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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Human Ecology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association of Human Ecology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
The Individual, Family and Classroom Environmental Variables that Affect Children's Self-Control
Lee, Kyung-Nim ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 833~845
This study examines different individual and environmental factors that affect children's self-control. For an analysis, locus of control, perceived competence, and achievement motivation were all included in individual variables. For family variables, mothers' parenting and patents' marriage conflict were examined. For classroom psycho-social environment, teacher support, peer relationship, class involvement, and teachers' supervision were used. The sample consisted of 548 fifth and sixth grade children. Statistics and methods used for the data analysis were Cronbach's alpha, frequency, percentage, Pearson's correlation, and Hierarchical Regression. Several major results were found from the analysis: First, locus of control, perceived competence, and achievement motivation had a positive correlation with children's self-control. Second, mothers' affective parenting had a positive correlation with children's self-control. However, mothers' controlling parenting and parents' marriage conflict had a negative correlation with it. Third, teacher support, peer relationship, and class involvement had a positive correlation with children's self-control. In addition, teacher supervision had a positive correlation with girls' self-control. Fourth, class involvement, locus of control, and academic competence were important variables predicting boys' self-control. On the other hand, Class involvement, achievement motivation, academic competence, teacher's supervision, and mothers' controlling parenting were important variables predicting girl's self-control.
The relationships among children's perceived parent-child communication style, stress coring behaviors and behavior problems.
Yang, Hyun-A ; Yang, Young-Yae ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 847~860
The purpose of this study is to obtain basic data needed to understand school-age children's parent-child communication style, stress coping behaviors, and child behavior problems. The subject of this study were 362 primary school children (the fourth and the sixth graders) and their mothers in "D" Metropolitan City, Korea. The research tools included standardized parent-child communication style scale (Min,l991), stress coping behaviors scale (Min,1998), and child behavior problems scale (Hun,l996). The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as Mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentile, t-test, F-test, pearson's correlational analysis, stepwise regression analysis. In the relationship between child perceived parent-child communication style and stress coping behaviors, the children who make open communication with their parents demonstrate high problem-solving, support-seeking coping behavior. The children with closed communication with their parents have high hope expectation, revenge coping behavior. In the relationship between child perceived parent-child communication style and child behavior problem, the children making more closed communication with their parents show more behavior problems. The children with more closed communication with their mothers have more hyperactive behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and immature behaviors, and the children who are making more closed communication retain more anxious behaviors and withdrawn behaviors. In the relationship between child stress coping behaviors and behavior problems, the more problem-solving and support-seeking coping behaviors the children possess, the less problem behaviors they demonstrate. The more hope expectation, revenge coping behavior the children possess, the more problem behaviors they show. With the results above, we can find out that parent-child communication style has an effect on stress coping behavior, and parent-child communication style and stress coping behavior have an influence on child behavior problem.
The Relationship between Maternal Rearing Behavior Characteristics And Elementary School Children's Internet Use
Kim, Hyoun-Ji ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 861~874
The goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between maternal rearing behavior characteristics and elementary school children's Internet use, and to utilize the results as the basic data to develop a program, in which parents learn how to educate their children for better use of the Internet. The subjects were 713 children whose grade are in fourth through sixth in an elementary school. Data were obtained with questionnaires. The instruments employed were Children's Internet Use and Addiction, and maternal rearing behavior characteristics-Rational Guidance, Affection, Authoritarian Control, Overprotection, Achievement Encouragement, and Active Involvement-Scales. The data were analyzed with the SPSS program. They were analyzed by Frequency, Percentage, ANOVA, Duncan's test, and Pearson correlation. The results of this study are as follows: First, 30.2% of the subjects has used Internet for more than three years. 55.6% of the subjects spend less than an hour per day in using the Internet. The two major types of Internet use were playing games(49.9%) and sending e-mails(25.4%). The main reason for playing Internet games was escape from stress(34.7%). 34.5% of the subjects also said that their parents usually encourage them to use the Internet. Second, maternal affection, authoritarian control, and active involvement were significantly different in the types of Internet use. Maternal authoritarian control and overprotection were significantly different in the reasons of doing Internet game. The rational guidance and active involvement of mothers were correlated negatively with children's Internet using time, but their authoritarian control and overprotection were correlated positively with children's Internet using time. Maternal overprotection was correlated positively with parents' encouragement level in the Internet use. Third, the rational guidance, affection, and active involvement of mothers were correlated negatively with children's Internet addiction. In the other hand, maternal authoritarian control and overprotection were correlated positively with children's Internet addiction. Lastly, children's Internet addiction was significantly different by the types of Internet Use and the reasons for doing internet game. Children's Internet using time was correlated positively with children's Internet addiction.
A Study on Purchasing and Selling Notes of Internet Auction Site
Seo, Jeong-Hee ; Bok, Mi-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 875~889
The purpose of this study Is to analyze the homepage contents of an auction site on the Internet. This study collected 459 cases of purchasing and selling notes, and classified them into three types. The finding showed that some of the most frequently-occurring consumer problems are concerned with delivery and return, and sellers manner. On the other hand, consumers' manner is important to sellers. The auction site itself has problems with consultation and its own system.
College Students' Consumer Non-ethics and Related Factors
Jae, Mie-Kyung ; Seo, Jeong-Hee ; Kim, Young-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 891~901
This study is to investigate the degree of consumers' non-ethical perceptions and behaviors, and to explore related variables such as demographic variables, idealism and relativism. The data used in this study were obtained by surveying 237 college students from 10th through 24th of October, 2002 in Kimhae city. We conducted a statistical analysis of the data, using percentiles, frequencies, means, t-test, ANOVA, and Multiple Regression. Consumers' non-ethical perceptions and behaviors were measured by modifying Consumer Ethics Scale(CES, Muncy & Vitell, 1992). The CES scale comprises 4 sub-factors: actively benefiting from illegal activity(CES1), passively benefiting(CES2), actively benefiting from questionable action(CES3), no harm/no foul(CES4). Average scores of consumers' non-ethical perceptions and behaviors marked below a mid-value, which means that most of the students are basically ethical. The related variable of consumers' non-ethical perceptions was idealism. The related variables of consumers' non-ethical behaviors were idealism and the amount of discretionary money. The results show that most of the participants are basically ethical as a consumer. However, the results related with the CES4 sub-factor which includes consumer attitudes toward copyrights of consumer softwares and music CDs tell us that they are relatively non-ethical. This claims an importance of consumer education to college students in regards to intellectual property.
A Study on the Economic Well-Being of Housewives
Lee, Kyung-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 903~915
Now in Korea, many factors-for example, unemployment rate rise, consumer prices, corporate restructuring, etc.-are threatening family economy. Thus many households are faced with an economic crisis. In this circumstances, it is the role of households as a subsystem of family system to keep family and household economy stable for the sake of family growth and development. Economic well-being is differentiated by criterion of household economic status. But it has a large scale of spectrum: household income, asset, consumption, debt and the like. Moreover, these indices have been understood and measured differently by many researchers. In this thesis, we made efforts to distinguish subjective satisfaction from objective satisfaction, and then focus on the former. The data were collected from 399 housewives living in Pusan through questionnaires.
The effects of consumer counselor's work training in firm work performance and satisfaction
Huh, Kyung-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 917~926
This study examines the effects of consumer counseling education on the work performance and work satisfaction of consumer counselors, controlling the effects of other variables. The results of this study is as below: First, approximately 70% of consumer counselors have not had any education pertinent to their work. The level of work performance was highest in listening to customers' complaints, and then consistence of counseling work and explanation for counseling were next. Professionality was the last in order. Second, consumer counseling education did not affect the work performance. Instead, the number of counselors and work experience, along with whether the counselor majored in consumer studies, were more likely to increase the performance. Finally, educating counseling skills did not affect the level of work satisfaction. Instead, the work performance affected the level of work satisfaction. The number of workers and income were positively related with the level of work satisfaction.
Consciousness and Purchasing Attitude of Fashion Luxury -Focused on the College Students in Daejeon -
Lee, Sun-Young ; Kim, Jeong-Wha ; Lee, Jung-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 927~934
The purpose of this study is to examine consciousness of purchasing fashion luxury and to investigate the extent of post-purchase satisfaction among young college students. 400 consumers living in Daejeon were surveyed for the purpose. We used, for a data analysis, descriptive statistics, frequency and ANOVA. The results are as follows: 1) There were significant differences in consciousness of purchasing fashion luxury by demographic variables, such as sex, age, and major. Females with a clothing & textiles major marked higher scores in both interest and preference for fashion luxury. They regarded it as the goods with high price, high brand, and high quality. 2) One of the best items of fashion luxury goods was a watch for the students. Cosmetics was also one of them. Yet, the students were unsatisfied with shoes, bags, apparels, sunglasses, cosmetics, and accessories. 3) Most of college students were willing to purchase bags. The purchasing motives of fashion luxury were to be self conspicuousness, self satisfaction and fashion brand image. 4) Well-known luxury brands were Channel, Gucci, Louis Vuitton, Burburry and Prada. They were also preferred.
The Fabric Knowledge and the Selection Criteria & Fabric Impact on Clothing Purchase of University Students
Choi, Jong-Myoung ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 935~941
The purpose of this study is to survey fabric knowledge about apparel products, and to identify not only clothing purchase criteria but the impact of fabrics on the decision-making process in clothing purchase. The 234 questionnaires were distributed to university students(120 males, 114 females), and were analyzed by frequencies, t-test,
and ANOVA. The results are as follows: 1) The students had apparel fabrics knowledge above the average, and there were partially significant differences in the knowledge by genders. 2) They put a higher priority, in purchasing apparel products, on factors such as design, size, color, fabric, and price of clothing than those including ease of care, sewing, and fashion trend. 3) The consideration of fabrics influenced a post-purchase process. 4) Male students showed less concern, except information search process, with the fabric than females in the decision-making process for clothing purchase.
The Study on Goods Attributes and Brand Attitude by Fashion Brand
Shin, Won-Hye ; Yoo, Tai-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 943~957
The purpose of this study is to 1) understand the importance of brands, which are known as one of the key purchasing points to consumers today; 2) 10 clearly clarify the various attributes of goods well-known to consumers; 3) to research the effect of the goods attributes on brand attitude. We examined 465 consumers to understand a purchase or a shopping habit with national and non-brand. The study used SPSS 11.0 package for a data analysis. Then using varimax rotation, we employed a factor analysis to analyze the data and obtain Cronbach
value. For more specific data analysis, we conducted t-test, regression analysis, and x2 analysis. The results are as followings: 1. The goods attribute is classified into product attribute, shop attribute, and price attribute. The product attribute is divided into wearability, labeling of size and quality, aesthetic expression, brand expression-harmony, textile-suitability, manageability and product assortment. The shop attribute is into shop environment, shopping convenience, promotion, salesperson service, convenience of location, shop's reputation. The price attribute is into price reasonability, price value, price economy, and price information. 2. The product attribute is different, by national and non-brands, in wearability, labeling of size and quality, brand expression-harmony, textile-suitability, manageability. The shop attribute had a significant difference in environment of shop and its reputation, and the price attribute had one only in price economy. 3. The brand attitude was affected by wearability, aesthetic expression, shop environment, price value, and price information. 4. Also, there exists a difference by demographic variables(age, job, academic background, marriage, income level) in brand attitude. For example, national brands have its consumers with the following variables: higher education, higher income, professional job, over 20s, and married.
A Change in the Gap of the Shape of Gathered Skirts Made By Different Gatherings
Lee, Myung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 959~966
The purpose of this research is to analyze the shape of gathered skirts made by different gatherings. The shape of gathered skirts is affected by the amount of the gatherings that control fullness along a waistline seam. The gap also has an effect on the shape. We made a few experiments to make gathered skirts in different gathering conditions. The conditions include two types of ratio of gathers, which were given the total amount of gathering, and two types of spread of gathers, which were calculated for waist and hip. Experiments were conducted to figure out the dressed shape through 3-D measurement Exyma- WBS, and also to investigate the proportion, area distribution, and gap of the shape of gathered skirts on the horizontal section map with Rapid Form 2004 SP3, a software for 3-D shape analysis. As the results show, there were differences among the proportion, area distribution, and gap of the dressed shape. It showed that the shape on the horizontal section map was different because the shape between waist and hip per parts on body was not the same.
An Analysis of Hanliu Phenomenon on the Chinese Street Fashion Style
Park, Kil-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 967~983
The purpose of this study is to review Hanliu phenomenon, a kind of social and cultural phenomenon, in China and to analyze its effects on the fashion style of new young generation of China. In this study, Hanliu phenomenon means the enthusiasm of Asian people for Korean mass culture including Korean dramas, pop songs, and fashions from late 1990s. This research adopts two kinds of methods for analyzing the phenomenon: qualitative and quantitative research methods. As a qualitative research method, we analyzed it with several sources of documentaries and audio-visual materials: articles from newspapers and magazines, special TV reports, and documentary movie files from Internet. As a quantitative research method, we surveyed approximately 100 female students of Beijing university and asked how they feel Korean culture and fashions. The Hanliu phenomenon led to the popularity of Korean products as well as general culture of Korea. Also, it influenced Chinese young generation so much that Korean fashion has become prevailing. Such influence on the street fashion of Chinese youths can be summarized in three factors as follows: First, Korean entertainers' fashion is widely imitated. For example, H.O.T-like hairstyles, hip-hop styles, large heel shoes with boots-cut pants, and long-curled permanent hairstyles have been on among Chinese youths. Second, the preference for Korean fashion products has highly increased. The number of stores dealing with Korean fashion products has increased. Even the 'Kim Hee Seen,' a fashion brand named after a famous Korean actress, was introduced. Finally, Korean culture and products have widely been imitated in China as much as the increasing popularity of Korean fashion products. This study reveals that Hanliu phenomenon is widespread in China, and Chinese youths are largely affected by the fashion styles of Korean entertainers. Also, Korean fashion products are largely imitated and benchmarked in China. Hanliu phenomenon is a big chance to approach the fashion market of China, the largest buying power in the world. To make inroads into the Chinese fashion market, we suggest that we need to have our own brand and to make the most of culture, stars, and Internet in marketing. Also, we need a well-planned strategy for a success in the Chinese fashion market.
A Study on Purchasing Practices, Wearing State and Overall Satisfaction with Footwear for Middle School Students
Jeong, Young-Sook ; Kweon, Soo-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 985~995
The purpose of this study is to provide useful footwear information for manufacturers and teenagers so that they can produce or purchase proper footwear that would minimize discomfort. For this study, 486 junior high school students were surveyed with a questionnaire. SPSS WIN10 was used to process a statistical analysis such as ferq., factor analysis, t-test, ANOVA(LSD), crosstab, and coefficient correlation. The results are as follows: A significant difference existed between male and female students in purchasing footwear and using evaluation criteria. When they wear shoes for a long time, they usually experience numbness in toes, blisters, heel, bottom on the feet and peeled skin. Female students experienced more foot injuries than males. There were meaningful correlations among purchasing, evaluation criteria, and satisfaction of footwear. Providing proper information is believed very important for teenagers in choosing right footwear. Footwear manufacturers should help them produce suitable shoes, and further help them establish different marketing strategies. To ease the foot discomfort, shoes should be developed with various widths and sizes. Shock absorbing soles and more flexible materials are also necessary.
The sensibility of the American consumer about domestically manufactured cotton fabrics -Based on South Dakota State University Student-
Lee, Jung-Soon ; Shin, Hye-Won ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 997~1005
The purpose of this research is to measure the sensibility and preference of American consumers for domestically-manufactured cotton fabrics through 7-points scale questionnaires and the 4-dimensions and 8-axes system. The key words included such images as masculine-feminine, new-old, casual-classic, and ambiguous-orderly. The images of cotton fabrics were classified through a cluster analysis. This research also included an investigation of relationship between sensibilities for cotton fabrics and their physical characteristics. The sensibilities of cotton fabrics were classified into 4 groups: 'feminine sensibility,' 'masculine sensibility,' 'new sensibility,' and 'casual sensibility.' This result represents that American consumers' sensibility is simpler than Koreans'. The order of preference was 'feminine sensibility', 'masculine sensibility', 'new sensibility', and 'casual sensibility.' The sensibilities of cotton fabrics were explained significantly by stiffness, weight, weft density, value, and chroma. Specifically, those were more influenced by color characteristics such as value, chroma, and hue than by physical characteristics. We should be able to tell a difference in the reaction of a trading country's consumers and domestic consumers to domestically-manufactured cotton fabrics through comparing this research with the previous work(Shin & Lee, 2002). Additionally, we will be able to establish a basic strategy for successfully advancing Korean fabrics into the American domestic textile industry. In this way we can expect to increase the competitive power of our domestic clothes brands.
The Impression Evaluation of the Cloth's Wearer in Relation to Tone Combination and Body Type of Wearer
Paeng, Suk-Kyung ; Kang, Kyung-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 1007~1021
The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of wearers' body types and clothes' neutral tone combination on impression formation. The experimental materials developed for this study are a set of stimulus and response scales(7-point semantic). The stimulus include 45 pictures manipulated by computer simulation in wears' body types and neutral tone variation. The subjects are 540 female undergraduate students in Gyeong-nam. The results of this study are as follows: Impression factor of the stimulus consisted of 5 different dimensions including tenderness, cuteness, attractiveness, elegance, intrepidity. Each impression of neutral tone combinations, along with wears' body types, had a significant effect on tenderness, attractiveness, and intrepidity. Especially, it had the strongest effects on attractiveness. Each impression of wearers' body types along with neutral tone combinations affected cuteness significantly. According to the fact above, wears' body types and neutral tone combination have a significant influence on the impression formation of wearers.
The Size and Structural factors of The Korean Elementary School Girls' Hands
Jeon, Eun-Kyung ; Suk, Eun-Young ; Park, Soon-Jee ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 1023~1029
In the current study, we measured the hands and other representative body items of 223 elementary school girls using Martin Anthropometer and a digital camera so that we would be able to provide information on both size and shape of hands for design of hand-related products. As time goes on, hands get bigger, yet they get thinner at the same time. The data implies that the frame of hands grows, but the skin fat lessens, which could be a determinant factor in the size system of hand-related products. According to the results of a factor analysis on 26 hand items, 5 factors including hand laterality and linearity, fingertip shape, finger breadth, and hand depth, have been extracted. Pearson's correlation showed that most of hand-related factors were strongly associated with other body items. Finger breadth and hand depth, however, were found less related to other body items. The ANOVA test used in testing the difference of hand factors showed, in most items, a difference by ages, but there was no significant differences in fingertip breadth, the third factor, Interestingly, in hand depth, the fifth factor, lower grade girls' hands were thicker than higher grade girls'. This research suggests that the size system of uniformly increasing the size of all hand parts by age groups should be reconsidered and leaves much for improvement.
Physico-chemical changes in irradiated beef and pork loins
Lee, Kyong-Ae ; Lee, Yoon-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 1031~1036
Effects of irradiation on physico-chemical properties of beef and pork loins were examined. Beef and pork were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 kGy with a use of Co-60 source. The drip loss of beef increased from 0 kGy to 5 kGy, whereas that of pork remained unchanged. TBA values of beef and pork increased due to irradiation. Irradiation caused a decrease in the lightness, redness, and yellowness of beef, whereas it did an increase in the same properties of pork. Irradiation also contributed to an increase in the solubility of salt soluble protein.
Comparison of the Estimations of Body Fat by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Anthropometric Measurements in Women in Daeieon
Wang, Soo-Gyoung ; Lee, Na-Young ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 1037~1046
Age-dependent changes in body fat can often be observed in normal population. A series of indirect body fat estimates, such as hydrodensitometry, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis(BIA), and anthropometry equation for body fat, have been developed. The BIA made it possible to analyze body fat mass more related to hydrodensitometry than anthropometry. This study is to compare the body composition analysis between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA) and anthropometric measurements of women. The subjects were a group of Daejeon residents including 32 young-aged women(
), 30 middle-aged women(
), and 40 old-aged women(
). We used BIA(inbody 3.0, Biospace Korea) to determine body fat and other body composition. We also measured weight, height, circumference for 12 parts, and skinfold thickness for 9 parts of all subjects' body. The results are as follows: The subjects' height by the age group were
in the young-aged women,
in the middle-aged, and
in the old-aged respectively. BMI were, in order,
. Relative body fat determined by BIA was, also in order,
. Circumference and skinfold that showed the highest correlation with body fat by BIA was waist in the young-aged(r=0.738) and bast in the middle- and old-aged(r=0.844, r=0.804), and triceps in the young-and old-aged(r=0.538, r=0.798), and subcostal in the middle-aged(r=0.872). Body fat Estimations by BIA were the highest correlation with Caucasian women's equation(r=0.588) in young-aged women, Siri's equation with Durnin & Womesley's body density measurement(r=0.875) in middle aged women and Caucasian women' equation(r=0.872) in old aged women. We need to develop specific anthropometric equations based on sex and age to determine body fat.
Students' Attitude and Satisfaction towards University Foodservices
Lee, Kyong-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 1047~1053
The purpose of this study is to assess students' attitude and satisfaction of university foodservices. We conducted a survey for this study using questionnaires with 400 university students. A total of 344 students answered with a usable response rate of 86.0%. We performed a statistical data analysis using SPSS program for
and t-test. Students visited university foodservices more frequently for lunch than for breakfast or dinner. Students' food choice depended on taste of food. The main reasons for using university cafeteria included 'a low price' and 'economy of time'. The prior complaint factor on university foodservices was 'taste of food'. Students were more satisfied with a price than other factors. They marked 'a variety of menu' as the least satisfied. The matters, such as 'more delicious food' and 'more various menu' were pointed out for improvement. In conclusion, developing tastier food and diversifying a menu are required to enhance the quality of university foodservices.
The perception and attitudes to the foodbank program of food service and manufacturing industries in Daejeon area
Kwon, Sun-Ja ; Ly, Sun-Yung ;
Korean Journal of Human Ecology, volume 13, issue 6, 2004, Pages 1055~1062
The food bank program is one of the social welfare programs that collects surplus food and grocery products from food service and manufacturing industries, and then distributes them to those in need. The objective of this study was to investigate the food donors' perception of the program and the current status of food donation, and make a few suggestions to improve the program. A total of 200 respondents from 84 restaurants, 40 buffet restaurants, 40 bakeries, and 36 contract food service management companies participated in this study. The average amount of surplus food was 5.39 kg/day, and its 51.4% was being done away with. One of the donation benefits that most respondents expected was public relations for themselves as a program participant. The respondents' main information sources about the program were newspapers, magazines, and TV. Needs assessments regarding the program information showed that the respondents needed information about formalities, process, and donation benefits. One of the major setbacks in improving the program was insufficient information on it.