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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Dec 2010
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jun 2010
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Colonization Rate and Control of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Seo, Jung Ho ; Nam, Ga Yeon ; Park, Kyung Hee ; Byun, Shin Yun ; Park, Su Eun ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~8
Purpose : Recently, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become one of the major nosocomial pathogens in Korea. However, there have been few studies on the epidemiology of VRE colonization among neonates. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of VRE colonization, risk factors for VRE, and how to control the spread of VRE infection in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Pusan National University Hospital (PNUH). Methods : We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 192 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of PNUH from March 2006 to March 2007. Surveillance cultures from rectal swabs for detecting VRE were obtained weekly during the study period. We analyzed the prevalence of VRE and various risk factors. Results : The rate of VRE colonization among NICU patients was 25% (48/192). Thirty five of these VRE colonized patients were transferred to the NICU from other local hospitals. Compared with the non-VRE group, the risk factors associated with VRE colonization were lower birth weight, congenital heart disease, applied mechanical ventilation, use of a central venous catheter, chest tubing, a history of surgery, and use of antibiotics. Conclusion : VRE colonization among patients admitted to the NICU is rapidly increasing. Monitoring and managing premature neonates from the beginning of the birth process, avoiding many invasive procedures, avoiding antibiotics such as vancomycin and third generation cephalosporin are important for preventing the emergence and spread of VRE colonization in the NICU.
Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus from Healthy Children Attending Day Care Center
Kim, Young Min ; Oh, Chi Eun ; Kim, So Hee ; Lee, Jina ; Choi, Eun Hwa ; Lee, Hoan Jong ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 9~15
Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage in Korean children attending day care centers. Methods : During September and October 2009, a survey for nasal carriage of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was conducted among children attending day care centers located in Seoul with questionnaire survey for evaluation of risk factors of acquisition of MRSA was obtained from their guardians. A culture of the anterior nares swabs using enrichment broth was executed for isolating S. aureus and oxacillin susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. Results : Out of the 428 children enrolled whose mean age was 55 months old, 163 (38.1%) were colonized with S. aureus. Of the 163 isolates, 40 (24.5%) were MRSA. The nasal carriage rate of S. aureus showed an increasing trend with increase of age. Based on the answer to the questionnaire, 9.2% and 3.6% of children had a recent history of hospitalization and surgery, respectively, and approximately 40% of children had a history of prescription of antibiotics within 1 year prior to enrollment. Of the 428 subjects, 40 (9.3%) were MRSA nasal carriers. Conclusion : S. aureus and MRSA carriage rate of children attending day care center in Korea was 38.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Continued surveillance for nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA (especially community-associated MRSA) is mandatory.
Clinical and Phylogenetic Characteristics of Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections
Lee, Ji Eun ; Lee, Youn Hee ; Nam, Chan Hee ; Kwak, Ga Young ; Lee, Soo Young ; Kim, Jong Hyun ; Hur, Jae Kyun ; Kang, Jin Han ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 16~22
Purpose : We aimed to investigate the clinical and phylogenetic characteristics of Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections (E. coli UTI). Methods : We enrolled patients with culture-proven E. coli UTI, who were admitted at the study hospital from September 2008 to August 2009. We investigated clinical data of patients with E. coli UTI and characteristics of isolated E. coli strains. The phylogenetic groups were classified using triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the distribution of nine virulent genes was determined by multiplex PCR. Results : A total of 47 patients have participated in this study. Thirty (63.8%) were under 6 months; eight (17.0%) were between 6-12 months; and nine (19.1%) were over 12 months. We compared two age groups between under 6-month and over 6-month. In the age group under 6-month, higher proportion of male (P =0.002) and group B2 strains (P =0.020) were observed. In contrast, higher proportion of female and group non-B2 strains were observed in age group over 6-month. Frequencies of papC, papGII, papGIII, sfa/foc, hlyC, cnf1, fyuA, iroN and iucC were estimated as 68.1%, 57.4%, 42.6%, 46.8%, 46.8%, 31.9%, 87.2%, 48.9% and 63.8%, respectively. In the comparison of phylogenetic groups, group B2 showed higher distribution of virulent genes, while group D included more strains resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) than other groups. Conclusion : We showed the age group-specific difference in the distribution of sex ratios and phylogenetic groups; more male and group B2 strains in age group under 6-month, while more female and group non-B2 in age group over 6-month. However, further evaluation including larger number of patients will be necessary to confirm above thesis in future molecular epidemiological studies.
A Comparison of Clinical Findings According to the Duration of Pyuria in Infants with Urinary Tract Infections
Lee, Jeong-Eun ; Lee, Seung-Woo ; Park, So-Hyun ; Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Koh, Dae Kyun ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 23~29
Purpose : Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is the most common disease during the infantile period, therefore early diagnosis and treatment are important. Pyuria is a useful clinical parameter for the initial diagnosis of a UTI. In this study we aimed to compare the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings in relation to the duration of pyuria in infants with UTIs. Methods : Three hundred seventy-four infants <12 months of age who were admitted between January 1995 and December 2005 for the first episode of a febrile UTI were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the duration of pyuria as follows: group 1, pyuria resolved <3 days after initial treatment; and group 2, pyuria lasted at least 3 days after initial treatment. Results : There were no significant differences between the two groups in relation to gender, age, total duration of fever, and organisms in the urine. Group 2 had a significantly higher peripheral blood leukocyte count (
, P <0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (
, P <0.001), and C-reactive protein (
, P <0.001) than group 1. There was a significantly higher incidence of hydronephrosis and a higher grade of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in group 2 compared to group 1. Conclusion : In infants with UTI, pyuria of longer duration is related to severe UTI and higher grade VUR, therefore aggressive radiologic studies may be necessary.
Causative Organisms of Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infection and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility at a Secondary hospital in Korea
Jo, Yun Ju ; Lee, Eun Jeong ; Choi, Kyong Min ; Eun, Young Min ; Yoo, Hwang Jae ; Kim, Cheol Hong ; Lee, Hyun Hee ; Kim, Pyung Kil ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 30~35
Purpose : We investigated the causative organism and its antibiotic susceptibility of community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) in children at a secondary hospital to test the adequacy of the current guidelines. Methods : Children diagnosed with UTI at the Department of Pediatrics, Kwandong University MyMyongji Hospital by pyuria and bacterial growth of greater than
on clean catch midstream urine from January 2005 to December 2008 were studied retrospectively. The epidemiologic data, causative organism, and the antibiotic susceptibility were analyzed. Results : Sixty two children were diagnosed with sixty four cases of UTI's. Two bacteria were isolated in one case and thus data on 65 urine cultures were analyzed. The male:female ratio was 1.6:1 and 78.1% were less than 12 months of age. Escherichia coli was the predominant cause consisting of 53 cases (82.8%) of the cases. K. pneumoniae (5), Enterobacter (4), Enterococcus (1),
-streptococcus (1), Diphtheroides (1) were isolated. The antibiotic resistance of E. coli were as follows; ampicillin 69.8%, cefotaxime 1.9%, gentamicin 15.1%, amikacin 0.0%, levofloxacin 1.9%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 26.4 %. Only one case of the E. coli was extended spectrum
-lactamase (ESBL) positive. Conclusion : Compared to prior reports from other tertiary hospitals in Korea, E. coli was the predominant cause in childhood UTI and the rate of ESBL positivity was low. The antibiotic resistance was also different compared to prior reports. We conclude that a difference in the cause and antibiotic resistance of childhood UTI exists between centers and this should be taken into consideration when prescribing antibiotics for childhood UTIs.
Bloodstream Infections in Children with Cancer between 2005 and 2008 in a Single Center
Kim, Ji Hye ; Kim, Hyung Jin ; Lim, Yeon Jung ; Lee, Young Ho ; Oh, Sung Hee ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 36~48
Purpose : In children on anticancer chemotherapy, bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We investigated febrile episodes and bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer patients to guide proper selection of empiric antibiotics for febrile pediatric hemato-oncologic patients. Methods : All febrile episodes treated in the division of hematology-oncology, the department of pediatrics, Hanyang University Hospital, between July 2005 and June 2008 were reviewed. Episodes with and without bloodstream infections were compared. Results : Forty cases (18.9%, 25 patients) of BSI occurred in 212 febrile episodes (63 patients). Thirty-seven cases (23.6%, 22 patients) of BSI occurred in 157 febrile episodes with neutropenia (54 patients). Microorganisms identified in BSI corresponded to 23 gram-positive bacteria (51.2%), 20 gram-negative bacteria (44.5%), and 2 fungi (4.4%). Rates of BSI between those who had received umbilical cord blood transplantation and those who had received transplantation from other source were significantly different (55.0% vs. 7.7%, P =0.001). No differences in mortality rate were observed among organisms in BSI patients. For febrile episodes the rate of BSI was higher among those with Chemoport than those with Hickman catheter (P =0.029) and gram-positive pathogens were more likely to be associated with Chemoport (P =0.001). Conclusion : The study showed the rate of BSI, distribution of pathogens with regard to neutropenia, transplantation, central venous catheters, and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens in order to help guide in the choice of optimal empiric antibiotics in pediatric febrile neutropenic hemato-oncologic patients.
Identification of Viral Pathogens for Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children at Seoul During Autumn and Winter Seasons of the Year of 2008-2009
Kim, Ki Hwan ; Kim, Ji Hong ; Kim, Kyung Hyo ; Kang, Chun ; Kim, Ki Soon ; Chung, Hyang Min ; Kim, Dong Soo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 49~55
Purpose : The Purposes of this study are to identify the circulating etiologic viruses of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children and to understand the relation with clinical diagnosis. Methods : We obtained a total of 418 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children admitted for their acute lower respiratory tract infections at three tertiary hospitals in Seoul from September 2008 to March 2009. We performed multiplex RT-PCR to identify 14 etiologic viruses and analyzed their emerging patterns and clinical features. Results : Average age of patients was 16.4 months old and the ratio of male to female was 1.36. Viruses were detected in 56.2% of a total of 418 samples. Respiratory syncytial virus (35%) was the most frequently detected and followed by human rhinovirus (22%), human bocavirus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus and human coronavirus. Co-infection reached 21.9 % of positive patients. Conclusion : When we manage the patients with acute lower respiratory infectious diseases, we should remind the role of various viral pathogens, which might be circulating by seasons and by local areas.