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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Dec 2014
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Aug 2014
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Apr 2014
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The Changes in the Outbreak of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children after Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccines: A Retrospective Study at a Tertiary Hospital
Park, Dong Kyu ; Chung, Ju-Young ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 167~173
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.167
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the changes in the outbreak of acute gastroenteritis, rotavirus gastroenteritis after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Korea. Methods: The current study investigated the number of inpatients in the pediatric ward of Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital during the periods of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the medical records of 2,840 patients <5 years of age who were hospitalized at Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital in these time periods. Results: When we compared 2 separate sets of data from before (2005-2006) and after (2011-2012) vaccine introduction, there were statistically significant decreases in the number of patients who were hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis across all of the groups of patients <5 years of age except those <2 months of age. The number of patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis in all age groups declined except for children <2 months of age and those 2-5 months of age. Conclusion: These results show that after the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine in Korea, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis decreased in 6-59-month-old patients hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis.
Clinical and Epidemiological Study of 1,165 Hospitalized Cases of Rotaviral Gastroenteritis Before and After the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine, 2006-2013
Sohn, Tae-Young ; Lee, Chan-Jae ; Kim, Yoon-Joo ; Kang, Min-Jae ; Kim, Sung-Hye ; Lee, So-Yeon ; Lee, Dae-Hyoung ; Lee, Hae-Ran ; Kim, Kwang-Nam ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 174~180
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.174
Purpose: This study was performed to assess the clinical and epidemiological changes after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Korea, as well as to determine the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine among hospitalized rotaviral gastroenteritis patients over the past two years. Methods: We analyzed yearly and seasonal patterns of 1,165 inpatients who were hospitalized for rotaviral gastroenteritis under the age of 5 years between 2006 and 2013. We also conducted a survey among 460 gastroenteritis patients who were hospitalized between 2012 and 2013 regarding the rotavirus vaccination and the symptoms of gastroenteritis. Among those individuals surveyed, clinical indices were analyzed for 124 patients who were tested positive for the rotavirus antigen. Results: The incidence of Rotaviral gastroenteritis have decreased significantly by year 2010. After the introduction and widespread dissemination of the rotavirus vaccine, the onset of the disease and the seasonal peak have been delayed. Overall, the vaccinated group showed a lower rate of positivity than the unvaccinated group. Among the hospitalized rotaviral gastroenteritis patients, the vaccinated group had a shorter hospitalization period, less severe clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis, and better laboratory test results. Conclusions: After introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Korea, there were two main trends observed: 1) the overall level of disease incidence was reduced; 2) the severity of rotaviral gastroenteritis cases also decreased. Based on this data, more children should receive vaccination in order to prevent the rotavirus infection and decrease the severity of rotaviral gastroenteritis.
The Epidemiological Trend of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in a Single Center from 2004 to 2012: A Retrospective Study
Lee, Hae Sung ; Kim, Dong Yeon ; Kim, Jung Are ; Choi, Soo-Han ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 181~190
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.181
Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the epidemiological trend of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RV-AGE) in children. Methods: A retrospective review was performed in patients (1 month to 18 years of age) with acute gastroenteritis at KEPCO Medical Center from September 2004 to August 2013. Comparative analyses were performed based on periods: pre-vaccine (2004-2006) and post-vaccine (2008-2012) in all patients; 2004-2006 (period A), 2007-2009 (period B) and 2010-2012 (period C) in patients under 5 years of age. Results: Proportion of RV-AGE decreased from 25.0% (337/1,346) in pre-vaccine period to 20.8% (459/2,210) in post-vaccine period (rate ratio (RR), 0.83 [95% CI, 0.73-0.93]; P=0.0029). The median age of patients with RV-AGE in post-vaccine period (2.6 years) was significantly (P<0.0001) higher than that in pre-vaccine period (1.6 years). In patients hospitalized with AGE, proportion of RV-AGE was significantly reduced in patients 6 to 23 months old (RR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P<0.0001). Significant decline in proportion of RV-AGE was observed in patients under 5 years of age: period A, 26.9% (308/1,144); period B, 22.7% (295/1,299); period C, 20.6% (186/902) (P =0.0007). After the introduction of rotavirus vaccine, a significant decreasing trend of RV-AGE proportion was observed in patients 6 to 11 months old (P =0.0018) and 12 to 23 months old (P =0.0152). Conclusion: Decrease in RV-AGE proportion and increase in age of patients with RV-AGE were observed after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in this single center study. Continued and systematic surveillance is needed to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine.
A Study on Clinical Manifestations of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis Contact Investigation in School-Age Children and Adolescents at Two Centers
Bae, Mi-Hye ; Song, Bo Kyung ; Kim, Kyung-Min ; Son, Seung Kook ; Park, Su Eun ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 191~198
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.191
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical manifestations, contact history, and status of tuberculosis contact investigations in school-age children and adolescents with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) at two centers. Methods: This study was conducted with 54 patients in the age ranging from 10 to 18 years, who were diagnosed with pulmonary TB at the Pusan National University Hospital and Pusan National University Children's Hospital, January 2008 to December 2012. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients. Results: The median age of the patients was 16 years old; 11 patients were aged 10 to 14 and 43 patients were aged 15 to 18. Among 54 patients, 19 had history of contact with pulmonary TB, 10 had contact with house members (household), and remaining 9 had contact with classmates (non-household). One out of 10 patients who had household contacts and 6 out of 9 patients who had non-household contacts were evaluated with contact investigation after the exposure to pulmonary TB. Among 7 patients who were evaluated with contact investigation, 3 were diagnosed with active pulmonary TB, 1 had latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and 3 had no evidence of TB or LTBI. The median period of diagnosis after the exposure to active pulmonary TB was 2 years in patients with household contacts and 0.23 years in patients with non-household contacts. Conclusion: This study suggested that if the contact investigation conducted properly, it would be helpful for early diagnosis and prevention of pulmonary TB.
Clinical Characteristics of Influenza B Virus in Children and the Efficacy of Oseltamivir: Data from Two University Hospitals
Youn, Song Ee ; Chun, Ji Hye ; Lee, Kyung Suk ; Rha, Yeong Ho ; Choi, Sun Hee ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 199~206
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.199
Purpose: There has been little research regarding the effectiveness of oseltamivir for influenza B infections. We sought to identify the different clinical manifestations between patients treated with and without oseltamivir. Methods: We retrospectively studied the medical records of 72 inpatients or outpatients from two medical centers diagnosed with influenza B infections by either a rapid antigen test or multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR between January 2012 and July 2012. We compared gender, age, past medical history, admission period, total fever duration, fever duration after hospitalization, post-oseltamivir medication peak temperature, laboratory test, chest X-ray, antibiotic medication, and the presence of concomitant viral or bacterial infections. Results: The number of subjects in our study was 72 who were diagnosed with influenza B pneumonia, acute bronchitis, acute bronchiolitis, croup, and mean age was
year old. The demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of oseltamivir and the non-oseltamivir groups, including hospitalization period (
days, P=.17) and total fever duration (
days, P =.09), demonstrated no significant differences. Notably, the oseltamivir group did have significantly reduced usage of antibiotic treatment than the non-oseltamivir group (P=.04). When we limited our patient group to patients under the age of three, similar results were seen. The group prescribed oseltamivir within 48 hours of fever onset had less antibiotic usage, in addition to a shorter fever duration. Conclusion: Oseltamivir appeared to have no benefit in improving the clinical course. However, if it is prescribed within the first 48 hours of symptoms, it may be more effective.
Association between Respiratory Virus Infection and Pneumococcal Colonization in Children
Lee, Hyeon Seung ; Choe, Young June ; Cho, Eun Young ; Lee, Hyunju ; Choi, Eun Hwa ; Lee, Hoan Jong ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 207~213
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.207
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the association between respiratory virus infection and pneumococcal colonization in children. Methods: From May 2009 to June 2010, nasopharyngeal (NP) aspirates were obtained from patients under 18 years old who visited Seoul National University Children's Hospital for respiratory symptoms. NP samples were used to detect respiratory viruses (influenza virus A and B, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus A/B, human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus 229E/NL63 and OC43/HKU1) by RT-PCR and pneumococcus by culture. Results: Median age of the patients was 27 months old. A total of 1,367 NP aspirates were tested for respiratory viruses and pneumococcus. Pneumococcus was isolated from 228 (16.7%) of samples and respiratory viruses were detected from 731 (53.5%). Common viruses were rhinovirus (18.4%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A (10.6%), adenovirus (6.9%), influenza virus A (6.8%). Pneumococcal isolation rate was significantly higher in the cases of positive virus detection than negative detection [21.3% (156/731) vs. 11.3% (72/636), P <0.001]. For individual viruses, pneumococcal isolation rate was positively associated with detection of influenza virus A [24.7% (23/93) vs 16.1% (205/1274), P=0.001], RSV A [28.3% (41/145) vs 15.3% (187/1222), P=0.001], RSV B [31.3% (10/32) vs 16.3% (218/1335), P=0.042], rhinovirus A/B [22.6% (57/252) vs 15.3% (171/1115), P=0.010]. Conclusion: The study revealed that pneumococcal isolation from NP aspirates is related with respiratory virus detection. The result of this study could be used to investigate how respiratory viruses and pneumococcus cause clinical diseases.
Unilateral Parotitis and Kawasaki Disease in a Child
Lyu, Soo Young ; Ban, Gil Ho ; Park, Su Eun ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 214~218
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.214
Kawasaki disease is generally diagnosed base on its clinical features. Sometimes unusual or atypical presentations make the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease difficult. We experienced an unusual case of Kawasaki disease presented with unilateral parotitis in a 23-month old girl. Despite of intravenous antibiotics treatment, fever and unilateral parotid swelling persisted. Skin rashes, conjunctival injections, and coronary abnormalities showed up on the 8th day of fever. After the intravenous immunoglobulin and salicylates treatment, all symptoms disappeared. Although unilateral parotitis is very unusual presentation of Kawasaki disease, in case of no response to antibiotics, Kawasaki disease should be included in the differential diagnosis.
A Case of Late Onset Neonatal Bacteremia and Meningitis Caused by Streptococcus lutetiensis
Kim, Ji Sook ; Hong, Yoo Ra ; Yang, Hee Yeong ; Oh, Chi Eun ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 219~224
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.219
Invasive infection of the Streptococcus bovis group in a neonate is rare. In cases reported to date, the pathogen of neonatal S. bovis infections is usually Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (S. bovis biotype II/2). Streptococcus lutetiensis (S. bovis biotype II/1) was identified using 16S rRNA and tuf gene sequence analysis of the isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a fever-presenting 28-day-old male. Blood culture analysis was performed using automatic equipment (VITEK 2) and identified Streptococcus infantarius supsp. infantarius, yet we were unable to get accurate results from the CSF culture. The fever subsided on the second day of hospitalization, and the patient was discharged without neurologic complication after 14 days of antibiotic therapy. In this case, we were able to accurately identify the pathogen using molecular genetic methods. To our knowledge, this is the first case of late onset neonatal bacteremia and meningitis caused by S. lutetiensis.
Gram-negative Septicemia after Infliximab Treatment in an Infant with Refractory Kawasaki Disease
Lee, Jin Hwan ; Yoon, Jung Min ; Lim, Jae Woo ; Ko, Kyong Og ; Cheon, Eun Jung ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 21, issue 3, 2014, Pages 225~230
DOI : 10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.3.225
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an immune-mediated disease which is a leading cause of acquired cardiovascular disease in developed country. Recently, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blocker, infliximab has been considered a promising option for patients with refractory KD. Although chronic use of a TNF-alpha blocker could increase risk of opportunistic infections, a few studies have documented that use of infliximab was safe without serious adverse effects in patients with KD. We observed serious bacterial infection after infliximab treatment in an infant with refractory KD. Our patient was a 5-month-old male infant diagnosed with KD who did not respond to repeated doses of intravenous immunoglobulin. We effectively treated him with a single infusion of infliximab (5 mg/kg), but gram-negative (Acinetobacter lwoffii) septicemia developed after infliximab infusion. Therefore, we report a case of serious septicemia after treatment with infliximab, and suggest considering the risk of severe infection when deciding whether to prescribe infliximab to an infant with refractory KD.