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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Dec 2011
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jun 2011
Selecting the target year
Korean Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents
Choi, Kyong Min ; Kim, Nam Hee ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Yae Jean ; Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Oh, Sung Hee ; Eun, Byung Wook ; Lee, Soo-Young ; Lee, Taek Jin ; Chun, Jin-Kyong ; Hong, Jung Yun ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~14
Tuberculosis is a disease with high morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Despite the decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Korea, more than 30,000 new patients are diagnosed each year. Active tuberculosis is less frequent in children compared to adults but the risk of miliary tuberculosis and CNS tuberculosis is much higher. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in children and adolescents is difficult due to the nonspecific symptoms upon presentation. Diagnostic work up is based on the confirmation of tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test, abnormal radiologic findings, and contact with an adult with active tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculosis medications are prescribed according to the drug susceptibility of the index patient. Latent tuberculosis infection plays an important role in adult tuberculosis by reactivation. Thus, it is critical to accurately diagnose latent tuberculosis in children to prevent reactivation in adulthood. Korean guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in children and adolescents provide evidence based recommendations in the optimal diagnosis and treatment for active and latent tuberculosis in children and adolescents based on the current Korean situation.
Prevention of Invasive Candida Infections in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Kim, Chun Soo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 15~22
Invasive Candida infections (ICI) have become the third most common cause of late-onset infection among premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Risk factors include birth weight less than 1,000 g, exposure to more than two antimicrobials, third generation cephalosporin exposure, parenteral nutrition including lipid emulsion, central venous catheter, and abdominal surgery. Candida colonization of the skin and gastrointestinal tract is an important first step in the pathogenesis of invasive disease. Strict infection control measures against the infection should be done in the NICU. The following practices are likely to contribute to reducing the rate of ICI: (1) restriction of broad-spectrum antibiotics, antacids and steroid; (2) introduction of early feeding and promoting breast milk. Fluconazole prophylaxis may be an effective control measure to prevent Candida colonization and infections in individual units with high incidence of fungal infection. In addition, there is a need of further data including the development of resistant strains and the effect on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants exposed to drugs before the initiation of routine application of antifungal prophylaxis in the NICU.
Current Analysis of Acintobacter baumannii Infection among Pediatric Patients in a Single-centered Study
Park, Hye Jin ; Kim, Jung Min ; Kim, Ki Hwan ; Kim, Dong Soo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 23~30
Purpose : Acinetobacter baumannii is an aerobic, gram negative coccobacillus. Due to its pathogenicity and ability to accumulate diverse mechanisms of resistance, the importance of this organism is increasing. Many reports have targeted adults, and studies of pediatric patients are limited. This study aims to investigate the current status of A. baumannii infection in children. Methods : From January 2001 to December 2008, 505 patients hospitalized with A. baumannii infection were enrolled. Admission records for underlying disease, duration of hospitalization, previous antibiotic use, location of admission, presence of ventilator care, and resistance to antibiotics were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results : Hemato-oncological disease and neurological disease were 30.6% and 24.3% of all cases; therefore, these were the most common underlying diseases of patients with A. baumannii infection. Prevalence of A. baumannii infection was 78.1% in patients with previous antibiotic use, which was higher than that of the group not using previous antibiotic. And prevalence of multi-drug resistant and pan-drug resistant A. baumannii infection was 76.4% and 38.3% in patients with ICU care, 76.8% and 38.9% with ventilator care, and these were higher than the others. Rate of resistance to all groups of antibiotics showed a gradual increase to over 50% in 2008. Multi-drug resistant A. baumannii was 63.5% and pan-drug resistant A. baumannii was 48.2% of all cases. Conclusion : Prevalence of A. baumannii infection and resistance to antibacterial agents of A. baumannii is increasing. Adequate use of antibiotics and infection control should be emphasized in pediatric patients.
The Etiology and Clinical Features of Acute Osteoarthritis in Children; 2003-2009
Choi, Jin Hyoung ; Choe, Young June ; Hong, Ki Bae ; Lee, Jina ; Yoo, Won Joon ; Kim, Han Soo ; Park, Moon Seok ; Cho, Tae Joon ; Chung, Chin Youb ; Lee, Hoan Jong ; Choi, In Ho ; Choi, Eun Hwa ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 31~39
Purpose : This study was performed for the purpose of finding causative organisms and clinical features of septic arthritis or acute osteomyelitis in children. Methods : The study involved a retrospective review of the medical records of 63 microbiologically confirmed cases of acute pyogenic arthritis and osteomyelitis. All of the cases were brought about by community-associated infections and managed at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital or Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from June 2003 to July 2009. Results : The median age of all cases was 60 months and there were 35 males and 28 females. Major involved joints included the hip joint (15 cases), knee joint (7 cases), shoulder joint (4 cases), and elbow joint (4 cases). Also, major involved bones included the femur (20 cases), tibia (13 cases), humerus (7 cases), and radius (7 cases). Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly identified causative organism, accounting for 49 cases (77.8%). Of the 49 isolates of S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 8 cases (16.3%). Group B streptococcus spp. (GBS) and Salmonella spp. accounted for 3 cases, respectively. Nafcillin or cefazolin was often prescribed as an initial empirical antibiotic. There were 9 cases that were managed by a regimen that included vancomycin as the first choice. Fifty four cases (85.7%) recovered without any complications. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), responsible for 41 cases, caused chronic complications in 3 cases. Of 8 cases caused by MRSA, 1 case showed chronic complication. There were no fatal cases. Conclusion : S. aureus remains the most common organism causing acute pyogenic arthritis and osteomyelitis of childhood acquired in the community. The high prevalence of methicillin resistance among S. aureus should be considered carefully in the selection of initial empirical antibiotics.
Clinical Manifestations of Norovirus Infection in Korean Pediatric Cancer Patients
Choi, Hyunshin ; Choi, Young Bae ; Hwang, Ji-Young ; Cheon, Doo-Sung ; Jeong, Hye Sook ; Choe, Yon Ho ; Yoo, Keon Hee ; Sung, Ki Woong ; Koo, Hong Hoe ; Kim, Yae-Jean ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 40~47
Purpose : Norovirus infection, a common cause of community-acquired gastroenteritis, can also lead to severe illness in immunocompromised patients. We investigated clinical manifestations of norovirus infection in pediatric cancer patients. Methods : Stool specimens were collected from pediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms between November 2008 and September 2009 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Norovirus infection was identified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A retrospective chart review was performed in pediatric cancer patients who were diagnosed with norovirus infection. Results : Ten patients were diagnosed with norovirus infection by RT-PCR in stool samples. The median age was 0.83 years (range 0.25-5.5 years) and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1 (6 males and 4 females). Underlying diseases were hematologic malignancies (4/10, 40%), neuroblastoma (4/10, 40%), and brain tumors (2/10, 20%). Three patients were infected before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and four patients after HCT. All patients had diarrhea (10/10, 100%), with a median frequency of diarrhea of 8.5 times/day (range 4-22 times/day). Median virus shedding duration was 72.5 days (range 19-299 days). Four patients with pneumatosis intestinalis were conservatively treated with bowel rest and total parenteral nutrition. One patient with severe diarrhea and bloody stool had concomitant chronic gut graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Norovirus infection-related mortality was not observed. Conclusion : Norovirus infection can cause significant clinical manifestations with prolonged viral shedding in immunocompromised patients. Norovirus should be considered in pediatric cancer patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms.
Accuracy of an Interferon-gamma Release Assay to Detect Active Tuberculosis in Children: A Pilot Study
Lee, Young Jin ; Chun, Peter ; We, Ju Hee ; Park, Su Eun ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 48~53
Purpose : Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult. The widely used tuberculin skin test has low sensitivity and cross reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria or Bacille Calmette-Gu
rin vaccination. Interferon gamma release assays have been shown good diagnostic accuracy for active in adults. But studies in children were limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot) as an initial test in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis in children. Methods : In a hospital-based study, we prospectively examined the performance of ELISPot in 33 children suspected of active TB. TB was confirmed bacteriologically or histologically. Results : Among 33 patients, 9 had active tuberculosis. When tested, they all had a positive test result from the ELISpot. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 100% (95% CI, 66.4-100%) and 95.8% (95% CI, 78.9-99.9%) respectively. Conclusion : ELISpot might be an useful and improved clinical diagnostic method for the detection of active TB in children.
Common Disease Codes in Pediatric Inpatients (1997-2008)
Park, Ji-Eun ; Lee, Soo-Young ; Kang, Jin Han ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 54~60
Purpose : In this study, we listed common diseases in pediatric inpatients and evaluated the distribution of diseases by period and age group, in order to estimate the epidemiologic trend. Methods : Patients who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics between 1997 and 2008 were included. Demographic characteristics, date of admission, and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code of patients were indentified. Study period was divided into two; early (1997-2002) and late (2003-2008), and age of patients were grouped into four; infancy, early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence. Results : A total of 33,513 patients were admitted for 12 years. In the list of ICD code, Pneumonia (J12-J18; 21.2%) was the most prevalent, followed by gastroenteritis (A00-A09; 17.8%), bronchiolitis (J21; 11.9%), and so on. Common diseases ranked from 1 to 10 comprised the majority (79.1%) of all the inpatients. There was increase in the number of inpatients with respiratory infectious disease (bronchiolitis, otitis media, and sinusitis), enlarged lymph node, or impetigo/cellulitis, but decrease in the number of inpatients with aseptic meningitis, intussusceptions, measles, or nephritic/nephrotic syndrome. The distribution of diseases also showed age group-specific difference. Conclusion : The distribution of diseases by period and age group was different. The epidemiologic trend should be considered in developing the management of strategy for the Department of Pediatrics.
Epidemiologic Characteristics of Human Bocavirus-Associated Respiratory Infection in Children
Choi, Jae Hong ; Paik, Ji Yeun ; Choi, Eun Hwa ; Lee, Hoan Jong ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 61~67
Purpose : This study was performed to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of human bocavirus (HBoV)-associated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children. Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were obtained from 658 children who had been hospitalized for LRTIs in Seoul National University (SNU) Children's Hospital and SNU Bundang Hospital from March 2000 to September 2005. Multiplex RT-PCR was performed to detect 11 respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3, influenza viruses A and B, human metapneumovirus, HBoV, human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43/ 229E, and HCoV-NL63. Clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Results : Overall, respiratory viruses were detected in 325 (49.4%) among 658 patients. HBoV was detected in 62 cases (9.4%) and was responsible for 19.1% of virus-positive cases. HBoV was prevalent among infants and young children aged from 3 months to 5 years with the mean age of 25.3 months. Co-detection of HBoV and other respiratory viruses was observed in 37.1% which is significantly higher than average co-detection rate (12.3%) among overall virus-positive cases (P=0.000). HBoV was identified mainly in late spring and early summer from May to July. Conclusion : This study describes epidemiologic features of HBoV in Korean children compared with those associated with other respiratory viruses. HBoV was prevalent among LRTIs in childhood, especially in late spring and early summer season in Korea.
Post-marketing Surveillance Study of an Inactivated Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine in Korea
Huh, Jae-Won ; Ma, Sang-Hyuk ; Kim, Hyun-Kyun ; Gunapalaiah, Bhavyashree ; Bock, Hans L. ; on behalf of the Fluarix-054 Study Group, ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 68~79
Purpose : This post-marketing surveillance study (NCT00750360) assessed the safety and reactogenicity of an inactivated, trivalent split-virion influenza vaccine licensed for use in the Korea since 2002. Methods : Eight hundred and eighty three subjects aged 6 months received a single dose of the
vaccine; an additional dose was administered to those aged <9 years and unprimed with an influenza vaccine. Four hundred and eleven subjects used diary cards to record safety information; this report presents data from these subjects. Incidence of solicited local, general and unsolicited adverse events (4-days and 21-days post-vaccination follow-up periods, respectively) were recorded. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study period. Results : Injection site pain (subjects aged <6 years: 12.6% of subjects,
6 years: 34.7%), fever (<6 years: 1.3%) and myalgia (
6 years: 13.9%) were the most frequently recorded solicited local and general adverse events. Grade 3 solicited adverse events were reported by
4.0% subjects. No vaccine-related SAEs were recorded (KFDA criteria). Conclusion : Considering the vaccine's well-established immunogenicity and its favourable safety and reactogenicity profile across all age groups and its high coverage rate in Korea, it may be recommended as a candidate to facilitate annual seasonal influenza vaccination for all ages as part of the Korean National Immunization Program.
Tuberculous Empyema Necessitatis with Osteomyelitis, a Rare Case in the 21
Kim, Han Wool ; Lim, Goh-Woon ; Cho, Hye Kyung ; Lee, Hyunju ; Won, Tae Hee ; Park, Kyoung Un ; Kim, Kyung-Hyo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 80~84
Empyema necessitatis refers to empyema that extends into the extrapleural space through a defect in the pleural surface. Tuberculous empyema necessitatis is a rare complication of tuberculosis. We experienced a 21-month-old boy with tuberculous empyema necessitatis with osteomyelitis in the right
rib. He presented with a mass on the right lateral chest wall, which was soft and nontender, enlarging for one month. He also had mild fever. The plain radiograph of his chest revealed soft tissue swelling and calcified lymph node on the left axilla, and his PPD skin test was positive. CT scan of the chest showed empyema necessitatis at the right lower chest and upper abdominal walls with osteomyelitis of the right
rib. He did not have concurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. Surgery was performed for diagnosis and treatment. In histopathologic findings, chronic granulomatous inflammation with caseation necrosis was shown and was positive for acid fast bacilli stain. In addition, M. tuberculosis complex was found as etiology by polymerase chain reaction. The patient has been treated with anti-tuberculous medication without any specific complication.
Three Cases of Prevention Therapy to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission
Lee, Jae Yo ; Park, Hyang Mi ; Hwang, Se Hee ; Kim, Kyeung Eun ; Shin, Hye Jung ; Kim, Jae Yoon ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 85~90
In 2008, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that about 430,000 children worldwide became infected with HIV, mostly through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breastfeeding. The MTCT prevention program proved to be feasible and effective in reduction of perinatal HIV transmission. Three babies born from HIV-infected mothers were admitted to the National Medical Center in 2009. Only two women received antiretroviral (ARV) therapy during pregnancy, labor, and after delivery, and their infants received zidovudine (AZT) for 6 weeks. The outcome, after a follow-up period of 4 months to 16 months, was favorable in all patients. Thus, we emphasize the need for expansion of antenatal HIV screening of pregnant women, implemented for early HIV diagnosis and effective ARV therapy for reduction of perinatal HIV transmission.
A Case of Disseminated Mycobacterium bovis Infection after BCG Vaccination (Tokyo strain) in an Apparently Immunocompetent Infant
Paik, Ji Yeun ; Choi, Jae Hong ; Kim, Min Kyung ; Choi, Eun Hwa ; Lee, Hoan Jong ; Park, Kyoung Un ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 91~96
rin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis. Frequent complications after BCG vaccination are localized ulcer formation and regional lymphadenitis, but there could be rarely severe systemic reactions to BCG vaccine such as osteomyelitis and disseminated BCG infection. Although disseminated BCG infection can be complicated in infants with underlying immunodeficiency after BCG vaccination, it is very unlikely to develop in immunocompetent infants or children. We report a 13-month-old infant who presented with fever, skin nodules, and multiple enlarged lymph nodes 5 months following BCG vaccination. She was diagnosed with disseminated BCG infection by PCRconfirmed M. bovis BCG infection at
2 anatomical sites beyond the region of vaccination. The patient showed no obvious evidence of immunodeficiency as judged on the basis of previous disease history, plasma immunoglobulin levels, B and T lymphocytes counts in peripheral blood, DHR (dihydrorhodamine 123 fluorescence) test and HIV test. She started antituberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampin, and now, apparently her symptoms have been improved.
Four Children with Multidrug-resistant Acinetobactor baumanii Infections in the Intensive Care Units of a University Hospital
Lee, Kyung Suk ; Lee, Gyu Min ; Yoon, Hoi Soo ; Chung, Sa Jun ; Cha, Sung-Ho ; Chun, Hee-Kyung ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 18, issue 1, 2011, Pages 97~102
The Multidrug-resistant Acinetobactor baumanii (MDRAB) is an opportunistic pathogen. Patients with long periods of hospital stay and/or under intensive care unit (ICU) receiving invasive management are more susceptible to this pathogen. In this report, four children with MDRAB infection are reviewed and described their clinical characteristics. There had been concurrent outbreaks of MDRAB infection in adult patients in the ICU at this period of time. The first child had received a craniotomy and epidural hematoma evacuation. The second child was admitted for status epilepticus with hydrocephalus. The third child had pneumonia with status epilepticus with hydrocephalus. The fourth child had poor activity due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and convulsive disorder. Except the fourth child, all had not been exposed to carbapenem prior to infection of MDRAB. That imply the cause of MDRAB infections may be associated with invasive management and prolonged hospitalization together with the previous exposure to carbapenem in our cases. We would like to emphasize the importance and minimizing the spread of hospital infection in patients under prolonged intensive care management regardless of the use of carbapenem.