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Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Society Of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Dec 2006
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Aug 2006
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Apr 2006
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A Study about Great Absolute-Mind from Lee Je-Ma's Thoughts
Kang, Tae-Gon ; Park, Seong-Sik ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 1~10
1. Objectives The purpose of study is to find Lee Je-Ma's thoughts about Great Absolute-Mind in his writings. 2. Methods the concept of Lee Je-Ma's Great Absolute-Mind versus preexisted Great Absolute-Mind is compared and analysed in this study. 3. Results and Conclusions (1) Lee Je-Ma composed his Great Absolute-Mind based on its concept of the science of divination, Confucianism and medicine. However his Great Absolute-Mind is rooted in preexisted meaning, it was disputed desides the controversy between the science of divination, Confucianism and medicine. For this reason, Lee Je-Ma's Great Absolute-Mind is such an originative concept unable to be explained with a simple substitution this concept for the preexisted one of the science of divination, Confucianism and medicine. (2) Lee Je-Ma's Great Absolute-Mind is the human being itself and it can include the humanity from human being itself. (3) There are not only physical meaning of heart but also abstract metaphysical concept of heart included in Lee Je-Ma's Great Absolute-Mind. (4) The talent for comprehending principles is organically connected with the ability to attain their will. And the talent and ability is devided into Two Modes(兩儀) like Mind & Body(心身), Perception & Action(知行) and Nature & Emotion(性情). (5) The supervision of Lee Je-Ma’s Great Absolute-Mind affects physical part of body as well as spiritual part and is not devided into two but one. (6) The source of the supervision is rooted on Lungs Spleen liver Kidney(肺脾肝腎), Sasang(四象), even though it exists in the Great Absolute-Mind. So Sasang(四象), which is Lungs Spleen Liver Kidney(肺脾肝腎), is organically related to the Great Absolute-Mind in its effect and origin.
The Conception of YangQi and YinQi at the Discourse on the Soyangin and Soeumin Disease in
Dongyi Suse Bowon
Han, Kyung-Suk ; Park, Seong-Sik ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 11~21
1. Objectives This paper was written in order ro understand the conception on YangQi and YinQi in Sasang Constitutional Medicine. Specially that were focused on the discourse of the symptoms and diseases. 2. Methods We analysis YangQi and YinQi in Gabobon(甲午本) and Sinchukbon(辛丑本) of
Dongyi Suse Bowon
3. Results and Conclusions The symptomatic-pharmacology of Soeunin and Soyangin was base on the master of reserving life(保命之主). YangQi is ascending Qi and YinQi is descending Qi. that conception is Qi of the large and small organ. And that is appeared hot or cold Qi in body. The influential competition of YinYang is focused on primordial Qi(正氣) of small organ in Gabobon. And focused on small organ's the primordial Qi of the exterior disease and large that of the interior disease in Sinchukbon. YangQi is divided to physiological that and patholgical that at the discourse on the Soyangin’s interior disease in the Sinchukbon. Because YinQi is in proportion to physiological YangQi and inverse proportion to pathological YangQi, physiological that is similar to weak and strong of YinQi that is the master of reserving life. So ascending Yang of Soyangin is more correct as ascending physiological that. YinQi is not divided to physiologica that and patholgical that at the discourse on the Soeumin's interior disease in the Sinchukbon like Soyangin's that. But there is more reasonable that divid physiological YinQi and patholgical that. So descending Yin of Soeumin is more correct as descending physiological that.
The Liteatual Study on the Origin of
Dongyi Suse Bowon
of Korean Sasang Constitutional Medicine
Kwon, Seung-Man ; Kim, Il-Hwan ; Park, Hye-Sun ; Kim, Hyo-Soo ; Yim, Chi-Hye ; Cho, Jae-Seung ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 22~29
1. Objectives and Methods The original insect of
is described as the larvae of Holotrichia diomphalia Bates (Scarabaeidae) in oriental medicine literatures. Traditionally
inhabit on rotting wood, compost, and organic debris of soil or thatched roofs. They have the very important distinguishing mark that wriggle along on their back through rotting wood, compost etc. and they never do inflict the living crops. but, Holotrichia diomphalia Bates as the
is not right because of many questions, such as Holotrichia are the harmful insects eat into farm products, and those don't match well with korean farmers' moods if their cultivated lands are turned over for collecting
larvae, and especially they don't go on using their back. 2. Results and Conclusions Accordingly, in the conclusion of this subject it is reported that the original insect of
is the larvae of Korean Cetoniidae(Coleoptera; Scarabaeoidea) insects including Genus Protaetia Burmeister(Protaetia orientalis submarmorea Burmeister, P.brevitarsis seulensis Kolbe, etc.) and the larvae of Korean Cetoniinae insects. Also, those were the original larvae of
that were applied to not only 'DongEuiBoGam' but also 'Dongyi Suse Bowon prescriptions'. Those feed on rotting wood, compost, and organic debris of soil or thatched roofs.
A Review on Principles and Access Methods to Sasang Constitutional Medicine of Music Therapy
Lee, Ji-Young ; Park, Seong-Sik ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 30~40
1. Objectives The present study purposed to examine the contents and the principles of music therapy according to Oriental medicine theories in order to prove that music therapy is not a new research area but its principle is found in the long tradition of Oriental medicine. 2. Methods We investigate the possibility of music therapy based on Oriental medicine theories and examine the meanings of music therapy from the viewpoint of Oriental medicine. 3. Conclusions and discussions (1) The principles of music therapy are the principle of homogeneity, catharsis and balance. (2) When one’s mind changes, there are naturally occurred sounds, which are called Oseong (五聲: the oriental five voices exhalation, laughing, singing, wailing and groaning), and the notes defined by arranging the Oseong according to the principle of Ohaeng (五行: the oriental five phases wood, fire, earth, metal, water) are Oheum (五音: the oriental five musical notes Gakeum, Chieum, Gungeum, Sangeum and Wooeum.). If Eum (musical notes) is classified into Ohaeng, it can be divided into Gakeum, Chieum, Gungeum, Sangeum and Wooeum. (3) Change of Sinji (神志: consciousness) induces change of Gigi (氣機: function of Gi), which can change the character of voices. Oseong controls the functions of Ojang (五臟: the oriental five viscera) by ruling one’s Jeongji (情志: emotion). It can reduce the damage of the viscera caused by excessive vent of emotion resulted from unconscious expression of Oseong - Hoseong (呼聲: exhalation), Soseong (笑聲: laughing), Gaseong (歌聲: singing), Gokseong (哭聲: wailing) and Sinseong (呻聲: groaning). (4) Yijeongseungjeong (以情勝情: Control emotion with emotion) therapies, which suppresses an emotion by stimulating another, include Noseungsabeop (怒勝思法: Control anxiety with anger), Heeseungbibeop (喜勝悲法: Control sorrow with joyfulness), (思勝恐法: Control fear with anxiety), Biseungnobeop (悲勝愁法: Control anger with sorrow) and Gongseungheebeop (恐勝喜法: Control joyfulness with fear). (5) Seongeum (聲音: voices and musical notes) can be applied to a stimulation method that not only harmonizes the rhythm of living organs but also controls the occurrence of diseases caused by mutual Pyeonseongpyeonsoi (偏盛偏衰: relative preponderance and weakness) through direct induction of the strength and weakness of Gi function of the oriental five viscera in a human body according to the individual character. Sounds preferred by the patient, the material of an instrument selected by the patient, the character of rhythm and music expressed by the patient and the sound or voice uttered frequently by the patient can be considered in diagnosis and treatments for the patient’s body and mind.
A Study about Construction of Sasang Constitutional Nursing Theory II - On the Focus of
Dongyi Suse Bowon
written in 1894 (Old Edition) -
Yoo, Jung-Hee ; Ahn, Sang-Woo ; Lee, Eui-Ju ; Song, Il-Byung ; Koh, Byung-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 41~53
1. Objectives Nursing's meaning in Oriental medicine is prevention of disease more than treatment. The parts of defination are methods of non-medicine precisely, care of health and recuperation. 2. Methods This paper was written in order to understand of
Dongyi Suse Bowon
written in 1894(Old Edition} through the study to focus on the Sasang Constitutional nursing theory. 3. Results & Conclusions (1) Dialectic of Sasang Constitutional nursing are necessary to assesment about four fundamental factors (perspiration, defecation, digestion, urination). (2) Medicational guidance are different from character, dosage of medication, degree of disease, a poisonous drug etc. (3) Preservation of health are medication and food regimen. If 'Inherent vitality' is in a disadvantageous position, recuperation is first more than medication. The most important is protectional management. There are necessary about mind of 'liquor-sex- property-authority' & 'joy-anger- sorrow-pleasure'. It is the same application as nursing.
A Study on the Body Shape classified by Sasang Constitutions and Gender using Physical Measurements
Jeon, Soo-Hyung ; Sul, Yu-Kyung ; Kim, Kyu-Kon ; Lee, Eui-Ju ; Kim, Jong-Won ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 54~61
1. Objectives The body shape is an important standard for the classification of Sasang Constitutions. Using physical measurements and statistical analysis we can understand it's characteristic objectively. 2. Methods In this study, we have measured body circumferences and widths of 562 patients who were treated with Sasang Constitutional medicine. Their anthropometric data were transformed into the ratio based on Sasang Constitutional medicine. 3. Results (1) Taeyangin female's ratio of iliac width to chest width was most large, but Taeyangin male's was most small. (2) Soyangin's ratios of axillary width to waist width and chest width to iliac width were large. that is, their uppor body was large and lower body was small. (3) Taeumin's ratios of head and neck circumference to body circumference were small. the ratio of waist width to axillary width was most large. (4) Soeumin's ratio of head circumference to waist circumference was most large. and their uppor and lower body was larger than middle body. (5) Irrespective of Sasang Constitutions, male's ratios of axillary width to waist width and chest width to iliac width were larger than female's. 4. Conclusions From the above results, when we classify Sasang Constitutions using physical measurements we must consider gender differences and characteristics of Sasang Constitutional body shape.
A Study on the Reliability and Validity test of the QSCC II + (Revised Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution Classification)
Choi, Kyung-Ju ; Choi, Yang-Sik ; Cha, Jae-Hoon ; Hwang, Min-Woo ; Lee, Soo-Kyung ; Go, Byeong-Hui ; Song, Il-Byung ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 62~74
1. Objectives This is a statistical study on the Reliability and Validity of the Revised Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution classification(QSCC II +). 2. Methods To analyze the reliability; we gathered the results of the QSCC II + of 266 people. Each person took the questionnaire three times, and the interval of the examinations were about one year. With the results, we used stratified analysis to check up the consistency rate of three examinations, and analyzed the tendency of agreement by crosstabs to get the kappa value. For the validity, we gathered the results of the QSCC II + of 587 people who were Taeumin, Soyangin, Soeumin. They took the questionnaire once, and SCM specialists strictly examined to diagnose their Sasang constitutions. We compare their results of the QSCC II + to the diagnostic result of their Sasang constitutions, and analyzed by crosstabs to get the rate of accuracy of the QSCC II +, and the kappa value for the measure of agreements. 3. Results and Conclusions The expected rate to get the same results was 54.5% in Soyangin, 68.1% in Taeumin, 65.7% in Soeumin, and kappa value was
, which means the reliability of the QSCC II + is analytically significant. The accuracy of the results of QSCC II +, compared to the diagnosis of the SCM specialists, was 58.4%, but increased up to 60.8%, and validity also became moderately good(K=0.412) by age limitation. Because in the 70's results of the QSCC II + isn't likely to agree to the diagnosis of the SCM specialists.
A Development of the Two Step Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution Diagnosis (TS-QSCD)
Shin, Dong-Yoon ; Kim, Jeong-Ho ; Choi, Dae-Sung ; Lim, Mi-Kyung ; Lee, Kyung-Lo ; Song, Jeong-Mo ; Kim, Young-Won ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 75~90
1. Objectives The Sasang Constitution has been studied in many parts and one of the most common inquiries is the self-reporting questionnaire. But the established investigation has the problem that the respondents are not fully aware of the questionnaires and answer them. To settle this problem, it's been made new questionnaires through two steps. 2. Methods At first step, the testers ate classified into Yangin(陽人) and Eumin(陰人). And then, Taeyangin is distinguished from Soyangin likewise Taeumin is told from Soeumin. It's called 'The Two Step Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution Diagnosis(TS-QSCD)'. This new method is tested by 160 testers and Woosuk university students whose constitution ate confirmed to make clear clinical uses 3. Results and Conclusions Questionnaire Sasang Constitution corresponds with The Real Sasang Constitution at the rate of 71.87%. Only 5.63% has shown an error at the first step. Every experimenters by constitutions, the 56 objects of 74 Taeumin are confirmed the same as it is. It has 84.85% accuracy. The 27 objects of 32 Soeumin come to the same thing and it has 69.23% accuracy. Similarly, the 32 objects of 42 Soyangin come to the same conclusion and 72.73% accuracy high As the result, in comparison to the Real Constitution with the Constitution by questionnaires, the accord comes out Kappa Indices 0.6427866. This result is comparatively high. Chi-square Test can be shown statistical meaning as well.
The Study on Sasangin's Characteristics of Elementary School Students
Ko, Wo-Suk ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ; Ko, Byung-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 91~106
1. Objectives The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics about the Sasang constitution of elementary school students based on the questions that have significant differences. 2. Methods 146 children who have visited Kang-Nam Kyung-Hee Oriental Hospital Sasang constitution center from Mar. 2003 to May. 2005, were investigated through the questionnaires. These have the categories of personality and emotional characteristics, personal relationship, playing and the way to handle things such as jobs or missions, behavioral characteristics, and etc., were analyzed statistically. 3. Results and Conclusions (1) In the category of the 'Personality and Emotional characteristics', significantly more Soeumin showed positive answers to the question, 'being easily nervous and get irritated' than the other groups, and significantly more Taeumin to the question, 'considerate and thoughtful' than Soyangin. (2) In the category of the 'Personal relationship', there were significantly more Soyangin who showed positive answer to the question 'making a friend easily' than the other groups. (3) In the category of the 'playing and the way to handle things', significantly more Soeumin showed positive answer to the question, 'love to do the exercise' than Soyangin, and significantly more Soeumin showed positive answer to the question, 'not careful and meticulous' than Soyangin, and significantly more Soeumin showed positive answer to the question, 'like to read books' than Taeumin. (4) In the category of the 'Behavioral characteristics', significantly more Soyangin showed positive answer to the question, 'unable to concentrate just one thing even for just a minute and keep on moving.' than the other groups, and significantly more Soyangin showed positive answer to the question, 'act or response quick.' than Taeumin, and significantly more Soyangin showed positive answer to the question, 'behave and go around restlessly and flighty' than Soeumin, and significantly more Taeumin showed the positive answer to the question, 'hate to move by oneself' than Soyangin.
A Comparative Study on the Characteristics (Sweat, Stool, Urine, Digestion) of Soyang.Soeumin and Taeyang.Taeumin in Sasang Constitution
Park, Hyo-Jin ; Lee, Yung-Seop ; Park, Seong-Sik ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 107~117
1. Objectives There are many studies on the ordinary symptoms based on Sasang constitution. But there. are not quite satisfactory between the types of Sasang constitution. So This study is for learning the characteristics of ordinary symptoms depending on Soyangin Soeumin and Taeyangin Taeumin of the Sasang constitution. 2. Methods One thousand and two hundred twenty nine subjects were included in Bundang Oriental Hospital of Dongguk University. We classified them into the each type of Sasang Constitutional Medicine(SCM) by the well-trained SCM specialist, and assessed their ordinary features by the questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the influence of ordinary features to the diagnosis of SCM. 3. Results (1) Compared to Taeyangin Taeumin, Soyangin Soeumin do not sweat a lot. Even if Soyangin Soeumifl do sweat, one does not feel refreshed. Soyangin Soeumin do not sweat while sleeping at night nor eating meals, but discharges cold sweat if one does not feel well. (2) Compared to Taeyangin Taeumin, Soyangin Soeumin go to stool less frequently and have diarrhea when one does not feel well. Soyangin Soeumin do not feel irritated even though one is not able to go to stool for one day. (3) Compared to Taeyangin Taeumin, Soyangin Soeumin do not have foams in urine. (4) Compared to Taeyangin Taeumin, Soyangin Soeumin tend to eat slow, do not eat a lot normally, do not have a great appetite, have problems for digestion, and especially have difficulties in digestion when one is stressed. 4. Conclusions We found that Taeyangin Taeumin and Soyangin Soeumin have characteristics of ordinary symptoms, but partly there are not in accoradance with ones what Lee ]e-Ma said in his book. So in future we hope clinical studies are required steadily.
Clinical Study on the Sasang Constitutional Pulse Using Array Piezoresistive Sensor
Lee, Si-Woo ; Joo, Jong-Cheon ; Kim, Kyung-Yo ; Kim, Jong-Yeol ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 118~131
1. Objective Pulse diagnosis is generally applied to Traditional Oriental Medicine but not to Sasang Constitution diagnosis. Recently new pulse analyzer using array piezoresistive sensor and multi-channel robot arm developed. It reflects Oriental Medical Doctors' diagnostic processes, and its reproducibility test was done at Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine. We performed this study to set parameters diagnosing Sasang Constitution. 2. Methods One hundred thirty three subjects participated in this study. They are healty and approved this study. Before being tested with pulse analyzer, they had interview with Sasang Constitution Specialist to diagnose their Sasang Constitution. We established some useful parameters from parameters of pulse analyzer according to the Original Texts of Oriental Medicine and clinical experiences to analyze with clinical data of this study. 3. Results (I) There is a significant difference in pre-dicrotic notch time among all parameters of pulse analyzer in Sasang Constitution groups(P=0.047). (2) There is a significant difference in maximum pulse pressure in 33 to 48 year Sasang Constitution groups(P=0.010). (3) There is a significant difference in frequency width in 17 to 32 year Sasang Constitution groups(P=0.002). (4) There is a significant difference in CFS value in groups which OMD diagnoses; Floating & Sinking pulse(P=0.020). (5) There is a significant difference in pulse rate in groups which OMD diagnoses; Rapid & Slow pulse(P=0.000). (6) There is a significant difference in maximum pulse pressure in groups which OMD diagnoses; Deficient & Solid pulse(P=0.000). 4. Conclusions Analyzing parameters in each Sasang Constitution group, we found it shows significant difference in maximum pulse pressure and corresponding tendency in coefficient of floating & sinking pulse with theories of Sasang Consti-tutional Medicine. As we accumulate more clinical data, we will establish algorithm to diagnose Sasang Constitution using a pulse analyzer.
The Research on the Plasma Homocysteine in Sasang Constitution
Seo, Eun-Hee ; Ha, Jin-Ho ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Park, Suk-Joon ; Goo, Deok-Mo ; Lee, Jung-Hwan ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 132~137
1. Objectives The purpose of this research is to find out the Constitutional difference between the amount of Plasma Homocysteine, Total cholesterol, and Triglyceride which are factor of Cerebrovascular disease. 2. Methods We enrolled 132 patients inexperienced Strokes who visited our hospital for a medical examination from April 26, 2004 to June 29, 2005 except patients whose body constitusions were undetermined according to QSCOII. This research investigated the Constitutional difference between the amount of Plasma Homocysteine, Total cholesterol and Triglyceride. 3. Results & Conclusions This research has shown that there is a statistical significance between the average amount of Plasma Homocystein level that is higher in Taeumin. But there is no significant difference between the average amount of Total Cholestrol and Triglyceride in Sasang Constitution.
A Clinical Study on Sasang Constitutional Medical Treatment Effectiveness of Allergic Rhinitis Patients in Taeumin
Lee, Soo-Kyung ; Song, Il-Byung ; Ko, Byung-Hee ; Kim, Hyung-Gu ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 138~146
1. Objectives The present study purposed to examine Taeumin after Sasang Constitutional medical treatment showed faster improvement in sneezing or rhinorrhea or nasal obstruction, the main symptoms of allergic rhinitis. 2. Methods One group treated by Sasang Constitutional medicine in allergic rhinitis patients of T aeumin is 20 cases. The other group treated by other herb medication in alletgic rhinitis patients of Taeumin is 15 cases. We analyzed the improvement of the main symptoms in 2 group who had allergic rhinitis for less than five years in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th week of treatment. 3. Results & Conclusions (1) Sneezing showed a significant decrease from the 6th week of treatment in the group treated by Sasang Constitutional medicine and from the 6th week in the group treated by other herb medication. (2) Rhinorrhea showed a significant decrease from the 2nd week of treatment in the group treated by Sasang Constitutional medicine and from the 4th week in the group treated by other herb medication. (3) Nasal obstruction showed a significant decrease from the 4th week of treatment in the group treated by Sasang Constitutional medicine and from the 4th week in the group treated by other herb medication. (4) Satisfaction with subjective symptoms was higher in the group treated by Sasang Constitutional medicine than in the group treated by other herb medication but the difference was not significant (p>0.01). (5) Change in total symptom score showed a significant decrease from the 2nd week in the group treated by Sasang Constitutional medicine and from the 4th week in the group treated by other herb medication(p>0.01).
HPLC Analysis of Marker Substances in Taeumin Gamijowi-tang
Hwang, Young-Myung ; Yu, Young-Beob ; Kim, Jong-Youl ; Koh, Byung-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 18, issue 1, 2006, Pages 147~154
1. Objectives This study was aimed to evaluate marker substances in Gamijowi-tang by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) 2. Methods The seperation was performed an AquasilC18(4.6X250mm)column by gradient elution with 0.1N H3PO4 in H2O - acetonitrile(0min 100:10,20min60:40, 40min 80:20, 60min 100:0) as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min with detection at 190-800nm 3. Results Ephedrine and schizandrin were established as marker substances in Gamijowi-tang and its qualitative analysis was carried out. Analyzed was similarity of marker substances between in standard article and in Gamijowi-tang. The result of the analysis was that ephedrine and schizadrin showed 0.9999 of similarity, which meant they were really ephedrine and schizadrin. In addition, ephedrin content was 12.16mg, pseudoephedrine conrenr was 5.09mg, and schizandrin content was 26.6mg in 76g of Gamijowi-tang. 4. Conclusions Qualitative and quantitative analyses of ephedrine and schizandrin in Gamijowi-tang were conducted, and it was identified thar they could be used as marker substances in standardizing quality of Gamijowi-rang.