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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Dec 2015
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Aug 2015
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Apr 2015
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Effectiveness of Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin Administration within 96 Hours versus more than 96 Hours after Exposure to the Varicella-Zoster Virus
Kim, Sun-Ja ; Lee, Byung-Kee ; Kim, Yang-Hyun ; Kim, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Yae-Jean ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 55~62
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.55
Purpose: Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin (VZIG) is available in Korea for post-exposure prophylaxis of the Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in high-risk patients. In July 2013, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC) recommended extending the time for administration of VariZIG
from within 96 hours up to 10 days after VZV exposure. This study was performed to analyze the effectiveness of VZIG prophylaxis between the two groups of patients who received VZIG within 96 hours and more than 96 hours of exposure to varicella. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed in pediatric patients who received VZIG at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from January 2001 to December 2012. Results: A total of 91 patients were identified. Fifty-seven patients were male (62.6%) and the median age was 5.91 years. Thirty-nine patients (42.9%) were exposed to VZV in the hospital. Underlying diseases were solid tumors (41.8%), hematologic malignancies (40.7%), and others (17.5%). Forty-five patients (49.5%) were hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Seventy-four patients (81.3%) received VZIG within 96 hours after VZV exposure. There was no significant difference in the development of chickenpox between the two groups (2.7% vs. 5.9%, P=0.4664). In 22 seronegative patients, we also observed no significant difference between the groups in terms of the development of chickenpox (6.6% vs. 0%, P=0.667). Conclusions: This study showed that the effectiveness of VZIG for the prevention of chickenpox was comparable between patients who received VZIG within 96 hours and those who received VZIG more than 96 hours after exposure to VZV.
A Small Outbreak of Measles in 2013: In a Single Hospital in Northern Gyeonggi-do
Kim, Min Jae ; Kim, So Hyun ; Kim, Sung Un ; Jang, Mi Jin ; Lee, Hyun Seung ; Kim, Young Hoon ; Han, Ji Whan ; Kim, Jin Tack ; Jang, Pil Sang ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 63~68
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.63
Purpose: This study analyzed a small outbreak of measles at a single hospital located in northern Gyeonggi-do in 2013. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of measles patients at The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital from August to October, 2013. Results: Fifteen children were confirmed to have measles by RT-PCR and serum IgM test; 1 neonate, 11 infants, and 3 toddlers. None of the patients had received Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination. All patients showed B3 type in viral genotyping. Nine children (60%) had been exposed to measles during treatment for other diseases in the pediatric ward. Incubation period was between 8 and 15 days. Fever started at a median 10 days after exposure and persisted for a median of 8 days. Rash showed at a median 13 days after exposure. Respiratory complications were observed in 40% of patients. Diarrhea developed in 53% of patients. Conclusion: Although measles has been well-controlled due to the high rate of vaccination coverage, it is possible to have an outbreak at any given time, especially in infants. We must learn from this outbreak, and remain fully aware of the possibility of reemergence and provide proper management, including vaccination or immune globulin administration, to infants exposed to measles. Reevaluation of serum IgG titer of neonates, infants, and pregnant women may be the first step to prevent further outbreaks.
A Survey of Doctors' Awareness of Simultaneous Vaccination
Lee, Hojun ; Seo, Hyun Seok ; Choi, Seok Won ; Kim, Ji Sung ; Kim, Eun Eui ; Kim, Cheol Am ; Son, Byeong Hee ; Lee, Kyun Woo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 69~74
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.74
Purpose: In this study, doctors were surveyed with a questionnaire to determine whether they performed simultaneous vaccination and whether there were any concerns about safety or anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine any problems associated with doctors readily performing simultaneous vaccination. Methods: A trained surveyor visited 241 doctors from every institution registered with the National Immunization Program (NIP) located within six districts (gu) in the City of Busan (Dongnae-gu, Geumjeong-gu, Yeonje-gu, Suyeong-gu, Busanjin-gu, Haeundae-gu); a total of 155 (64%) valid responses were obtained. Results: Of the 155 respondents, 144 (93%) were already performing simultaneous immunizations and 141 (91%) had a positive view of the practice. However, among the 144 doctors performing simultaneous immunizations, 67 (47%) were not confident about its safety; side effects were seen after simultaneous immunization by 86 doctors, 35 (41%) of whom believed that the frequency or possibility of side effects in simultaneous immunizations was higher than that in sequential immunizations. Conclusions: The use of simultaneous immunization is expanding quickly. However, among the doctors performing simultaneous immunizations, a high percentage had concerns over its unproven safety and potential side effects, indicating the need for academic societies or government institutions to present evidence to address such concerns.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: a Retrospective Analysis at a Single Center
Lee, Byung-Kee ; Choi, Soo-Han ; Kim, Soo Jin ; Cho, Joong Bum ; Ae, Hong ; Yoo, So-young ; Kim, Ji Hye ; Lee, Nam Young ; Kim, Yae-Jean ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 75~80
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.75
Purpose: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious threat in critically ill pediatric patients. Data regarding Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VAP in pediatric population is limited. We evaluated the clinical data of S. maltophilia associated VAP in critically ill pediatric patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed in pediatric patients 18 years old or younger who developed S. maltophilia associated VAP at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul Korea from January 2008 to December 2012. Results: A total of 31 patients were identified S. maltophilia associated VAP. Median age was 8 months (range, 0.5 month to 16.6 years) and 13 patients were male (40.6%). Underlying illnesses were cardiologic diseases (n=11, 34.4%), hematologic oncologic malignancies (n=7, 25%), neurologic diseases (n=4, 12.5%), pulmonary diseases (n=3, 9.4%), and others (n=4, 12.5%). The median duration of ventilator use before S. maltophilia VAP diagnosis was 14 days (range, 4-256 days). Overall mortality at 30 days was 12.5% (4/32). Conclusions: S. maltophilia should be also considered as a possible pathogen for VAP in critically ill pediatric patients. Empiric antibiotic choice should include agents that are active against S. maltophilia in patients who are deteriorating on broad spectrum beta-lactam antimicrobial agents.
Distribution of Human Rotavirus Genotypes in a Tertiary Hospital, Seoul, Korea During 2009-2013
Han, Tae Hee ; Park, Sang-Hun ; Chung, Ju-Young ; Hwang, Eung-Soo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 81~90
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.81
Purpose: Group A rotavirus (RV) is most common etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children worldwide. Recently, vaccination has been introduced in several countries to reduce the disease burden caused by RV infections, but continuous surveillance of RV strains is necessary to detect the emergence of potential variants induced by vaccine-immune pressure. This study aimed to investigate the changing pattern of RV genotypes in children with AGE, following the introduction of vaccination in Korea. Methods: Genotyping of RVs by RT-PCR on the basis of VP7 and VP4 gene segment sequence was carried out on 201 rotavirus-positive stool samples, from children hospitalized with AGE between August 2009 and June 2013. We have directly sequenced PCR products and analyzed the phylogenetic tree. Results: The most prevalent G genotype was G9 (33.3%), followed by G1 (22.4%), G3 (15.9%), G2 (6.0%), G4 (3.0%), G10 (1.5%), and mixed G-type (15.4%), with some nontypeable cases (2.5%). The detected P genotypes were P (45.3%), P (43.8%), mixed P-type (10.4 %), and P (0.5%). The G9P genotype was predominantly observed in hospitalized cases in Seoul in 2010/2011, however G1P has been re-emerged as the predominant genotype in the following season (P =0.004). Conclusions: It seems that the periodic fluctuation in predominance of the G1, G3, and G9 strains occurred in Korea during 2009-2013, following the introduction of RV vaccination.
Outcomes of Child Contact Investigations of Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients: A Single Center Experience from 2012 to 2014
Lee, Taek-jin ; Kim, Eun-kyung ; Jeong, Hye-cheol ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.91
Purpose: The study aimed to determine data collected during tuberculosis (TB) contact investigations and to evaluate the outcomes of these investigations. Methods: We reviewed medical records for child contacts of patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB aged 19 years or older between August 2012 and July 2014. Results: A total of 116 child contacts were identified for 79 patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB. Of 116 contacts identified, 22% were incompletely screened. Of 90 contacts who completed screening, 42% had negative tuberculin skin test (TST) results, 58% had positive results, and 1% had active pulmonary TB at the time of investigation. Of 50 contacts with TB patients with a negative smear, 50% had positive TST results. Age
years (OR 8.3; 95% CI 2.3-30) and male gender (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.5-9.9) were significantly associated with being incompletely screened. Conclusions: Improvement is needed in the process of contact investigations to ensure that contacts of patients with active pulmonary TB are identified and appropriately screened.
Establishment and Application of a Multibead Serotyping Assay for Pneumococci in Korea
Kim, Han Wool ; Lee, Soyoung ; Lee, Miae ; Kim, Kyung-Hyo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 97~105
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.97
Purpose: Serotyping pneumococcal isolates is important to monitor efficacy of pneumococcal vaccines. Because of difficulties of typing pnueumocci, a multiplex bead-based (multibead) serotyping assay was recently introduced. The aim of this study is to establish a new multibead serotyping assay and to apply this method to analyze clinical isolates of pneumococci in Korea. Methods: To establish the multibead serotyping assay, six key reagents were transferred from University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) to Ewha Center for Vaccine Evaluation and Study (ECVES): bead set coated with polysaccharide and monoclonal antibody pool were used in one multiplex inhibition-type immunoassay and 2 bead sets coated DNA probe and 2 primer pools were used in two multiplex PCR-based assays. After multibead serotyping assay was set up, 75 test samples of pneumococci were analyzed whether ECVES is able to identify serotype correctly. After confirming the performance, serotyping assay was applied to identify serotypes of 528 clinical isolates of pneumococci collected from 3 different hospitals. Results: After establishment of the multibead pneumococcal serotyping assay system at ECVES, 75 test samples were analyzed. There was no discrepancy of serotypes of 75 test samples between the results assigned at UAB and those at ECVES. The serotypes of 528 pneumococci isolated from patients or healthy subjects were determined in 94.3% of isolates (498/528). Conclusions: The multibead pneumococcal serotyping assay can be successfully established in Korea. With this method, surveillance of serotypes of pneumococci isolated from patients as well as healthy subjects could be studied.
Molecular Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Middle Ear Fluids from Children with Otitis Media with Effusion
Byun, Sung Wan ; Kim, Han Wool ; Yoon, Seo Hee ; Park, In Ho ; Kim, Kyung-Hyo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 106~112
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.106
Purpose: The long-term administration of antibiotics interferes with bacterial culture in the middle ear fluids (MEFs) of young children with otitis media with effusion (OME). The purpose of this study is to determine whether molecular diagnostics can be used for rapid and direct detection of the bacterial pathogen in culture-negative MEFs. Methods: The specificity and sensitivity of both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to the lytA gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae were comparatively tested and then applied for pneumococcal detection in the clinical MEFs. Results: The detection limit of the PCR assay was approximately
colony forming units (CFU), whereas that of LAMP was less than 10 CFU for the detection of S. pneumoniae. Both PCR and LAMP did not amplify nucleic acid at over
CFU of H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis, both of which were irrelevant bacterial species. Of 22 culture-negative MEFs from children with OME, LAMP positivity was found in twelve MEFs (54.5%, 12/22), only three of which were PCR-positive (25%, 3/12). Our results showed that the ability of LAMP to detect pneumococcal DNA is over four times higher than that of PCR (P<0.01). Conclusions: As a high-resolution tool able to detect nucleic acid levels equivalent to <10 CFU of S. pneumoniae in MEFs without any cross-reaction with other pathogens, lytA -specific LAMP may be applied for diagnosing pneumococcus infection in OME as well as evaluating the impact of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against OME.
A Case of Posterior Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome Following Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
Lee, Eun Kyoung ; Kang, Jin Han ; Ma, Sang Hyuk ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 113~116
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.113
Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome is a clinical radiographic syndrome of many causative factors. Sudden onset headache, vomiting, altered mental status, blurred vision and seizures are main symptoms shown in posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome. In addition, it typically shows radiological findings of edema in the white matter of posterior cerebrum, being in commonly bilateral but asymmetric. We report a case of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) presenting as posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Immediate control of hypertension resulted in rapid and complete neurological recovery.
A Case of Acute Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Following Influenza B Virus Infection
Jung, Seungwon ; Kang, Sunghee ; Kang, Jin Han ; Ma, Sang Hyuk ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 2, 2015, Pages 117~120
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.117
Virus-associated immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) can occur following common viruses, but cases of ITP associated with influenza infection has seldom been reported. In this report we describe a previously healthy 5-year-old boy who admitted with fever, flu-like symptoms and a few bruises on both legs. Severe thrombocytopenia were found. Bone marrow aspirates and biopsy showed no abnormalities and results of coagulation tests were all in normal limit. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was positive for influenza B infection. The patient fully recovered with intravenous immunoglobulins and steroid therapy.