irritation testing were suggested and this method was verified through materials commonly used on oral mucosal membranes.
Self-reported Irritation Symptoms among Workers Exposed to Ultra-low Relative Humidity and Thionyl Chloride
Chae, Yoo Mi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 412~424
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.412
Objectives: An ultra dry air environment of nearly
RH is often required in lithium battery factories. The objective of this study is to evaluate the subjective eye, pulmonary, nose, and skin symptoms of workers exposed to ultra-low relative humidity and thionyl chloride. Methods: We recruited 274 workers using a self-reported questionnaire in March 2014. Those who worked in ultra-low relative humidity and with thionyl chloride were identified and their prevalence of symptoms was compared with that of other workers. We excluded white collar workers, researchers and other workers who were exposed to various hazard factors, and finally included 164 workers. Results: There were significant differences in the rate of self-reported eye and skin symptoms between exposure group_1 and exposure group_2. Exposure group_2 experienced more frequent eye, and skin symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression analysis for experience of dry eye symptoms and skin symptoms in exposure group_2 showed that dry eye symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 6.33, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19-18.24, p<0.001), and itchiness (OR, 6.45, 95% CI, 1.94-21.43, p<0.01) were the significant variables. The complaints of workers experiencing ultra-low relative humidity and thionyl chloride were high compared with other workers. Conclusion: These findings suggest that exposure to ultra-low relative humidity and thionyl chloride may be associated with more frequent eye and skin symptoms than exposure to ultra-low relative humidity alone. The current precautions to protect workers from the adverse effects of ultra-low relative humidity and thionyl chloride appear to be insufficient, indicating that additional management plans to reduce symptoms should be considered.
Uncertainty Analysis and Application to Risk Assessment
Jo, Areum ; Kim, Taksoo ; Seo, JungKwan ; Yoon, Hyojung ; Kim, Pilje ; Choi, Kyunghee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 425~437
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.425
Objectives: Risk assessment is a tool for predicting and reducing uncertainty related to the effects of future activities. Probability approaches are the main elements in risk assessment, but confusion about the interpretation and use of assessment factors often undermines the message of the analyses. The aim of this study is to provide a guideline for systematic reduction plans regarding uncertainty in risk assessment. Methods: Articles and reports were collected online using the key words "uncertainty analysis" on risk assessment. Uncertainty analysis was conducted based on reports focusing on procedures for analysis methods by the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). In addition, case studies were performed in order to verify suggested methods qualitatively and quantitatively with exposure data, including measured data on toluene and styrene in residential spaces and multi-use facilities. Results: Based on an analysis of the data on uncertainty, three major factors including scenario, model, and parameters were identified as the main sources of uncertainty, and tiered approaches were determined. In the case study, the risk of toluene and styrene was evaluated and the most influential factors were also determined. Five reduction plans were presented: providing standard guidelines, using reliable exposure factors, possessing quality controls for analysis and scientific expertise, and introducing a peer review system. Conclusion: In this study, we established a method for reducing uncertainty by taking into account the major factors. Also, we showed a method for uncertainty analysis with tiered approaches. However, uncertainties are difficult to define because they are generated by many factors. Therefore, further studies are needed for the development of technical guidelines based on the representative scenario, model, and parameters developed in this study.
Effects of Storage Time and Temperature on the Hygienic Quality of Shell Eggs
Kim, Jong-Gyu ; Park, Jeong-Yeong ; Kim, Joong-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 438~448
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.438
Objectives: This study was performed to examine the effects of storage time and temperature and their interaction on the hygienic quality parameters of shell eggs. Methods: Eggs from 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown hens were sampled immediately after being laid and subjected to storage periods of four weeks at a refrigerated temperature (
) or room temperature (
). Interior/exterior qualities were examined every one week. Results: Weight loss was 2.4-3.1%. The initial specific gravity of the eggs was maintained until one week at both temperatures. Air cell size exceeded 4 mm when stored for one week at room temperature, and two weeks at refrigerated temperature. Albumen index and Haugh unit were significantly decreased at both temperatures after one week (p<0.001). Rapidly increased pH of the albumen with one week of storage was observed, regardless of temperature (p<0.001). Extension of the storage for up to four weeks at room temperature resulted in remarkable deterioration of eggshell quality and instrumental color as redness (a). Air cell size, albumen and yolk indices, Haugh unit, pH of albumen and yolk were found to be influenced by storage time and temperature (p<0.001). Interaction effects between storage time and temperature were also significant for air cell size, pH of albumen and yolk (p<0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that air cell size and pH of albumen and yolk were important parameters influenced by storage time and temperature in shell eggs. Storage time was more influential for air cell size, and temperature for the pH of yolk. Both variables almost equally influenced the pH of albumen.
A Study on the Spatial Distribution of Medical Waste Generation and Treatment in Korea
Oh, Se-Eun ; Lee, Jinheon ; Ahn, Hoki ; Kim, Ki-Youn ; Park, Seokhwan ; Ha, Kwonchul ; Ji, Kyunghee ; Hwang, Sungho ; Yoon, Oh-Sub ; Hong, Young-Seoub ; Lee, Eunil ; Kim, Pangyi ; Lee, Kyoung-Mu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2015, Pages 449~457
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2015.41.6.449
Objectives: In Korea, the system of management of medical waste largely relies on the incineration method. Our study aimed to identify any regional imbalances between the generation and treatment of medical waste, and provide reference data for future policy in Korea. Methods: We analyzed data on the amount of medical waste from 2,000 hospitals in 2012, 2013, and 2014 obtained from the Korea Environment Corporation. In the Arc GIS program (version 10.2.3), the addresses of hospitals and incinerators were transformed into map coordinates. The amount of waste generated by each hospital and the amount incinerated were represented by density and size of a triangle symbol, respectively. Results: As of 2014, the total amount of medical waste from the top 2,000 hospitals was 136,073 tons, out of which about half (49%) was generated in the capital area. Eleven incineration companies (three in the capital area, two in the Chungcheong Provinces area, one in the Jeolla Provinces area, and five in the Gyeongsang Provinces area) treated this waste. For the years 2012, 2013, and 2014, about 60% of the medical waste generated from the hospitals in the capital area was treated within the capital area and about 40% was transported to other areas, especially the Gyeongsang Provinces area, for treatment. On the other hand, about 90% of the medical waste incinerated in the capital area originated from the capital area. Conclusion: Our results suggest a spatial imbalance between the generation and treatment of medical waste in Korea and warrants multilateral policies, including the expansion of on-site treatment, strengthening regulation of the containment of medical wastes, promoting reductions in medical waste and more.