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Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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Journal DOI :
The Society Of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Dec 2009
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Aug 2009
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Apr 2009
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The Study on the Chronical Concept of Etiology in Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM)
Hwang, Min-Woo ; Koh, Byungh-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~19
1. Objectives This research was proposed to find out the chronical concept of etiology in Sasang Constitutional Medicine(SCM). 2. Methods The related contents of etiology were selected in Je-Ma Lee's literatures such as "Donguisusebowon-SaSangchobongyun(東醫壽世保元四象草本卷)"(DSS), "Donguisusebowon-GabObon(東醫壽世保元甲午本)"(DGO), " Donguisusebowon-ShinChukbon(東醫壽世保元辛丑本)"(DSC), and the research was written in order ro find out the chronical change of etiologic concept in SCM. 3. Results and Conclusions The chronical concept of etiology in SCM was as follows : There were comments that the cause of diseases was the imbalanced nature and emotion(性情偏急), the fault of human relationship(人事), and alcohol-sex-wealth-power(酒色財權) in DSS, and the imbalanced nature and emotion, exopathogen(外感), and endopathogen(內觸) in DGO In the last, the causes of disease was set to the imbalanced nature and emotion in DSC.
A Sasang Constitutional Study on the Myunghyun Symptom
Jeong, Yong-Jae ; Lee, Jun-Hee ; Lee, Soo-Kyung ; Kim, Dal-Rae ; Koh, Byung-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 20~27
1. Objects Myunghyun Symptom(瞑眩現狀) is widely regarded as 'symptoms of discharge the accumulated poison in body', 'symptoms in the process of healing' apart from any other side effects of drugs. Recently, Natural Medicine of Europe and the U.S.A named it 'healing crisis'. However, this tends to be used indiscriminately. I took a look at the meaning of the Myunghyun Symptom correctly, and the meaning at a point of Sasang Constitutional view 2. Methods It was researched on the literal study about the meaning of the Myunghyun Symptom on the book "Seokyung"(書經), "Dongeuibogam(東醫寶鍵)", "Dongyi Suse Bowon(東醫壽世保元)", "Yakjing(藥徵)", and the meaninig at a point of Sasang Constitutional view through the "Dongyi Suse Bowon(東醫壽世保元)", "Dongyi Suse Bowon Sasang Chobonguen(東醫壽世保元 四象草本卷)". 3. Results and Conclusions 1. The original meaning of the Myunghyun symptom is 'dizziness by the use of massive effective drugs'. 2. Yoshimasu Todo interprεtated broadly the Myunghyun symptoms as the discharge of the accumulated poison in body, the symptoms in the process of healing. 3. Dongmu recognized the Myunghyun symptom as dizziness by massive effective drugs and shun the use of massive effective drugs. 4. Dongmu established the concept of 'Jang-gi(臟氣) and 'Yak-gi(藥氣)' and esteemed Jang-gi more than Yak-gi. So he contended that When there is no disease does not use drugs, even if the illness prioritized the use of mild drug, use the massive effective drugs a little while when there is an acute disease. 5. When the Sasnag Constututional Drugs help the Bomyungjiju(보명지주), Sometimes the Myunghyun Symptom is appeared. it is the process of Tongoi by Taeum Drugs, Chungjang by Soyang Drugs, Gojung by Tayang Drugs, Onri by Soeum Durgs. 6. Myunghyun symptoms which used indiscriminately in present is stopped and needs a clear observation and description about the drug reactions to the patient's condition.
A Literature Study on the Concept and Classification of Soyangin Gochang
Jang, Hyun-Su ; Kim, Yun-Hee ; Hwang, Min-Woo ; Lee, Jun-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ; Koh, Byung-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 28~34
1. Objective This study aims to establish the concept and classification of the Gochangl(鼓脹) pathology introduced in the Sasang Constitutional Medicine literature. 2. Methods Different editions of Donguisusebowon, including the Gabo version and the Sinchuk version, were compared for differences and similarities in the concept, symptomology, pathology, and therapeutics concerning the Soyangin Gochang disease. 3. Results and Conclusion (1) In the Gabo edition, Gochang(鼓脹) is introduced to Eumheohwadongwiyeolyukran(陰虛火動胃熱肉爛) disease category of the Interior-Based Symptomatic Pattern in the "Soyangin Interior Large Intestine Disease" section and is introduced to the conditions progressed from edema included in the Exterior-Based Symptomatic Pattern in the "Articles added to the Soyangin Bladder and Large Intestine Disease" section. (2) In the Sinchuk edition, Gochang(鼓脹) is introduced ro the conditions progressed from Jungso(中消) of the Interior-Based Symptomatic Pattern in the "Soyangin Interior-heat-disease by the fever in the stomach" section and "Articles added to the Soyangin" section. (3) It is reasonable to think that Soyangin's Gochang is considered to Interior-Based Symptomatic Pattern because the Sinchuk edition is developed from the Gabo edition and Gochang is introduced to Jungso(中消) category after the distinction between Gochang and edema in the Sinchuk edition.
The Study for Comparing between Theory about "Constitution" in Chinese Medicien and Sasang Constitutional Medicine in Korea
Kim, Eun-Hee ; Seo, Young-Kwang ; Jung, Yee-Hong ; Kim, Sun-Hyung ; Lee, Soo-Kyung ; Koh, Byung-Hee ; Kim, Dal-Rae ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 35~43
1. Objectives This study is for comparing between theory about "Constitution" in China and Sasang constitutional Medicine in Korea 2. Method I refered to the literatures about "Constitution" published in China and Korea 3. Result and Conclusion 1) "Constitution" in Traditional Chinese Medcine(TCM) is reinterpretation of Traditional Chinese Medcine, while, Constitution in Sasang Constitutional Medicine is an innovative concept developed from Traditional Korean Medicine. 2) The concept of "Constitution" in Chinese Medicien is related to long-term-period symptom or physical condition, while, the concept of Constitution in Sasang Constitutional Medicien includes not only long-term-period symptoms or physical conditions but also natural superiority and inferiority of individual according to 4 type Constitution. 3) The concept of Constitution in Sasang Constitutional Medicien has organized mind-body system than Concept of "Constitution" in Chinese Medicine. According to the theory of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Mind is one of the best important things related type of disease. Lectures of Sasang Constitutional Medicine give a full detail of correlation of Mind and disease. 4) Finally, The concept of "Constitution" in Chinese Medicien is changeable but the Concept of "Constitution" in Sasang Constitutional Medicien is not changeable. changeable elements in Sasang Constitutional Medicien are symptoms and syndromes of disease.
The King Jeong-Jo's Sasang Constitution, Which wsa Based on the Annals of the Choson Dynasty(朝鮮王朝實錄), Hong Je jun Se(弘齋全書), GukSoBoGam(國朝寶鑑)
Kim, Dal-Rae ; Kim, Sun-Hyung ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 44~52
1. Objectives Jeong-Jo's death has many mistery. So we understand rightly Jeong-Jo's death. we inspect closely medical records of 20 days before death(in The Annals of the Choson Dynasty(朝鮮王朝實錄), Hong Je Jun Se(弘齋全書)， GukSoBoGam(國朝寶鑑). We understand medical treatment before death. It is based on Jeong-Jo's Constitution. So we trace the cause of a Jeong-Jo's death rightly. 2. Methods According to The Annals of the Choson Dynasty(朝鮮王朝實錄), Hong Je Jun Se(弘齋全書) GukSoBoGam(國朝寶鑑). We found out Jeoung-Jo's Sasang constitutional elemet. We point on Jeoung-Jo's nature and emotion, temperament and talent, features and way of speaking, physical appearance, healthy state, ordinary symptom, pathological syndromes and pharmacology. so documentary records was worthy of notice. 3. Results and conclusions 1. Jeong-Jo has prominent cheekbones,flat face. It belong to Tae-eum. 2. Jeong-Jo's physical appearance is mild,around,large. It belong ro Tae-eum. 3. Jeong-Jo's favorite food and herb were belong to Tae-eum interior febrile disease herb. which is Exhale Dispersing Qi 4. So even though Jeoung-Jo is Tae-eum, He had a weak body. It main cause that Smoking, insomnia, heave work, Hwa disease. 5. Jeong-Jo's is Interior febrile disease induced form the liver affected by heat in Tae-eumin
Directional Properties of 4 Type Constitution in Sasang Constitutional Medicine
Kim, Kwang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 53~62
1. Objectives The purpose of this study is to find the ground why constitution must be classified into 4 types. 2. Methods I analysed the basic presuppositions to class 4 Type Constitution in Sasang Constitutional Medicine(SCM). And I connected the presuppositions with other theories from the viewpoint of directional properties of human body. 3. Results and Conclusions The most important presupposition to class 4 Type Constitution and apply to clinical therapy in SCM is that there is native strength and weakness of lung's Exhale Dispersing Qi, liver's Inhale Gathering Qi, spleen's Ascending Yin Qi and kidney's Descending Yang Qi. If there is superior tendency of Qi flow direction in human body, 6 directions(upward, downward, forward, backward, outward and inward) will be remarkable. But, in embryonic period, the outer skin is originated from the back(ectoderm) and the alimentary canal is from the front(endoderm). Therefore 4 directions(upward, downward, outward and inward) will be more remarkable, and those directions are included in the former presupposition.
A Study on Comparison of Responses to Short Form Sasang Classification Questionnaire for American (SF_SSCQ-A) : Pilot test
Lee, Eui-Ju ; Yoo, Jung-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 63~78
1. Purpose This study has focused on response rates of the questionnaire which considered as a basic data to identify constitution for American. 2. Methods By analysing the tendency of the respondents who has defined constitution by clinical diagnosis and comparing of their answers, the result of their constitution analysis by our questionnaire were re-examed. The answer of each question to each constitution were tested how it is relevent to a scale of a constitution. Each item response rate on SF_SSCQ-A was analysed about those who had been tested and diagnosed as Taeyangin, Soyangin, Taeeumin, Soeumin respectively. 3. Results There were the 55 significant items; 13 Taeyangin items, 13 Soyangin items, 20 Taeeumin items, 9 Soeumin items. However, there were the 11 low response rate items (below 10 %) and 4 no response items.
Test-Retest Method on Short Form Sasang Classification Questionnaire for American (SF_SSCQ-A) : Pilot Study
Yoo, Jung-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ; Park, Jin-Son ; Hahn, Suk-Kyun ; Lee, Jun-Hee ; Kho, Byung-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 79~84
1. Objectives This study was proposed to use the test-retest method to verify the independence and agreement between the questions (Short Form Sasang Classification Questionnaire for American ; SF_SSCQ-A). 2. Methods The questionnaire was administered to 50 American and they were asked to complete the questionnaire again two weeks after the first administration. The final subjects are 42 except of 5 dropouts and 3 insufficient respondents. A reliability analysis for each individual question was conducted using the test-retest method to verify the independence and agreement between the questions. To verify independence, a Chi-square test with crosstabs analysis and p-values was used. The agreement verification was conducted by using the Cohen kappa coefficient. In addition, the constitutional variable was defined as the constitutional attribute of each question, and Pearson's correlation coefficient was confirmed after testing the scale. 3. Results and Conclusions The test-retest method showed that Pearson's correlation coefficients for the results of the two tests ranged from 0.66 to 0.87. The Chi-square test results indicated that there are 7 independent item. Among the other 114 questions, the agreement test revealed that 88 questions (70.5%) showed above common agreement.
The Study on Clinical Characteristics of Taeeumin Dry-Heat Symptomatic Patten
Kim, Yun-Hee ; Kim, Sang-Hyuk ; Jang, Hyun-Su ; Hwang, Min-U ; Lee, Jun-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ; Koh, Byung-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 85~98
1. Objective The object of this study was to understand the clinical characteristics of the Taeeumin Symptomatic Pattem. 2. Methods The patients visiting the department of Sasang Constitution of Traditional Korean Medicine clinic from June to November of 2008 were used in this study. Those who showed a favorable turn after over ten days of medication and who showed up for at least two follow-up sessions were chosen among first-time visitors. Of these, 75 patients identified and verified to be of the TE type were chosen for the study sample. The Taeeumin were verified into two groups according to clinical symptoms into Exterior Cold Disease and Interior Heat Disease groups, of which the Interior Heat Disease group was further subdivided into the Galgeun-medicament group and the Cheongshimyeonja-tang group, based on questionnaire results. The Exterior Cold Disease group was set as the control group in order to contrast and compare it with the study group, the Interior Heat Disease group. 3. Results and Conclusions The questionnaire items shown to differentiate the Exterior Cold Symptomatic Patterm and the Interior Heat Symptomaic Pattern (indicating Heat-affceted Liver Symptomatic Pattern) were related to "dryness of stool," "dark urine colorm," "dryness of nose," and "dryness of lips." The items shown to differentiate the Galgeun-medicament group and the Cheongshimyeonja-tang group (of the Dry - Heat Symptomatic Pattern) were related to "nausea," "stifling sensations and palptation," "disturbed sleep," and "dizziness." Therefore, the sleep pattern, palpitation, dizziness, and nausea can be said to be indicators of the Interior Heat Symptomatic Pattern, and Dry-Heat symptoms are better distinctions between the Chongshimyeonja-tang group and the Galgeun-medicament group than Heat-affected Liver symptoms.
A Study on the Standardization of TS-QSCD
Shin, Dong-Yoon ; Song, Jeong-Mo ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 99~126
1. Objective TS-QSCD (The Two-Step Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution Diagnosis) is one of the self-reporting Sasang-Constitutional diagnosis questionnaires and one constituted by a two-step discriminant function. The process of TS-QSCD is as follows. During the first step, the testers are classified into two groups: the Yangin(陽人) group and Eumin(陰人) group. Following this, the Yangin group is divided into the Soyangin group and Taeyangin group likewise the Eumin group is divided into the Taeumin group and Soeumin group. This questionnaire has the merits of an ordinary questionnaire with four discriminant functions and a decision tree method. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and standardize TS-QSCD 2. Materials and Methods TS-QSCD was administered to 352 random informants who were examined by professionals. Reliability was tested by inter-item consistency using cronbach's
, and validity was tested by a two step discriminant function. Cross tabulation Analysis was also used to look into the distribution of responses among the groups. 3. Result 1) The reliability of TS-QSCD was relatively valid. The internal consistency of TS-QSCD (AB) was cronbach's
= 0.815, and TS-QSCD (AC) was cronbach's
= 0.832. 2) There was a significant difference in points between Eumin group teens and other age groups, between those of Soeumin teens and other age groups. 3) TS-QSCD corresponded with the real Sasang constitution at the rate of 65.0%. When using 61 questions and four discriminant function as with ordinary methods, TS-QSCD corresponded with the real Sasang constitution at the rate of 74.9%. 4. Conclusion 1) TS-QSCD that complements the merits of existing questionnaires is effective in diagnosing Sasang constitutions. 2) Deleting duplicate questions is thought to be one of the reasons for the decreased validity rate. 3) The lower the validity of the first step, the more we should build up at each second steps a way to rescue the groups which were assigned wrongly during the first steps. 4) This standardization of TS-QSCD would be helpful in making a program for diagnosing the Sasang Constitution
The Study about Morphology of Mouth according to Sasang Constitution and its Correlation with Digestion
Ban, Duk-Jin ; Park, Seong-Sik ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 127~138
1. Objectives To examine appearances is essential of diagnosing Sasang constitution. It has been studied in various way, we focus the correlation between morphology of mouth and digestion. 2. Methods We have collected 231 cases of participants who were diagnosed sasnag constitution and measured morphology of mouth and analyzed the correlation between morphology of mouth and digestion. 3. Results and conclusions In result of analyzing the relation between morphology of mouth and digestion, morphology of mouth have correlation with digestion. And also morphology of mouth have correlation with digestion according to sex and sasang constitution.
The Effect of Allergic Inflamation by Sophora Flavescens Aiton Extract Ion Through Inhibition of the
, JNK and p38 Pathway
Lee, Ji-Young ; Park, Seong-Sik ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 139~149
1. Objectives The roots of Sophora flavescens Aiton (SFA) are widely used as a herbal remedy for allergic inflammation. In this study, we invested the effect of SFA on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and histamin releas and we demonstrated that SFA suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-
), interleukin- 6 (IL-6), and interleukin -8 (IL-8), through inhibition of the
, JNK and p38 pathway in the human mast cell line, HMC-1. 2. Methods To accomplish this, we invested passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and histamin release at an animal experiment. In addition, we investigated the effect of SFA on the production of inflammation-related cytokines in HMC-1 cells that were co-treated with PMA and A23187, which can induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. 3. Results and Conclusions SFA induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and histamin releas and supressed the expression of TNF-
, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, the protein levels of TNF-
were also decreased by SFA treatment. Furthermore, SFA inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor
through inhibition of the phosphorylation and degradation of
, which is an inhibitor of
. Moreover, SFA also inhibited induction of MAPKs (JNK, p38) and
promoter-mediated luciferase activity. Taken together, these results suggest that SFA could be used as a treatment for mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases.
Prevalence of Hypertension and Risk Factors According to Sasang Constitution
Kim, Min-Jong ; Yoo, Jun-Sang ; Koh, Sang-Baek ; Park, Jong-Ku ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 150~164
1. Objectives This study was to designed investigate the relationship between hypertension and its risk factors and the prevalence of hypertension according to Sasang Constitution. 2. Methods Five hundred and twenty six people were subjects out of 666 people, over 40 years old, who participated in the community-based cohort in Wonju, South Korea from July 2nd to August 30th in 2006. Hypertensive group was 263 peoples and normal group was 263 people, selected randomly among non hypertensive people who had same age and sex with hypertensive groups. Sasang Constitutional Diagnosis was carried out using PSSC(Phonetic System of Sasang Constitution), face and tongue photos and a checkup list. Risk factors from blood samples, physical measurements and social indices were analyzed using SPSS. 3. Results The prevalence of hypertension in Taeeumin was 63.1%(N=166), that of Soeumin was 22.4%(N=59) and that of Soyangin was 14.4%(N= 38). Considering risk factors of hypertension, there weren't any differences between two groups in social support indices and Framingham type A score. But scores of Soeumin's and Soyangin's were significantly high compared with that of Taeeumin in female normal group. There were significantly high results in Adiponectin of Soeumin's and HDL-cholesterol of female Soyangin's and HOMA-IR of Taeeumin's than any other groups. Crude OR of Taeeumin was 2.18 as compared with that of Soeumin in terms of risk of hypertension, and OR of Taeeumin was 2.02 as compared with that of Soeumin after drinking, smoking, total cholesterol, fasting blood sugar and HOMA-IR were adjusted. But after BMI was adjusted there wasn't a significance between Soeumin and Taeeumin and the OR of more than 25 was 2.42 as compared with that of less than 23 in BMI. 4. Conclusions Sasang Constitution is thought to be the reasonable variable to control hypertension in terms of prevention, treatment and regimen. And constitution is needed as a good variable to make a cohort study concerning chronic diseases, especially hypertension.
A Study on the Relationship between Sasang Constitution and Framingham Coronary Risk Score
Shim, Gyue-Hearn ; Yoo, Jun-Sang ; Koh, Sang-Baek ; Park, Jong-Ku ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 165~185
1. Objectives This study was designed to research the relationship between Sasang Constitution and Framingham coronary risk score(FRS), 2. Methods 666 people, over 40 years old, were participated in the community-based cohort in Wonju, South Korea from July 2nd to August 30th in 2006, Sasang Constitutional Diagnosis was carried out using PSSC(Phonetic System of Sasang Constitution), face and tongue photos and a checkup list, Framingham coronary risk score(FRS) was calculated using previously studied sheets adopted from KCDC(Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention). 3. Results The average FRS of men was 7,06 and that of female was 8,19 which was significantly higher than that of men. There were significant differences between Taeeumin and other constitutions in women, whereas no differences among male constitutions. Analyzing adjusted ORs for CHD risk intervals according to Sasang constitution, they were 0.96 in Taeeumin and 1.70 in Soyangin to Soeumin. Also 0.55 in Taeeumin and 3.39 in Soyangin to Soeumin in men, 1.96 in Taeeumin and 1.87 in Soyangin to Soeumin in women. Women had highet FRS than men and female Taeeumin group have highet FRS points and CRP than other constitutions. 4. Conclusions Regarding the positive relationship between FRS, APG and CRP, it is thought to be useful to understand APG and CRP results at the same time when calculating FRS. When it comes to prevention and screening of CHD, female Taeeumin should be more careful and female Soyangin also should have a consideration of heart disease.
Association between Risk Factors and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Sasang Constitution in Wonju Cohort Study
Yang, Sang-Mook ; Yoo, Jun-Sang ; Koh, Sang-Baek ; Park, Jong-Ku ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 186~196
1. Objectives The risk for cardiovascular diseases increases significantly when multiple risk factors exist, as in the form of metabolic syndrome, compared to a single risk factor. This study was to assess the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome and evaluate the factors associated with metabolic syndrome and Sasang Constitutional Types. 2. Methods 666 subjects(280 men and 386 women), more 40 years old, in a rural community study were examined in point of Sasang Constitution and metabolic syndrome. 3. Results 1) Their Constitutional distribution were Taeeumin 436 persons (65.5%), Soyangin 83 persons (12.5%), Soeumin 147 persons (22.1%) and no Taeyangin diagnosed by PSSC. 2) Body weight, BMI, waist circumstance and hip circumstance were significantly high in Taeeumin group like previous study results. 3) Prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was 32.0%, especially 27.1% in men and significantly higher as 35.5% in women than men. 4) In men, prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was 1.4% in Soyangin, 2.9% in Soeumin and significantly high as 22.9% in Taeeumin. 5) In women, prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was 12.5% in Soyangin, 3.6% in Soeumin and significantly high as 47.6% in Taeeumin. 6) Hazard ratios for metabolic syndrome were 1.14 for women to men, 2.34 for those at the age of 60s to 40s, 1.95 for Soyangin to Soeumin and 3.39 for Taeeumin to Soeumin. 4. Conclusions Sasang Constitutional Type may be an significant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and regimen according to Sasang Constitutional Type is thought to be needed to prevent metabolic syndrome.
Relationship between Type A Behavior Pattern and Diabetes According to Sasang Constitution
Lee, Sang-Jun ; Yoo, Jun-Sang ; Koh, Sang-Baek ; Park, Jong-Ku ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 197~216
1. Objectives This study is to investigate the relationship between type A behavior pattern(TABP) and diabetes according to Sasang Constitution. 2. Methods 162 persons(81 IGM persons vs 81 normal persons) out of 666 persons, more than 40 years old, who participated the community based cohort in Wonju City of South Korea from July 2nd to August 30th in 2006, were randomly selected and analyzed. Framingham Type A score, Social Support index, glucose related laboratory results were measured and analyzed according to Sasang Constitution. 3. Results Soeumin in IGM group had significantly high scores in FTA scales compared with Soyangin and Taeeumin, bur in female IGM group and normal group there was no significant difference in FTA scales and TABP frequency by Sasang Constitution. There was no significant difference in social support index in IGM and normal group by Sasang Constitution. There was no significant difference in glucose-related values between TABP/TBBP in IGM group and normal group. Soyangin in female IGM group had significantly high values in insulin(fasting) and HOMA-IR in TABP group, Soeumin group had significantly high values in FBS in TABP group. According to binary logistic regression analysis for IGM, Sasang Constitution was a significant risk factor and the ORs of Taeeumin and Soyangin were significantly higher than that of Soeumin. Social Support index was significantly higher only in female group. 4. Conclusions Adequate questionnaire of TABP for our country or a research of another subjects are needed. And Sasang Constitution is thought to be the reasonable intervention to control diabetes in terms of prevention, treatment and regimen.
Clinical Study of Menstruation Pattern according to Sasang Constitutional Diseases
Lim, Sung-Rak ; Kim, Koo ; Oh, Seung-Yun ; Kwon, Young-Mi ; Joo, Jong-Cheon ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 217~226
1. Objective To investigate characteristics of menstrual patterns according to Sasang Constitutional disease, and to utilize for diagnosis and treatment of Sasang Constitutional disease. 2. Method The recruited subjects were 430 women who convinced their Sasang Constitution by taking herbal medicine and improving of chief complaint. The items of data contain age at menarche, age at menopause, menstrual cycle, menstrual duration, cyclic regularity of menstruation, severity of menstrual pain, the worst day of menstrual pain, type of menstrual pain, amount of menstruation. 3. Results 1) Severity of menstrual pain, the worst day of menstrual pain, menstrual pain accompanied with nausea were significant among Sasang Constitutional diseases. 2) In Bae-chu-pyo-byeong disease (背椎表病證), Wi-wan-han disease (胃院寒證), So-eum disease (少陰證) and Tae-eum disease (太陰證), menstrual pain was severer than other diseases. 3) In Hae-yeok disease and So-yang-sang-pung disease (少陽傷風證), the worst day of menstrual pain was a day before menstruation. In Hyung-gyeok-yeol disease (胸膈熱證), Tae-eum disease (太陰證), So-eum disease (少陰證), the frequency of a day after menstruation in the worst day of menstrual pain was higher than other diseases. In Wi-wan-han disease (胃院寒證), Mang-yang disease (亡陽證), the frequency of two day after menstruation in the worst day of menstrual pain was higher than other diseases. 4) In So-yang-sang-pung disease (少陽傷風證), Mang-eum disease (亡陰證), Eum-heo-o-yeol diasese (陰虛午熱證), Ul-gwang disease (鬱狂證), Tae-eum disease (太陰證), So-eum disease (少陰證), the frequency of menstrual pain accompanied with nausea were higher than other diseases. 4. Conclusion Menstrual patterns, especially menstrual pain is different among Sasang Constitutional diseases. Assessing menstrual pain can be used for diagnosing Sasang Constitutional diseases, deciding treatment course, determinating prognosis.
Short Tandem Repeat Allele Frequencies in Sasang Constitution
Park, Hwa-Yong ; Yu, Hyun-Joo ; Ku, Im-Hoi ; Kim, Jong-Yeol ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 227~236
1. Objectives As a basic trial for identification of Sasang constitutional gene marker, we genotyped and analysed statistical relationships of STR(short tandem repeat) alleles and its distribution in each constitution. 2. Methods After obtaining basic constitutional data with questionnaire (QSCC II), decision of constitution was made by 3 different constitution specialists' diagnosis, and only the samples of specialists' agreement of each constitution by discussion were taken into this research. Using multiplex PCR kit, total 146 constitutional samples were amplified in 16 autosomal STR marker, genotyped, and analysed statistically. Among 16 markers, 15 were analysed in this study excluding the amelogenin marker is used for in gender identification. 3. Results and Conclusions It is difficult to determine the relationship between constitution and STR marker as the sample size is small, however, Penta D and vWA were shown to be related statistically with constitution. It has been know that STRs has no genetic informations, however there are some recent research results showing STRs as a regulatory element, relationship between microsatellite instability and repeat number and size, and post-transcriptional sigualing. STRs which is not known about its function currently, are proposed to have function and/or regulatory activities anyhow with Sasang constitution. It is believed that the results of this study can halp determine and deatify the markers related to Sasang Constitutional Medicien.
Concentration of Heavy Metals, Residual Pesticides and Sulfur Dioxide of before/after Decoction
Seo, Chang-Seob ; Huang, Dae-Sun ; Lee, Jun-Kyoung ; Ha, Hye-Kyoung ; Chun, Jin-Mi ; Um, Young-Ran ; Jang, Seol ; Kim, Jong-Yeol ; Lee, Si-Woo ; Shin, Hyun-Kyoo ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 237~246
1. Objectives To compare the contents of heavy metals, residual pesticides and sulfur dioxide before/after decoction. 2. Methods The heavy metal contents before/after decoction were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and mercury analyzer. In order to analyze pesticides in 3 samples we used simultaneous multi-residue analysis of pesticides by GC/ECD, followed by GC/MSD analysis to confirm the identity of the detected pesticide in each sample. In addition, the contents of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were performed by Monier-Williams distillation method. 3. Results 1) The mean values of heavy metal contents (mg/kg) for the samples were as follows: Yuldahanso-tang (before decoction - Pb; 1.85, Cd; 0.148, As; 0.042 and Hg; 0.003, after decoction - Pb; 0.096, Cd; 0.006, As; 0.006 and Hg; 0.002), Chongsimyonja-tang (before decoction - Pb; 1.193, Cd; 0.094, As; 0.084 and Hg; 0.008, after decoction - Pb; 0.053, Cd; 0.007, As; 0.011 and Hg; not detected) and Taeyeumjowee-tang (before decoction - Pb; 0.878, Cd; 0.078, As; 0.302 and Hg; 0.004, after decoction - Pb; 0.079, Cd; 0.005, As; 0.006 and Hg; not dectcted). 2) Contents (mg/kg) of residual pesticides before/after decoction in all samples were not detected. 3) Contents (mg/kg) of sulfur dioxide (SO2) before decoction in Yuldahanso-tang, Chongsimyonja-tang and Taeyeumjowee-tang exhibited 6.1, 37.8, 31.5 and 19.7, respectively. However, contents of sulfur dioxide after decoction in all samples were not detected. 4. Conclusion These results will be used to establish a criterion of heavy metals, residual pesticides and sulfur dioxide.
Acute Toxicity Study on Yeoldahanso-tang in Mice
Ma, Jin-Yeul ; Huang, Dae-Sun ; Lee, Si-Woo ; Kim, Jong-Yeol ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 247~253
1. Objectives This study was designed to andyze the acute toxicity and safety of Yeoldahanso-tang 2. Methods We investigated the acute toxicity for water-extracted Yeoldahanso-tang. 25 male and 25 female mice were observed for 14 days after one day oral administration of Yeoldahanso-tang at the respective doses of 0(control group), 2560, 3200, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg. 3. Results We observed survival rates, general toxicity, change of body weight and autopsy. 4. Conclusions The data confirmed that Yeoldahanso-tang is free from the toxicity and safety problems in oral route respectively. Compared with the control group, we could not find any toxic alteration in all treated groups(2560, 3200, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg). In conclusion, LD50 of Yeoldahanso-tang was over 5000 mg/kg and it is very safe to mice.
A Case Study of 1 Taeeumin Patient Experiencing Hand Tremor, Heat Flash, and Dysarthria Treated Successfully with Yeoldahansotang
Lee, Ji-Won ; Jang, Hyun-Su ; Kim, Yun-Hee ; Lee, Jun-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ; Koh, Byeong-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 254~262
1. Objective This case study reports a Taeeumin patient experiencing hand tremor, heat flash, and mild dysarthria who improved with Yeoldahansotang medication. 2. Method The patient's subjective and objective symptoms were observed daily, and the VAS scores for the main symptoms (hand tremor, heat flash, and mild dysarthria) were recorded daily throughout hospitalization period. 3. Result The patient's general conditions improved by the end of hospitalization, and VAS score dropped dramatically from VAS 10, VAS 10, VAS 10 to VAS 0, VAS 0.5, VAS 3 for hand tremor, heat flash, and mild dysarthria, respectively. 4. Conclusion The patient responded well to Yeoldahansotang, one of the main medicaments for the Joyeol (dry-heat) symptomatic pattern, which indicates that Yeoldahansotang can be used to treat the Joyeol symptomatic pattern even when the textbook indications are not evident as long as the Joyeol pathology is recognizable from other symptoms.
A Case Study of Yul Gyuk Similarity in Soeumin Patient
Lee, Seung-Yun ; Ban, Duk-Jin ; Bae, Hyo-Sang ; Park, Seong-Sik ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 263~269
1. Objective This study is about a Soeumin patient who had Yul Gyuk similarity with anorexia, nausea, sialism. In this study, we report the effects of Sasang constitutional treatment to this patient. 2. Methods This patient was treated by Soeumin's constitutional medications and acupunture according to the result of Sasang constitutional diagnosis. 3. Results and Conclusions This patient's chief complaints were anorexia, nausea, and sialism. By using Gyejibanhasaenggang-tang mainly, he showed positive response about his symptom. This study shows that Gyejibanhasaenggang-tang has effect to Yul Gyuk similarity in Soeumin.
A Case Report of Foot Drop in Soyangin Improved with Sukjiwhanggosam-tang
Han, Da-Nim ; Lee, Pil-Jae ; Kim, Seong-Ki ; Lim, Eun-Chul ; Jung, Ji-Eun ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 21, issue 1, 2009, Pages 270~277
1. Objectives The purpose of this case study is to report the effects of Sukjiwhanggosam-tang which is based on the Sasang Constitutional Medicine for the Foot drop caused by peroneal nerve palsy. 2. Methods This patient was treated by Sukjiwhanggosam-tang according to the result of Sasang Constitutional diagnosis. We used Visual analogue scale(VAS), Range of motion(ROM) and Manual Muscle Testing(MMT) to evaluate the improvement of the Foot drop. 3. Results After 20 days treatment, the VAS of Rt. leg & foot hypoesthesia decreased from 10 to 2. The ROM of dorsiflexion of the ankle joint increased from
and the grade of MMT increased from 3 to 4. 4. Conclusions This case study shows an efficient result of using Sukjiwhanggosam-tang in the treatment of the Foot drop caused by peroneal nerve palsy.