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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Dec 2012
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Aug 2012
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Apr 2012
Selecting the target year
Meningococcal Disease and Quadrivalent MenACWY-CRM Vaccine (Menveo
Tsai, Theodore F. ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 19, issue 3, 2012, Pages 89~110
Meningococcal Disease, manifesting as meningitis and septicemia, is a life-threatening bacterial infection that results in significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in childhood. Its epidemic potential and limited opportunities for clinical intervention due to its rapid course present unique public health and clinical challenges. Incidence is highest in infants and young children, with a secondary peak of risk in adolescents. Approximately 10% of cases are fatal and survivors can be left with serious and permanent sequelae including amputations, hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Transmission is only from human-to-human, by infected respiratory tract secretions or saliva and therefore crowding poses a tremendously elevated risk for disease development. Military recruits and university students are at high risk due to the high carriage rate in adolescents, their behavior patterns and close contact. Menveo
(Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics), a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine directed against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y, has been shown to be immunogenic and well tolerated in all age groups and was recently licensed for use in Korea. Recent cases and deaths among military recruits drew public attention to their elevated risk and the Korean government has recommended vaccination of all new military recruits. Many Korean students seek to attend school, university, or language institutes in countries where routine meningococcal vaccination is required - clinicians should be aware of such requirements to ensure that students are vaccinated prior to arrival in the destination country.
Colonization Rate of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neonates: A Single Center Experience
Choi, Soo Young ; Han, Sang Woo ; Yoon, Hye Sun ; Ki, Moran ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 19, issue 3, 2012, Pages 111~120
Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the colonization rate of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonates by different clinical characteristics, to presume the origin of MRSA acquisition, and to identify the risk factors associated with MRSA colonization. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,733 neonates admitted to Seoul Eulji hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 2008 and December 2011. Nasal, inguinal and rectal swab specimens were obtained upon admission and each week until discharge. We classified the route of MRSA acquisition as; hospital associated (HA-MRSA) and community associated (CA-MRSA) according to the case definition. Results: Among 1,733 neonates, 415 (23.9%) were colonized with MRSA. Gestational age, birth weight, delivery type, maternal antibiotics usage before delivery, birth place and care place before admission were influencing factors in colonization of MRSA. The colonization rate was significantly high in neonates without maternal prophylactic antibiotics use before delivery than in the other group (relative risk 2.77, 95% CI 1.88-4.07; P<0.01), and outborns showed higher MRSA colonization rate compared to inborns (relative risk 2.28, 95% CI 1.17-4.42; P=0.015). Conclusion: We identified the neonatal MRSA colonization rate to be 23.9%. We estimated HA-MRSA colonization rate to be 10% (51/511) and CA-MRSA colonization rate to be 36% (309/858). We ascertained that risk factors in MRSA colonization in neonates were prophylactic use of antibiotics in mothers and the birth place.
Etiology and Clinical Manifestations of Fever in Infants Younger than 3 Months Old: A Single Institution Study, 2008-2010
Seok, Joon Young ; Kang, Ji Eun ; Cho, Eun Young ; Choi, Eun Hwa ; Lee, Hoan Jong ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 19, issue 3, 2012, Pages 121~130
Purpose : The purpose of this study is to investigate clinical features and causative organisms in febrile infants younger than three months, to help identification of high risk patients for serious bacterial infection (SBI). Methods : A total of 313 febrile infants younger than three months, who had visited Seoul National University Children's Hospital from January 2008 to December 2010 were included. Clinical features, laboratory findings, causative organisms, and risk factors of SBI were analyzed by retrospective chart review. Causative bacterial or viral pathogens were identified by gram stain and cultures, rapid antigen tests, or the polymerase chain reaction from clinically reliable sources. Results : Among 313 infants, etiologic organisms were identified in 127 cases (40.6%). Among 39 cases of bacterial infections, Escherichia coli (66.7%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%) were common. Enterovirus (33.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (19.8%), and rhinovirus (18.8%) were frequently detected in 88 cases of viral infection. Patients with SBI (39 cases) showed significantly higher values of the white blood cell count (
, P=0.002) and the C-reactive protein (
, P<0.001) than those without SBI (274 cases). The clinical risk factors for SBI were the male (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-8.9), the presence of neurologic symptoms (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.4-16.8), and the absence of family members with respiratory symptoms (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2-11.3). Conclusion : This study identified common pathogens and risk factors for SBI in febrile infants younger than three months. These findings may be useful to guide management of febrile young infants.
Etiological Agents in Bacteremia of Children with Hemato-oncologic Diseases (2006-2010): A Single Center Study
Kang, Ji Eun ; Seok, Joon Young ; Yun, Ki Wook ; Kang, Hyoung Jin ; Choi, Eun Hwa ; Park, Kyung Duk ; Shin, Hee Young ; Lee, Hoan Jong ; Ahn, Hyo Seop ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 19, issue 3, 2012, Pages 131~140
Purpose : This study was performed to identify the etiologic agents and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of organisms responsible for bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer patients for guidance in empiric antimicrobial therapy. Methods : A 5-year retrospective study of pediatric hemato-oncologic patients with bacteremia in Seoul National University Children's Hospital, from 2006 to 2010 was conducted. Results : A total of 246 pathogens were isolated, of which 63.4% (n=156) were gram-negative, bacteria 34.6% (n=85) were gram-positive bacteria, and 2.0% (n=5) were fungi. The most common pathogens were Klebsiella spp. (n=61, 24.8%) followed by Escherichia coli (n=31, 12.6%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=23, 9.3%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=22, 8.9 %). Resistance rates of gram-positive bacteria to penicillin, oxacillin, and vancomycin were 85.7%, 65.9%, and 9.5%, respectively. Resistance rates of gram-negative bacteria to cefotaxime, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, and amikacin were 37.2%, 17.1%, 6.2%, 32.2%, and 13.7%, respectively. Overall fatality rate was 12.7%. Gram-negative bacteremia was more often associated with shock (48.4% vs. 11.9%, P<0.01) and had higher fatality rate than gram-positive bacteremia (12.1% vs. 3.0%, P=0.03). Neutropenic patients were more often associated with shock than non-neutropenic patients (39.6 % vs. 22.0%, P=0.04). Conclusion : This study revealed that gram-negative bacteria were still dominant organisms of bloodstream infections in children with hemato-oncologic diseases, and patients with gram-negative bacteremia showed fatal course more frequently than those with gram-positive bacteremia.
A Fifteen-year Epidemiological Study of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infections in Pediatric Patients: A Single Center Experience
Kim, Yeon Kyung ; Shin, Hyung Jin ; Kim, Yae Jean ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 19, issue 3, 2012, Pages 141~148
Purpose : Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is an important treatment modality in children with hydrocephalus. VP shunt infection is a major complication and an important factor that determines the surgery outcome. This 15-year study was performed to evaluate the epidemiology of VP shunt infections in pediatric patients treated at our center. Methods : A retrospective review of medical records was performed in patients 18 years old or younger who underwent VP shunt insertion surgery from April 1995 to June 2010. Results : Three hundred twenty-seven VP shunt surgeries were performed in a total of 190 pediatric patients (83 females, 107 males). The median age of the patients was 2.4 years (range, 0.02-17.9 years). Having a malignant brain tumor was the most frequent cause for VP shunt insertion. The shunt infection rate was 6.7% (22/327) per 100 operations and 9.5% (18/190) per 100 patients, and the incidence rate was 0.45 infection cases per 100 shunt operations-year. The most common pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (n=7) followed by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=1). Ten cases were treated with vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotic (cephalosporin or carbapenem) combination therapy and 7 cases were treated with vancomycin monotherapy. The median duration of antibiotic treatment was 26 days (range, 7 to 58 days). Surgical intervention was performed in 18 cases (18/22, 81.8%). Conclusion : Epidemiologic information regarding VP shunt infections in pediatric patients is valuable that will help guide proper antibiotic management. Additional studies on the risk factors for developing VP shunt infections are also warranted.
Protective Field Efficacy Study of Influenza Vaccines for Korean Children and Adolescent in 2010-2011 Season
Kim, Seung Youn ; Kim, Nam Hee ; Eun, Byung Wook ; Kim, So Hee ; Park, Ki Won ; Jang, Hyun Oh ; Kang, Eun Kyeong ; Kim, Dong Ho ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 19, issue 3, 2012, Pages 149~156
Purpose : We conducted a prospective comparative clinical study to determine the field efficacy of the 2010-2011 influenza vaccines [Influenza virus strains; A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), B/Brisbane/60/2008] in healthy Korean children under 18 years of age. Methods : In this study, we enrolled subjects aged between 6 months and 18 years and divided them into 2 study groups: a group who received the influenza vaccines (407 subjects), and a control group who did not receive the influenza vaccines (230 subjects). Ours was a multicenter study that involved 7 hospitals, including the Korea Cancer Center Hospital. The study was conducted between September 2010 and February 2011. We collected nasal wash or throat swab samples from subjects who presented with acute febrile respiratory or influenza-like illnesses at the hospital. We used PCR to confirm the presence of the influenza virus in the respiratory samples and characterize the virus type. Results : In this study, we collected 22 respiratory samples from the influenza-vaccinated group and found 3 cases of influenza virus infection. Similarly, we collected 21 samples from the control group and found 12 cases of influenza virus infection among 10 subjects during the study period. We determined the field efficacy of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccines to be 83.2% in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Conclusion : In this study, we determined the field efficacy of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccines in healthy Korean children and adolescents. We found that the field efficacy of 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccines was adequate.
Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis with Bacteremia Caused by Streptococcus anginosus Following Dental Procedure in a Previously Healthy Adolescent
Kim, Hyun O ; Yum, Sook Kyung ; Han, Seung Beom ; Kwon, Hyo Jin ; Kang, Jin Han ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 19, issue 3, 2012, Pages 157~161
Streptococcus anginosus is a member of Streptococcus milleri group, and is found in the oral mucosa, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract as normal flora. It can develop into a disease in patients with deteriorating clinical condition or with clinical risk factors. A previously healthy 15-year-old boy was admitted due to fever, abdominal discomfort and vomiting which lasted for 7 days. He had a history of dental procedure 1 day before the development of fever. He was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis based on the clinical, laboratory, and imaging finding, and S. anginosus was isolated from the blood culture. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy.
A Case of Therapy of Aerosolized Ribavirin in a Leukemia Infant with RSV Infection
Kwon, Hyo Jin ; Oh, Myung Jin ; Lee, Jae Wook ; Chung, Nak Gyun ; Cho, Bin ; Kim, Hack Ki ; Kang, Jin Han ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 19, issue 3, 2012, Pages 162~167
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Life-threatening RSV infection is often reported in young children and immunocompromised hosts. Since there is no report on ribavirin therapy for RSV pneumonia in pediatric cancer patients in Korea, we report one case of RSV pneumonia that developed in an infant with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite administration of oral ribavirin and intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's respiratory distress worsened and admission to an intensive care unit was necessary. Chest x-ray showed multifocal consolidation, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. Treatment with aerosolized ribavirin led to significant clinical improvement. The role of aerosolized ribavirin is still controversial, but it might have a therapeutic potential for severe RSV pneumonia in children with leukemia.