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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Dec 2010
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jun 2010
Selecting the target year
Clinical Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance of Urinary Tract Infections in Children: Escherichia. coli Versus Non-E. coli
Bae, E-Young ; Lee, Soo-Young ; Jeong, Dae-Chul ; Kang, Jin Han ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 67~73
Purpose : We aimed to compare the clinical features and antibiotic resistance of urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by pathogens other than E. coli (non-E. coli) with UTI caused by E. coli in children. Methods : We enrolled patients with culture-proven UTI, who were admitted to the study hospital from September 2008 to August 2009. We investigated clinical data of patients with UTI and antibiotic resistance of isolated strains. For comparison, patients were divided according by results of the urine culture into E. coli and non-E. coli UTI groups. Results : A total of 84 patients participated in this study. Twenty one cases (25.0%) were caused by non-E. coli pathogens. Frequency of non-E. coli UTI differed according to age and sex: 'male <6 months', 10.5%; 'male
6 months', 50.0%; 'female <6 months', 43.7%; and 'female
6 months', 25.0% (P=0.014). More patients who received previous antibiotic treatment (P=0.017), but fewer patients who showed hematuria (P=0.014) were included in the non-E. coli UTI group than in the E. coli UTI group. Comparison of antibiotic resistance showed that the non-E. coli UTI group possessed more strains that were resistant to cefazolin, cefotaxime, imipenem, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) and tetracycline than the E. coli UTI group (P<0.05). Conclusion : Increased incidence, different distribution by age and sex, and high antibiotic resistance of non-E. coli UTI should be considered in selection of empirical antibiotics for treatment of UTI in children.
Evaluation of Uricult Trio Test as a Rapid Screening of UTI in Children with Fever
Lee, Jin ; Kim, Eun Jin ; Lee, Taek Jin ; Chang, Jin Keun ; Cha, Sung-Ho ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 74~82
Purpose : The Dipslide culture test is a rapid method for diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic availability of a urine Dipslide test for evaluation of UTI in febrile children. Methods : Urine specimens from 151 febrile infants were inoculated by a routine blood agar urine culture method and the Dipslide test at the same time. Following incubation for 16-24 hours, the results of the Dipslide test were read at the next visit. Both results of Dipslide and those of routine culture were compared. Results : The mean age of subjects was 15
10.6 months. There were 150 infants (99.3%) who had fever with a mean duration of 2.6
2.6 days. Thirty two infants (21.2%) were diagnosed as having UTI. Sensitivity and specificity of Uricult Trio CLED medium were 59.4% and 84.8%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of Uricult Trio E. coli medium were 60.0% and 96.2%, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient between results of Uricult Trio CLED medium and urine culture was 0.438 (P=0.01). Correlation between results of Uricult Trio E. coli medium and urine culture was 0.617 (P=0.01). Conclusion : The Dipslide test requires only 16-24 hours with high specificity in terms of UTI caused by E. coli without the problems associated with specimen delay. This test seems to be helpful for exclusion of UTI in febrile infants and it may reduce unnecessary hospitalization and antibiotic use. However, further studies are required before the product can be recommended as a routine diagnostic tool.
Clinical Analysis of Polymicrobial Bloodstream Infections in Pediatric Patients: Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Organisms, and Risk Factors
Kim, Jung Min ; Park, Hye Jin ; Kim, Ki Hwan ; Kim, Dong Soo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 83~90
Purpose : Although the incidence of polymicrobial bloodstream infection (PBSI) has increased, only a few studies have so far focused on children. Therefore, in an effort to prevent more serious situations in pediatric patients, we analyzed the clinical features, organisms, and laboratory results of PBSI. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of the case records of 97 patients with polymicrobial bloodstream infection in the Severance hospital, from 2001 to 2008. Using t-test and chi-square test, we analyzed the underlying medical conditions, clinical characteristics, organisms, and laboratory results of those patients. Results : Annual incidence of polymicrobial bloodstream infection increased from 1.4 % in 2001 to 10.9% in 2008 in pediatric patients. Immunocompromised hemato-oncological malignancy was found in 31 (31.9%) patients, and was the most common underlying medical condition; cardiovascular disease was found in 15 patients (15.4%), neurologic disease in 10 patients (10.3%), and so on. Gram positive organisms were recovered in 143 cases and gram negative organisms were recovered in 101 cases of PBSI. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common organism. Factors affecting mortality included underlying medical disease, immune status, nosocomial infection, and central catheter-related infection, for which the rate of mortality showed a greater increase (P<0.05). Conclusion : Due to the close connection between PBSI and fatal conditions or high mortality, it requires more aggressive management. Compared with previous studies, we discovered that immunocompromised hemato-oncological malignancy was the most common underlying medical condition and that frequency of gram-positive bacteria and fungus isolated has increased.
A Study on Risk Factors of Recurrent Otitis Media
Kim, Eun Jin ; Kwon, Young Ran ; Song, Kang Hoon ; Jang, Won Nyung ; Lee, Jin ; Chang, Jin Keun ; Cha, Sung Ho ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 91~100
Purpose : Recurrent otitis media (ROM) is usually defined as
3 distinct and well-documented episodes within 6 months or
4 episodes within 12 months. ROM is sufficiently important to warrant consideration of chemoprophylaxis, tympanostomy tube placement. There also is evidence that children with ROM are at risk for both hearing loss and speech delay. However, studies of ROM have been notably insufficient. In addition, even though environmental, racial, and sociocultural differences can affect risk factors, few studies have been conducted with regard to recurrent otitis media in Korea. Methods : This study was conducted from July 2009 to January 2010 with infants and children who were younger than 60 months old, who visited the out-patient clinics at Han-Il General Hospital and Kyunghee University Hospital. Data were collected by interview using a pre-formed sheet. Among a total of 892 infants and children, 457 were excluded, and the remaining 435 were allocated to 104 with ROM and 331 as a control group. Results : Attendance at daycare centers (P<0.001, OR=2.85), allergic rhinitis (P=0.026, OR=2.32), past history of bronchiolitis (P=0.003, OR=2.33), and low socioeconomic status (P=0.005, OR=2.00) were found to have a close significant correlation with ROM. Risk factors such as sex, having a sibling, breast-feeding, use of pacifiers, atopy, pneumococcal vaccination, influenza vaccination, smoking of parents, and indoor smoking are not relevant. Conclusion : Attendance at daycare centers, allergic rhinitis, past history of bronchiolitis, and low socioeconomic status have been identified as risk factors for ROM.
Comparison of C-reactive Protein between Capillary and Venous Blood in Children
Jin, Ji Hoon ; Jung, Soo Ho ; Hong, Young Jin ; Son, Byong Kwan ; Kim, Soon Ki ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 101~107
Purpose : In evaluation of patients, laboratory results are crucial in determination of a treatment plan. Obtaining venous blood from infants and children is a difficult procedure. Substitution of a capillary blood sample for a venous blood sample has been suggested. However, there are few studies showing mutual correlation between C-reactive protein (CRP) results in capillary and venous blood. This study was designed to determine whether the result of the capillary sample is the same as the result of the venous blood sample. Methods : After informed consent, a pair of venous and fingertip capillary blood samples were simultaneously collected from 100 children. The LC-178CRPTM was used for analysis of capillary blood and the Hitachi 7180 automatic hematology analyzer was used for analysis of venous blood. We compared CRP of both venous and capillary blood samples. Results were analyzed by crosstabulation analysis, simple regression analysis and the Bland Altman Plot method. Results : A close correlation (90.63%) was observed between capillary and venous blood analyzed by crosstabulation analysis. CRP results were similar between the two groups and showed a high coefficient correlation (
=0.9888, P<0.0001) when analyzed by a simple regression model. The average value in venous blood was also higher compared to capillary blood. According to Bland Altman Plot analysis, lab results were measured at a 95% confidence interval. Conclusion : CRP results from capillary blood showed close correlation with venous blood sampling. At present, venous blood sampling is the preferred method. However, due to difficulty in venous blood sampling, capillary sampling could be considered as an alternative technique for use with children.
Clinical Availability of Serum Procalcitonin in Children with Bacterical Infection
Noe, Eun-Jung ; Lee, So-Yeon ; Lee, Kyu-Man ; Kim, Kwang-Nam ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 108~113
Purpose : The aim of this study was to identify clinical availability of serum procalcitonin (PCT) compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) in prediction of bacterial infection in children. Methods : A retrospective study was conducted with children who had been admitted to the Department of Pediatrics with bacterial and viral infection between April 2008 and March 2009 and children who were admitted with Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) between August 2007 and July 2009. Serum PCT levels were measured using an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay. Results : The study population included 10 patients with bacterial infection (group I), 69 with viral infection (group II), and 35 with JRA (group III). Mean PCT levels were significantly higher in group I than in group II or group III (P<0.05). Mean CRP levels were significantly higher in group I than in group II (P<0.05); however, mean CRP levels were not significantly higher in group I than in group III (P>0.05). Using a cutoff of 0.5 ng/mL for PCT and 8 mg/L for CRP, sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between group I and the other groups were 60.0% and 92.3% for PCT and 60.0% and 40.1% for CRP, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 42.9% and 96.0% for PCT and 10.0% and 92.6% for CRP, respectively. Conclusion : Measurement of PCT concentrations appears to be more useful than CRP for distinguishing between bacterial infection and non-bacterial diseases in children.
Effect of Otitis Media and Cerumen Occlusion on Body Temperature Measured by Thermometers
Jeong, Seong Nam ; Kim, Eun Sung ; You, Ju Hee ; Cho, Hyung Min ; Yoo, Eun Jung ; Kim, Eun Young ; Kim, Kyoung Sim ; Kim, Yong Wook ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 114~121
Purpose : To examine the effect of unilateral otitis media and unilateral cerumen occlusion of the ear canal on thermometers. Methods : One hundred eighty six children with unilateral otitis media, fifty children with unilateral cerumen occlusion, and fifty children with neither otitis media nor cerumen were enrolled. Temperature was measured in both ear canals using thermometers. After 15 minutes, second temperature was measured again in both ears. Unilateral otitis media was graded by video otoscope for 7 grades. Differences in temperatures between affected ears and unaffected ears were analyzed. Results : No temperature difference between the normal and cerumen groups was observed. The mean temperature of the otitis media ear canal was
higher than that of the intact ear canal (
; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant temperature difference between grades. Conclusion : Unilateral otits media can affect estimation of body temperature measured by thermometers.
Epidemiologic and Clinical features of Enteroviral Infections in Children, a Single Center Study in Korea: 2009
Baek, Dong Won ; Kim, Jung Min ; Kim, Ki Hwan ; Ahn, Jong Gyun ; Kim, Dong Soo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 122~129
Purpose : Enteroviral infection is a common viral illness in children. We undertook this study in attempt to comprehend the epidemiologic and clinical features of enteroviral infections, particularly EV71 in children. Methods : We enrolled 63 children with enteroviral infection at Severance Children's Hospital in Seoul between May and August 2009. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed from stool or cerebrospinal fluid samples, which were then tested for enteroviral infection. Viral isolation and serotype identification also were performed by RT-PCR. Results : A total of 63 patients with clinical diagnosis of enteroviral infections were enrolled; of those, 38 (60%) were positive for enterovirus. The mean age of the patients was 2 years and 7 months and the sex ratio of male to female was 0.9 :1. Their clincal manifestations included aseptic meningitis (21 cases, 55%), HFMD (16 cases, 42%), herpangina (5 cases, 13%), neonatal fever (2 cases, 5%), encephalitis (1 case, 3%), and myocarditis (1 case, 3%). Serotypes of isolated enteroviruses were EV71 (8 cases, 21%), coxsackievirus B1 (8 cases, 21%), coxsackievirus A16 (2 cases, 6%), coxsakievirus A2 (1 case, 3%), coxsakievirus A5 (1 case, 3%), and echovirus 9 (1 case, 3%). Clinical symptoms of EV71 infection included HFMD (5 cases, 63%), aseptic meningitis (3 cases, 38%), encephalitis (1 case, 13%), and myocarditis (1 case, 13%). A positive rate of C-reactive protein in EV71 was higher than those in other enterviral infections. However, there was no statistically significant difference in other laboratory findings. Conclusion : We reported on identified enteroviruses, including EV71, during a period of 3 months in the summer of 2009. In this study, EV71 infection frequently occurred in male and clinical manifestation caused by EV71 was a more severe disease than that due to other enterviral infections. There is a need for continuous surveillance of enteroviral infection and its clinical manifestations for diagnosis and treatment of enteroviral infection.
Viral Etiology and Epidemiology of Outpatients with Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Busan: 2007-2008
Jeong, Jin Woo ; Hwang, Youn Ha ; Cho, Kyung Soon ; Jung, Myung Ju ; Min, Sang Kee ; Kim, Seong Joon ; Chung, Woo Sik ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 130~136
Purpose : The purpose of this study is to identify the viral etiology of acute respiratory illnesses and to determine epidemiology in outpatients in Busan, Korea. Methods : We collected nasal wash samples from 990 patients who visited the hospital for acute respiratory illnesses between January 2007 and December 2008. Extracted DNA or RNA from specimens was used for viral detection by an RT-PCR method. Results : Of a total of 990 samples, viruses were detected in 351 cases (35.5%). The ratio of male to female was 1.6:1 and 93.7% were less than 5 years old. Rhinovirus was detected year-round in 202 cases (57.5%), respiratory syncytial virus from October to March in 57 cases (16.2%), adenovirus year-round in 37 cases (10.5%), influenza virus from December to April in 21 cases (6%), bocavirus from January to August in 15 cases (4.3%), parainfluenza virus from April to July in 9 cases (2.6%), coronavirus from January to July in 7 cases (2%), and enterovirus from June to September in 3 cases (0.9%). Conclusion : We identified the etiology and epidemiology of viruses that caused the acute respiratory diseases that were prevalent in Busan, 2007-2008. Further surveillance will be necessary.
Clinical Significance of Interferon
Release Assay for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Children
Lee, Hee Woo ; Park, Hwa Young ; Ahn, Young Min ; Sohn, Keun Chan ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 137~147
Purpose : The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness and limitation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QTB) for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in children. Methods : The medical records of 112 children who were tested by tuberculin skin test (TST) and QTB for detection of latent tuberculosis (TB) in Eulji General Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Results : Of the 112 participants, the clinical TB group included 15 (13.4%), the contact group included 43 (38.4%), and the non-contact group included 54 (48.2%). Positive rates of TST and QTB were 100% and 80% in the clinical TB group, 64% and 14% in the close contact group, 27% and 0% in the casual contact group, and 52% and 2% in the non-contact group, respectively. Sensitivity of QTB was 80.0% and specificity was 92.6%. Agreement between QTB and TST was poor (
=0.209). We also confirmed that the positive rate of QTB increased as the age of the patient increased (P=0.011). A QTB indeterminate result was observed in 11 (9.8%) subjects. QTB was retested in 15 subjects. In 5 of the 6 subjects who had positive results initially, positive results persisted for a median 2.2 months after termination of treatment. Conclusion : Although QTB was associated with several problems, including low sensitivity and a high rate of indeterminate results, it had clinical importance due to its high specificity. We found good correlation with regard to exposure and QTB positivity, including that of young children under 5 years of age. However, clinical application of interferon-
releasing assay for young children for diagnosis of active and latent tuberculosis will require additional prospective studies.
Clinical Review of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Teenagers According to the Involved Lung
Im, Bong Chil ; Kim, Young ; Kim, Kyoung Sim ; Kim, Yong Wook ; Kim, Eun Young ; You, Eun Jung ; You, Ju Hee ; Cho, Hyoung Min ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 148~155
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical features and culture-positive rates according to the involved lung in adolescent pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of adolescents who ranged in age from 10 to 20 years and who had been hospitalized with a diagnosis of TB at Kwangju Christian Hospital from 2000 to 2008. Results : Sixty-six patients were identified with pulmonary TB: median age 16.82 years; 48.5% males. Among them, 90.9% of patients were between 15 and 20 years of age. Most patients presented with multiple symptoms, and the most common included cough (74.2%), sputum (60.6%), fever (39.5%), and night sweating (18.2%). Sputum samples were smear-positive in 28 (42.4%), culture-positive in 40 (60.6%), and PCR-positive in 46 (69.7%). The most common radiological patterns included cavitation in 18 (27.3%), pleural effusion in 18 (27.3%), lymphadenopathy in 10 (15.2%), and tuberculoma in 5 (7.6%). The prevalence of smear, culture, and PCR positive rates increased as the number of involved lobes increased (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.05). The median treatment duration was 7 months. Twelve patients (18.2%) had lower lung field TB (Group A) and forty-four patients (66.7%) had other areas involving TB, except for Group A (Group B), and ten patients (15.1%) had only TB pleurisy (Group C). The difference of clinical characteristics and culture rates between group A and group B was not significant. Conclusion : Pulmonary TB toward late adolescence is increasing. We need to pay more attention to lower lung field TB, which is difficult to detect with specific radiographic findings.
Immunogenicity, Reactogenicity and Safety of a Combined DTPa-IPV Vaccine Compared with Separate DTPa and IPV Vaccines in Healthy Korean Infants
Kim, Chang Hwi ; Cha, Sung Ho ; Shin, Son Moon ; Kim, Chun Soo ; Choi, Young Youn ; Hong, Young Jin ; Chey, Myoung Jae ; Kim, Kwang Nam ; Hur, Jae Kyun ; Jo, Dae Sun ; Kim, Sung Shin ; Lee, Sang Lak ; Song, Eun Song ; Ramakrishnan, Gunasekaran ; Ok, Jin Ju ; Van Der Meeren, Olivier ; Bock, Hans L. ; Kim, Jung Soo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 156~168
Purpose : To compare immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTPa-IPV,
IPV, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) with co-administration of commercially available DTPa and IPV vaccines at separate injection sites (DTPa+IPV). Methods : A total of 458 infants aged 8-12 weeks were randomized to receive three-ose primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months with DTPa-IPV or DTPa+IPV. Blood samples were collected pre and post vaccination for measurement of immune responses. Reactogenicity was assessed following each dose using diary cards. Results : One month post-dose 3, seroprotection rates for anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus and anti-poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were
and vaccine response rates to pertussis antigens were at least 98.6% in both DTPa-IPV and DTPa + IPV groups. Non-inferiority between the groups was demonstrated based on pre-defined statistical criteria. Incidences of both local and systemic symptoms were within the same range across both groups with grade 3 symptoms reported following no more than 4.3% of DTPa-IPV doses and 4.5% of DTPa + IPV doses. Two serious adverse events (both pyrexia) after DTPa-IPV administration were considered vaccine-related. Both infants recovered fully. Conclusion : Combined DTPa-IPV vaccine was immunogenic and well tolerated when used as a three-dose primary vaccination course in Korean infants. DTPa-IPV could be incorporated into the Korean vaccination schedule, reducing the number of injections required to complete primary immunization.
Limitation of Prediction on Intravenous Immunoglobulin Responsiveness in Kawasaki Disease
Kim, Seong-Koo ; Han, Ji-Yoon ; Rhim, Jung Woo ; Oh, Jin Hee ; Han, Ji-Whan ; Lee, Kyung Yil ; Kang, Jin-Han ; Lee, Joon-Sung ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 169~176
Purpose : We aimed to evaluate predictive parameters for non-response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) before IVIG use using two controls. Methods : We evaluated 229 consecutive KD patients who were treated with 2 g/kg of IVIG at a single center. Those who had persistent fever >24 hours after IVIG infusion made up the 23 IVIG non-responders; the first control included a total 206 defervesced cases and the second control included 46 cases that were matched for age and pre-treatment fever duration to non-responders. Results : Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in IVIG non-responders and responders at presentation. As for laboratory findings, the neutrophil differential, CRP, AST, ALT, and LDH were higher, and lymphocyte differential, total protein, albumin, platelet count, and total cholesterol were significantly lower in IVIG non-responders compared to responders by univariate analysis in both study designs. However in multivariate analysis, non-responders showed a significantly higher neutrophil differential (cutoff value, >77%, sensitivity 68.4% and specificity 79.5%) and lower cholesterol (<124 mg/dL, sensitivity 79% and specificity 70.5%). Whereas plasma albumin (<3.6 g/dL, sensitivity 73.7% and specificity 60%) was the sole laboratory parameter of non-responders in the second study design. Conclusion : Severity of inflammation in KD was reflected by higher or lower laboratory values at presentation. Because the multivariate analysis for these indices may be influenced by some confounding factors, including the numbers of patients of different ages and fever duration, other assessment modalities are needed for KD patients with the greatest risk of coronary artery lesions.
Macrophage Activation Syndrome as the Extreme Form of Kawasaki Disease
Park, Hyoun-Jin ; Cho, Yoon-Jeong ; Bae, E-Young ; Choi, Ui-Yoon ; Lee, Soo-Young ; Jeong, Dae Chul ; Lee, Kyung Yil ; Kang, Jin Han ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 17, issue 2, 2010, Pages 177~181
Few cases of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) during the acute febrile phase of Kawasaki disease (KD) have been reported. We report on a case of a 19 month-old girl with MAS or reactive HLH during the course of KD. Despite immunoglobulin and steroid therapy, she showed persistent fever with hepatosplenomegaly and evidence of hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow. A high index of suspicion for clinical features associated with MAS is necessary for KD patients in order to provide appropriate treatment.