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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Apr 1978
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A Study on Sterilization of Medical Products by Gamma-irradiation.
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 1~9
Biological safety, physico-chemical and microbiological experiments were carried out in order to study the possibility of radiation sterilization on medical products, such as polyethylene and polystyrene bottles, gauze sponges and surgical silk suture. Results are as follows: 1. Biological test on plastic samples as to acute systemic toxicity, eye irritation, skin irritation, pyrogen, haemolysis showed satisfactory results. But physico-chemically, the oxidizable matter, nonvolatile residues, residue on ignition seemed to be increased slightly in irradiated samples, though the experimental results were within the range of U.S.P. 19, N.F. and K.P. III. 2. After irradiation, both plastic and gauze sponges showed considerable decrease in pH. 3. Most medical products were sterilized by 1.5 Mard. For the sterilization of the suigical silk suture, 4.5 Mrad is required dul to its radiation resistant micro-organisms. 4. Biologically, total dose of 2.5 Mrad was safe enough to sterilize the medical products, and physico-chemically the results are acceptable according to U.S.P. 19 and K.P. III. However, better results may be expected when the quality of material and additives are improved.
A Survey on the Actual Conditions of Group Feeding in Seoul City and Kyongki Province.
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 10~17
Recently this writer has conducted a comprehensive survey of 38 private businesses where group feeding is practiced, with a view to determining the condition of nutrition intake by the blue collar workers of these businesses firms as well as gaining an indication of their facilities management along with their sanitary precautions. The survey has revealed, among others, a number of interesting data such as shown below. 1. There are a total of 1,054 workers being fed in groups daily at each of the above business companies, with only one nutrition specialist regardless of the number of workers to be fed or the number of times they are fed daily. The average number of cooks comes to 2.7 persons per 100 workers, while 42.2% of the companies provide four meals a day including mid-night supper, with the result that the workers are fed 3.13 times a day on an average. 2. The average feeding cost amounts to 151 won per meal per person, of which 86 won is payed by the workers themselves and 115 won by the companies involved. 3. The average fbod intake has been found to be 490 grams which can be further broken down into 44grams of animal food and 446grams of vegetable food. These figures are higher than those revealed by the 1975 investigation of the nation's average nutrition intake. 4. The survey also shows the daily calorie consumption per person to be as high as 896 calories including 37 grams of protein which is further broken down into 11 grams of animal protein and 26grams of vegetable protein. With respect to other types of nutrients excepting Vitamin-A, the companies concerned are believed to prorids more than what the survey of the nation's nutrition has revealed or the amount recommended by Korea FAO assoc!ation as desirable. 5. As for facilities management, there is still much room for future improvement. Some 97.4% of the companies surveyed are not equipped with the steam table, which indicates lack of concern along this line as well as a very how degree of equipment utilizations. Distribution of the food in the dining room is generally depedent on self-service method. 6. Speaking of sanitary precautions taken by those businesses involved, some 76.3% are found to have their compounds haunted by rats and other insects. Some 73.7% of them are dependent on boiling method for disinfection of kitchen utensils, which is conducted by 50% of those industries only two or three times a week. It seems hardly feasible to conduct disinfection everyday.
Study on the Accumulative Distribution of Malation and itns Determination form the Human Tissue.
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 18~20
An experimental study was conducted to determine the quantity of contamination of organophosphrous pesticides accumulated in each human tissues. The samples used for this experiment were spleen, lung, heart, liver and kindney and those tissues were homogenized by a blender. The homogenized materials was extracted with mixed solvent, acetone/benzene (1:1) and cleaned up on a activated carbon column and determined by gas chromatography using AFID supported on 5% QF-1. The average recovery rate was 94% and the results obtained are summarized as follows. 1) The quantities of Malathin accumulated in each tissues were 0.53 ppm in spleen, 0.42 ppm in lung, 0.34 ppm in kidney, 0.19 ppm in heart and 0.19 ppm in liver. 2) Residues of pesticides in chronic or acute intoxicated tissues were highest in the spleen, decreasing in order of the lung, kidney, heart, and liver. 3) According to the above resuk we can conclude that the most proper material in detecting the pesticide is the spleen.
Studies on co-Operative Effect of Oil-Soluble Antioxidants and Organic Acid.
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 21~24
This study was conducted to find out the co-operative effect of antioxidants (butyl hydroxy anisol, dibutyl hydroxy toluene, propyl gallate, dl-$\alpha$-tocopherol) and organic acid (citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid) on the stability of soybean oil by active oxygen method. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. When antioxidants and organic acid were used together, the antioxidants activity was more strong than antioxidants were used only. 2. The co-operative effect of citric acid for antioxydants was the strongest whereas succinic acid was the weakest. 3. The co-operative effect of phenolic antioxydants for organic acid was more strong than dl-$\alpha$-tocopherol.
Revies on the Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Korea
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 25~39
Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most serious health problems in Korea. In this review, the author made a intensive reference review on the causes of carbon monoxide poisoning, the patterns of carbon monoxide poisoning and the prospects of CO poisoning. Following findings were induced through the review. 1. Carbon monoxide poisoning is influenced by variable social factors than any other diseases or accidents and is more closely related with the economical and cultural parameters of the community. 2. The increase of risk in the populatlon is expected by National Energy Policy and the hazards of CO poisoning will rather be increasing as long as no radical control measure will be taken. 3. More practical control measure, including extensive public relation service, should be established to eradicate this serious health hazard in Korea.
The Study on Envronmental Sanitation for Night High School. -Illuminate-
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 40~45
We have selected 36 schools of a total of night high schools for boys and girls in seoul and measured intensity of illumination of the classroom, The corridors and the stairs that students study and live, with priority given to an illumination, a primary factor of environmental sanitation of school following is the result. 1. The maximum average intensity of illumination of the classroom is 93.2 Lux, and the minimum average intensity of illumination 39.5 Lux. Mean$\pm$S, is 59.03$\pm$22.8 Lux 2. The maximum average intensity of illumination of the corridor is 39.2 Lux, and the minimum average intensity of illumination 11.1 Lux. 3. The maximum average intensity of illumination of the stair is 11.58 Lux, and the minimum average intensity, of illumination 4.92 Lux, mean$\pm$S.D is 7.88$\pm$10.0Lux. 4. Schools with tile illumination facilities more than 50 Lux are 63.8% and less than 50 Lux are 36.2%. 5. Schools with 9-11 facilities of a source of light per classroom by a fluorescent lamp are the most as 30.50%. 6. As for the corridor, schools with the illumination equipment less than 10 Lux are 27.8%, are more than 10 Lux 72.2% 7. As for the stairs schools with the illumination equipment less than 10 Lux are 77.8%, and more than 10 Lux 10 Lux 22.2%.
The Study on the Detection of Aflatoxins in the Fermentation Products and Cereals
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 46~50
Aflatoxin, a mixture of the at least four toxic and carcinogenic metabolites, is known to be produced by only a few fungi. The toxins were designated aflatoxins because they were produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus(A. flavus). However, at least four other toxins and other species of the genus A. niger, A. parasiticus A. ruber and wentii have been reported to produce aflatoxins. And also the identical compounds may also be produced by molds, the Pencillium. At least four different species of Penicilliurn have been reported to produce aflatoxins (P. citrinurn, P. frequentans, P. puberulurn. and P. variable). So it is now known that the problem of Aflatoxin is not restricted to the single species A. flavus, even though that is a very common mold. Also additional aflatoxins have been discorvered. For sereral years, only four aflatoxins were known: $B_1, B_2, G_1$ and $G_2$, so designated by reason of their fluorescence and chromatographic charateristics. It is now known that there are really two new toxic materials in the milk. During the past year(1966) they were christened aflatoxin $M_1$ and $M_2$, since they were first found in milk. The two other and most recently discorvered aflatoxins were isolated late in 1966 from cultures of A. flavus, and were designated aflatoxin $B_2a$ and aflatoxin $G_2a$. In order to obtain a breaf information about extent of contamination of foodstuffs by aflatoxin which is known to produce eight different mold, aflatoxin detection of cereals and fermented foods on sale, such as polished rice, barley, wheat, wheat flour, lentil, red bean, soy bean, noodle, kochuj ang and Dwenjang (fermented soy bean paste) and chong Kuk, were carried out. The results of this investigation were summarized as follows: The hexane:$CHCl_3$ extracts of polished rice, barley wheat, wheat flour, lentil, red bean, noodle and kochujang yielded fluorescent spots on thin layer plates. However their Rfvalues were different from those of authentic aflatoxins. The fluorescent substances of the extract from soy bean, Dwenjang and chong kuk showed very similar Rf values to those of the standard aflatoxins. By two dimensional thin layer chromatography and comparison of ultra violet absorption spectra, it was found that these fluorescent substances were not aflatoxins. To conclude, aflatoxins themselves were not detected directly in those samples tested.
A Study on Antibiotics Susceptibilities of Staphylococci Isolated from the Atmosphere of Home Kitchens in Busan
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 51~57
Antibiotics susceptibilities of Staphylococci were tested to get useful data for prevention food contamination and treatment of food poisoning. Tested were colony counts, isolation of Staphylococci, identification for the Staphylococcus aureus and resistant patterns to antimcrobial agents. The colonies and Staphylococci isolated from the atmosphere of 37 home kitchens in the morning (07:00-08:00) on Nov. 19, 1977 in Busan. The findings are as follows: 1. The average of colony counts was shown to be 9.6 ranging from 47 to 1 at mean temperature of 18$\circ$C (the highest 21$\circ$C, the lowest 15$\circ$C) 2. Out of total 37 kitchens, 18 Staphylococci were isolated from 15 kitchens with 40.5 per cent, and 4 Staphylococcus aureus were identified with 22.2 per cent from 18 Staphylococci. 3. Isolated Staphylococci were resistant to penicillin(100%), dihydrostreptomycin(93.3%), tetracycline (93.3%) and oleandomycin(66.6%), while the strains were sensitive to sulfonamide(88.6%) and colistin(83.3%). 4. Staphylococcus aureus identified were resistant to dihydrostreptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline, while the strains were sensitive to sulfonamide and colistin.
A Study on the Isolative determination of Smithion and Malathion in the Human Blood by Gas Chromatography
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 58~60
This experiment was carried out to determine the amount of organophosphorous pesticides accumulated in farmer's blood during the farming season. The Blood had been collected for about 5ml from farmer's, and extraction was purified on a Avicel/Darco G-Co (1:10) column and determined by Gas Chromatography using AFID supported on 2% EGA. The Gas chromatographic detection yielded recoveries from the blood of 88% for smithion 94% for malathion. The amount of average contamination shows 0.045ppm for smithion. 0.054ppm for malathion.
A Study on the phytoplankton distribution in polluted water.
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 61~65
To investigate the phytoplankton distribution effected by polluted water, this research was carried out at eight sampling places in Tae-jun and one sampling place in Kang-kyong during the period from May 10 to July 25, 1977. The results are as follows. 1) The range of water temperature was 21.0~36.0$\circ$C (May 10~July 25), and pH value was in the range of 3.5~11.0. 2) BOD was generally high (140~432mg/l) 3) At the places where BOD was high, dominant species were Aphanocapsa rivularis, Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria sp. belonging to Cyanophyta, Chlorella sp. belonging to Chlorophyta, Euglena sp. belonging to Euglenophyta, and Navicula exqua and Navicula sp. belonging to Chrysophyta. 4) At the places where the range of pH value was 3.5~3.8 and the range of BOD value was 134~148mg/l, observable species were Scenedesmus ellipsoideus and Pandorina morurn belonging to Chlorophyta, Navicula exqua belonging to Chrysophyta and Euglena sp. belonging to Euglenophyta. 5) At the places where the range of pH value was 9.0~11.0 and the range of BOD value was 214~220mg/l, a few observable species were Scenedesmus carinatus, Scenedesmus ellipsoideus, Scenedesmus bijuga and Scenedesmus obundance belonging to Chlorophyta.
A Study on the Effect of Chemicals on the Survival Rate and the Metamorphosis Speed in Rana nigromaculata Hallowell.
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 66~70
This experiment is to search what some chemicals polluting water have an effect on the Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, in the survival rate and the metamorphosis speed from a tadpole to a young frog. 1. The fatal thickness by some agricultural chemicals and copper sulfate is different from one another. The fatal rate in the contrast group is 15 percent, and particulary Dithane M-45 is the most among the all reagents. 2. The effect on the anamorphosis is very severe. In the case of contrast group, it appears to stage 25, but it is not to appear at the group used agricultural chemicals. 3. The less the thickness of that is, the less the influence of the survival rate and the metamorphosis speed. 4. The density of the agricultural chemical is in inverse proportion to the survival rate and the metamorphosis speed, and the other side, the fatal rate is proportion.
The Characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Cultures Isolated in Tegillaria
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 71~75
Distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Tegillaria granosa Linne in Costal area Inchun. The survey has been done chiefly from the Inchun Sea ports during 5 months from Oct. 1974 to May 1975. 1. The number of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated 17(13.8%) of 117 specimens from Anadara Subcrenata. 2. The number of Vibrio alginolyticus isolated 92 strains of 119 specimens from Tegillaria granosa Linne. 3. Bacteriological characterigation such as morphological, ecological, biochemical results of 17 isolated strain has been identified the category of typical Vibrio parahaemolyticus differentiation. 4. Most of Kanagawa positive strains was positive in Greig test, and considerable number of Kanagawa negative strains was also positive. The result of Greig test was almost the same between cultures in brain heart infusion broth and brain heart infusion agar. 5. Kanagawa positive strains showed same lethal activity in inoculated mice into peritoreal cavity as compared with Kanagawa negative strain.
A Survey on the Envlronmcntal Sanitary Status of Water Supply System in Rural Area
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 76~85
This survey was undertaken for the period seven month beginning January 15, 1977 and ending July 31, 1977 to detect the general sanitary status of the villages and the villagers and, at the same time, analyse quality of water sources with emphasis on a total of 1,256 households dividing into three different groups: such as, 280 households were selected as random samples from the area of the sophisticated piped water supply system, 122 households from the area of the simplified water supply system and finally 854 households from the area of nonpi-ped water supply system. The following results were concluded after quality of water sources had been analysed and conditions of the environmental sanitation had been reviewed: 1. 11.2% of the respondents from the area of the sophisticated piped water supply system responded that quantity of drinking water lacked to meet their demand while 30.6% of the villagers from the area of nonpi-ped water supply system responded quantity of drinking water didn't meet their demand. 2. 30.8% of the.respondents from the area of the sophisticated water supply system responded that contaminating source located within 15 meters from the water source while 54.4% of the respondents from the non-piped water supply system claimed the same. 3. It was found that water from all sampling areas were positive in coliform group with exception of Moonsan which is one of the sophisticated piped water supply system groups and the number of general bacteria exceeded the government standard criteria of water quality in the area of the nonpi-ped water supply system. 4. In relation with time requirement to draw water in the area of non-piped water supply system, 76 respondents claimed it requires less than 15 minutes to draw water, 15.0% claimed 15 to 30 minutes and 9.0% claimed more than 30 minutes. 5. In relation with knowledge on sanitation of drinking water, 30.8% of respondents from the area of the sophisticated piped water supply system and 41.8% of respondents from the area of nonpiped water supply system denied possible existence of germ in drinking water they drink, while 17.4% of the respondents from the area of the sophisticated water supply system and 50.2% of non-peped water supply system thought it safe to drink water without any treatment. 6. 60.0% of the respondents from the area of non-piped water supply system and many of them believed that their health status will be improved by installation of a sophisticated water supply system in their area. 7. The respondents from the areas of piped water supply sytem expressed greater concern over drinking water sanitation than those from the areas of non-piped water supply system and sanitary conditions were found the same. It was, therefore, proved that knowledge of environmnntal sanitation contributed a great deal to improve sanitary conditions of the villages and villagers and at the same time health education, especially environmental sanitation, will be played a important role to improve their sanitary conditions.
동남아지역의 보건학교육 현황
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 5, issue 1, 1978, Pages 86~88