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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Dec 2015
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Aug 2015
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Apr 2015
Selecting the target year
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak in Korea, 2015
Choi, Eun Hwa ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 131~135
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.131
Since April 2012, more than 1,600 laboratory-confirmed human infections with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been reported, occurring primarily in countries in the Arabian Peninsula; the majority in Saudi Arabia. The MERS outbreak in Korea, which began in May 2015 through the importation of a single case who had recently traveled to Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. As of November 28th, 186 secondary and tertiary cases had been reported; 38 deaths, mainly associated with underlying chronic illnesses, were reported. One case was exported to China and has been recorded as the first MERS case in China. Thirty-seven confirmed cases were associated with the index case, who was hospitalized from May 15 to May 17. Emergency room at one of the nation's largest hospitals had been affected by hospital-to-hospital and intra-hospital transmissions of MERS-CoV, resulting in an outbreak of 90 infected patients. The vast majority of 186 confirmed cases are linked to a single transmission chain associated with health facilities. The median age of patients is 55 years, with a range of 16 to 87 years. The majority (61%) of patients are men. Twenty-five (14%) of the cases involve healthcare workers. The overall median incubation period was six days, but it was four days for secondary cases and six days for tertiary cases. There has been no evidence of airborne transmission and sustained human-to-human transmission in communities. Intensified public health measures, including contact tracing, quarantine and isolation of all contacts and suspected cases, and infection prevention and control have brought the MERS-CoV under control in Korea. Since 4 July no new cases have been reported.
Role of Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Disease during the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Outbreak in Korea, 2015
Kim, Kyung-Hyo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 136~142
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.136
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (KSPID) has participated in the task force team consisting of government authorities as well as civil medical experts and facilities to block the spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 2015. KSPID posted the "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Pop-up" in the homepage of The Korean Pediatric Society and The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. KSPID also released the "Guidelines for testing for MERS in children and adolescents" and the "Instructions for the Operation of National Safe Hospital" for children and adolescents in a timely manner. Such actions were aimed to prevent unnecessary anxieties, studies and isolation of pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms and signs caused by other common microbial etiologies as being suspected for MERS patients. This strategy relieved the doctors and parents from unnecessary fear and prevented the loss of unnecessary health care costs, and has proven to be a well-judged guideline and management protocol as evaluated after the final end of MERS outbreak. KSPID and its members should support the presence of pediatric infectious disease (PID) specialists in every medium size hospitals in Korea by developing the need for consultation fees for PID consultation in the hospital based practice and promoting the potential for cost savings related to prevention of health care associated infections and optimal prescription of antimicrobial agents. KSPID and its members need to approach and develop a communication plan to political decision makers to demonstrate and convince them of the importance of a PID specialist service.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Children
Lee, Hyunju ; Han, Mi Seon ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 143~146
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.143
Since 2012, outbreaks of the Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been reported, including the Republic of Korea. To date, most of the people infected with the virus are adults. Herein we describe the clinical characteristics of cases of MERS-CoV infection among children. As of October 29, 2015, MERS-CoV has caused 34 pediatric infections, which accounts for 2.1% of all cases. The median age was 13 years (range 9 months to 17 years) and where gender has been reported (n=33), 57.6% cases were male. About half of the patients were asymptomatic and the majority of the symptomatic patients had respiratory symptoms. In general, the clinical outcome in children was favorable. Among the four patients who died of progressive pneumonia, three had documented comorbidities. MERS-CoV infection in children has a lower incidence and mortality compared to adults.
Clinical Characteristics Associated with Blood Culture Contamination in Neonates
Jung, Min Young ; Son, Ok Sung ; Hong, Yoo Rha ; Oh, Chi Eun ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 147~153
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.147
Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the contamination rates of blood culture in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to examine the clinical characteristics related to the contamination. Methods: Eight hundred thirty cases of blood culture performed from March 2013 to February 2014 were analyzed. We evaluated the contamination rates of blood culture by blood sampling sites and compared the clinical characteristics such as real name system and body weights of the contaminated cases and those of non-contaminated ones. The clinical characteristics were retrospectively reviewed by medical records. Results: The overall contamination rate was 3.6% (30/830). The contamination rates by blood sampling sites were as follows: peripheral vein 15.6% (10/64), peripheral artery 2.6% (20/759), and umbilical arterial catheter 0% (0/7). There was no difference in the contamination rates between cases with and without real name system (P=0.484). However, there were significant differences in the contamination rates by the physicians who performed the culture (P=0.038) and body weight (<1,000 g vs.
) at the time of blood culture (P<0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that neonates with a body weight less than 1,000 g have more risks of the contamination of blood culture. Furthermore, there is a necessity to provide blood culture performers with active feedbacks and individualized education plans that can help diminish blood culture contamination rates. Prospective studies in a systematic manner that can be applied in actual clinical settings are needed in order to figure out factors that can diminish the contamination rates of blood culture in NICU.
Clinical Presentations and Causative Organisms in Children and Adolescents with Osteoarticular Infections: A Retrospective Study
Lee, Soyoung ; Kim, Han Wool ; Cho, Hye-Kyung ; Yun, Yoe Hon ; Ryu, Kyung Ha ; Kim, Kyung-Hyo ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 154~163
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.154
Purpose: Osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents are important because it can cause functional compromise if appropriate treatment is delayed. Therefore, this study was designed to describe the clinical presentations and causative organisms of osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents in order to propose early diagnosis method and an appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy. Methods: Forty-two medical records were reviewed retrospectively, which were confirmed as osteomyelitis (OM) or septic arthritis (SA) at Department of Pediatrics or Orthopedic Surgery in patients under 18 years old of Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital from March 2008 to March 2015. Results: We identified 21 cases of OM, 13 cases of SA and 8 cases of OM with SA. There were 31 males and 11 females and mean age was 7.1 years old. The most common symptoms were pain and tenderness of involved site. Major involved bones were femur (10 cases, 34.5%), tibia (7 cases, 24.1%) and major involved joints were hip (9 cases, 42.9%), and knee (5 cases, 23.8%). Increased serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed in 37 cases (88.1%) respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 40 cases among 42 cases and was used to demonstrate osteoarticular infections and other adjacent infections. Nine cases (23.7%) among 38 cases and 20 cases (50.0%) among 40 cases were positive in blood culture and infected site culture respectively. The most common causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus, which was represented in 22 cases (75.9%), of which nine cases (40.9%) were resistant to methicillin. Conclusions: S. aureus was the most common causative organism of osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents and the proportion of MRSA was high in this study. Therefore, we recommend vancomycin as the first empiric antimicrobial therapy and suggest that further study is necessary to elucidate an appropriate guideline for treatment which takes into account MRSA proportion.
Long Term Follow-up Study of Patients with Kawasaki Disease
Park, Jee Won ; Chung, Euncho ; Park, Kichurl ; Jang, Young Taek ; Park, Sin-Ae ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 164~171
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.164
Purpose: To investigate the long-term prognosis of patients with Kawasaki disease in Korea, and discuss the need for long-term follow-up. Methods: The subjects were 48 patients among 354 who had been hospitalized due to Kawasaki disease, and who consented to echocardiography and exercise challenge testing. The mean duration from the onset of disease to follow-up testing after rehospitalization was 11.6 years (8.2-17.0). Patients without coronary artery aneurysms at the initial presentation of the disease were classified in group 1, and patients with small aneurysms were in group 2. Test abnormalities and differences between the two groups were analyzed. Result: There were no significant differences in the results of follow-up echocardiography and exercise challenge testing between the two groups. Although no abnormal findings were noted at follow-up in most patients, a 9-year-old boy in group 2 showed coronary artery dilation. The exercise test indicated normal results in both groups, and echocardiography results were also normal in 100% of cases in group 1 and 93.3% of cases in group 2. Conclusions: As some patients with coronary aneurysms showed coronary artery dilation, we believe that long-term follow-up may be selectively required in patients with coronary artery complications.
Evaluation of Timeliness of Palivizumab Immunoprophylaxis Based on the Epidemic Period of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: 22 Year Experience in a Single Center
Kim, Seung Yun ; Lee, Ko Eun ; Kang, Su Young ; Choi, Eun Hwa ; Lee, Hoan Jong ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 172~177
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.172
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the epidemic period of RSV infection and evaluate the appropriate time of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis. Methods: From January 1991 to July 2012, nasopharyngeal (NP) aspirates were obtained from patients who visited Seoul National University Children's Hospital for respiratory symptoms. NP samples were used to detect respiratory viruses. Among them, we analyzed the positive number and detection rate of RSV infection in two-week interval. The beginning of RSV season was defined when RSV positive number was more than 4 and RSV detection rate was over 10%. From January 2007 to March 2014, we analyzed the starting time of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis for the infants at high risk. Results: The RSV detection rate was 2,013/21,698 (9.69%) over 22 years. The median RSV season was from
week of October to
week of February. The earliest starting week was the 3rd week of July in year 2001, and the latest end week was the 3rd week of May in year 1990. Palivizumab immunoprophylaxis was initiated most frequently at the 3rd week of October (18.7%). However, the percentage of starting palivizumab on the 1st week of September has increased from 3.8% in the year 2007 to 14.1% in 2013. Conclusions: The year to year variability of RSV season exists. The starting time of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis should be adjusted based on the season of RSV epidemic.
The Impact of the Antibiotic Burden on the Selection of its Resistance among Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Children
Kim, Seohee ; Yoo, Reenar ; Lee, Jina ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 178~185
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.178
Purpose: We investigated trends in antibiotic pressure and the antibiotic susceptibility of gram negative bacteria isolated from Korean children over 10 consecutive years. Methods: From January 2004 to December 2013, the antibiotic susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii blood isolates obtained from children <18 years of age was determined according to the 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Antibiotic consumption data were also analyzed. Results: The prevalence of K. pneumoniae, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii bacteremia was 4.6, 3.5, 3.4, and 2.2 cases/1,000 blood cultures/year, respectively. In K. pneumoniae, resistance to the third and fourth cephalosporin did not increase significantly. However, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae first appeared in 2010, and the resistance rate increased to 9% between 2012 and 2013. Resistance to 3rd and 4th cephalosporin increased from 10% to 50% in E. coli, and resistance to carbapenem rose abruptly from 11% to 71% in A. baumannii (P for trend <0.01). However, such an increase of resistance was not observed in P. aeruginosa. There is a positive correlation between the resistance rate of cefepime in E. coli and the consumption of cefepime (r=0.900, P=0.037). Conclusion: The significant burden of antibiotic consumption and the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance to gram negative pathogen isolated from bacteremic children were observed. Empirical antibiotics should be wisely selected, and continued efforts to decrease the overall antibiotic pressure are mandatory, especially in highly resistant situations.
Hand Hygiene Compliance of Healthcare Workers in a Children's Hospital
Oh, Hyang Soon ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 186~193
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.186
Purpose: The aim of study was to estimate the hand hygiene (HH) compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) in a children's hospital. Methods: This study was conducted in a hospital which is a tertiary and educational children's hospital with 313 beds and 533 HCWs. Data were collected by direct observation methods from November 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Results: A total of 2,999 opportunities for HH were observed, and the overall HH rate was 95.3%. HH rate of the registered nurse, physicians and transferer was 97.7%, 89.2%, and 72.1%, respectively (P<0.001). Among physicians, HH rate of the fellows, professors, residents and interns was 97.5%, 93.9%, 89.7%, and 80.9%, respectively (P<0.001). HH rate in the emergency room, operation room, outpatient department (OPD), and the intensive care unit (ICU) was 97.2%, 97.2%, 95.4%, and 92.5%, respectively (P<0.001). Hand rubbing was the most frequently used (81.1%), and hand washing was frequently used in the case of 'after body fluids exposure risk' (37.7%) and 'after touching patient surroundings' (28.5%). HH methods were not statistically different from each departments (P =0.083), however, they were significantly different according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 5 Moments (P<0.001). Distributions in WHO 5 Moments by the job titles were significantly different (P<0.001). The odds ratio of physicians, ICU and OPD was 0.353 (95% CI, 0.241-0.519), 0.291 (95% CI, 0.174-0.487), and 0.484 (95% CI, 0.281-0.834), respectively. Conclusions: Compliance of HH was different by the job titles and departments. Effective custom-tailored HH programs for each job title and department need to be developed.
Phylogenetic Groups and Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Children
Kim, Ji Mok ; Cho, Eun Young ; Lee, Jae Ho ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 194~200
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.194
Purpose: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in children and Escherichia coli is a predominant pathogen. The purpose of this study is to evaluate phylogenetic groups and virulence factors of E. coli causing UTI in children in Korea. Methods: From October 2010 to April 2013, urinary E. coli strains were isolated from the 33 pediatric patients of UTI. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions were performed to evaluate the phylogenetic groups and 5 virulence factor genes (fimH, sfa, papA, hylA, and cnf1) of E. coli. Distribution of molecular characteristics of E. coli was analyzed by clinical diagnosis and accompanying vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Results: Most (84.8%) uropathogenic E. coli were belonged to phylogenetics group B2 and the others (15.2%) were belonged to group D. The virulence factors were distributed as: fimH (100%), sfa (100%), hylA (63.6%), cnfI (63.6%), and papA (36.4%). According to clinical diagnosis, phylogenetic distribution of E. coli strain was 92.3% of B2 and 7.7% of D in acute pyelonephritis and 57.1% of B2 and 42.9% of D in cystitis. Distribution of virulence factors was similar in both groups. In patients with acute pyelonephritis, phylogenetic distribution was similar in VUR and non-VUR group, but proportion of papA genes were lower in VUR group than that of non-VUR group (43.8% vs. 20.0%, P=0.399). Conclusions: This study provides current epidemiologic molecular data of E. coli causing pediatric UTI in Korea and will be a fundamental for understanding the pathogenesis of pediatric UTI.
An Unusual Cause of Acute Maxillary Sinusitis in a 9-year-old Child: Odontogenic Origin of Infected Dentigerous Cyst with Supernumerary Teeth
Yun, Hye-Won ; Kwon, Hyuck-Jin ; Woo, In-Hee ; Yang, Byung-eun ; Lee, So-Yeon ; Lee, Hae-Ran ; Kim, Kwang-Nam ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 201~205
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.201
Acute maxillary sinusitis is a common disorder affecting children. Untreated acute sinusitis can develop into chronic sinusitis, and complications, such as orbital cellulitis or abscess, can occur. Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is not a well-recognized condition and is frequently missed in children. As an odontogenic source of sinusitis, the dentigerous cyst is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts, and it is associated with the crown of an unerupted or developing tooth. This report concerns a nine-year-old boy who was diagnosed with maxillary sinusitis originating from a dentigerous cyst with supernumerary teeth. The boy visited our pediatric clinic presenting with rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction and was initially diagnosed with maxillary sinusitis only. With antibiotic treatment, his symptoms seemed to improve, but after 2 months, he came to our clinic with left facial swelling with persistent rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction. Radiographic examinations of the sinuses were performed, and he was diagnosed with maxillary sinusitis originating from a dentigerous cyst with supernumerary teeth. After a surgical procedure involving the removal of the dentigerous cyst with supernumerary teeth, the symptoms of sinusitis gradually diminished. There are only very few cases in the pediatric medical literature that remind us that odontogenic origin can cause maxillary sinusitis in children. Our patient can act as a reminder to general pediatricians to include dentigerous cysts in the differential diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Nonresponsive Symptomatic Myocarditis during the Acute Stage of Incomplete Kawasaki Disease
Sohn, Youngsoo ; Kim, Yeo Hyang ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 206~209
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.206
We report the case of a 7-year-old boy who showed treatment-nonresponsive hypotension (59/29 mmHg) and decreased left ventricular systolic function (fractional shortening 22%) in the acute stage of Kawasaki disease (KD). The present case serves to highlight that methylprednisolone pulse therapy should be considered in patients with intravenous immunoglobulin nonresponsive symptomatic myocarditis during the acute stage of KD.
Macrophage Activation Syndrome Triggered by Herpes Viral Infection as the Presenting Manifestation of Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Noh, Ji Hye ; Jeong, Do Young ; Jeon, In Su ; Kim, Hwang Min ;
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 210~215
DOI : 10.14776/piv.2015.22.3.210
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare complication in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that can be triggered by infections. Due to the fact that MAS may mimic clinical features of underlying rheumatic disease, or be confused with an infectious complication, its detection can prove challenging. This is particularly true when there is an unknown/undiagnosed disease; and could turn into an even greater challenge if MAS and SLE are combined with a viral infection. A-14-year-old female came to the hospital with an ongoing fever for 2 weeks and a painful facial skin rash. Hepatomegaly, pancytopenia, increased aspartate aminotransferase, elevated serum ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase were reported. No hemophagocytic infiltration of bone marrow was reported. The patient was suspected for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Her skin rashes were eczema herpeticum, which is usually associated with immune compromised conditions. With the history of oral ulcers and malar rash, positive ANA and low C3, C4 and the evidence of hemolytic anemia, she was diagnosed as SLE. According to the diagnostic guideline for MAS in SLE, she was diagnosed MAS as well, activated by acute HSV infection. After administering steroids and antiviral agent, the fever and skin rash disappeared, and the abnormal laboratory findings normalized. Therefore, we are reporting a rare case of MAS triggered by acute HSV infection as the first manifestation of SLE.