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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Society Of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
The influence of accumulated clinical experience with Soyang-type patients on the conceptualization of the Soyang pathology
Kang, Mi-Jeong ; Lee, Ji-Won ; Lee, Jun-Hee ; Koh, Byung-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 275~284
1. Objective: This literary review investigates Lee Jema's clinical experiences with Soyang-type patients and their influence on his conceptualization of the Soyang physiology and pathology. 2. Methods: 1) The case reports in "Soyang constitutional type: Spleen Cold-based Exterior-Cold disease" were compared before and after the Sinchuk revision to explore the temporal change in the Sasang medical concepts. 2) The texts in Donguisusebowon (Gabo edition) and Donguisusebowon (Sasangchobongwon) were analyzed to investigate the pathological concepts appearing before the completion of the Donguisusebowon (Gabo edition). 3) The texts in Donguisusebowon (Sinchuk edition) was analyzed to investigate the pathological concepts formed between the Gabo and Sinchuk editions of Donguisusebowon. 3. Results and Conclusions: 1) Gabo edition : The Gabo edition divided the External-origin Exterior disease into Cold-dominant (Heat-moderate) and Heat-dominant (Cold-moderate) patterns and differentiated the severity of Exterior-based Exterior disease and Interior-based Interior disease into mild, moderate, severe, and critical conditions. Cold-damage Delirium disease pattern was categorized as an Interior-based Interior disease, and the treatment protocol using Baekho-tang (Baihu-tang) was established. The stool condition and bowel movement reflecting the patient's defecation habits, the prime indicator of health in the Soyang constitutional type, were emphasized on their importance. 2) Sinchuk edition: The Delirium disease pattern was moved into the Exterior-cold disease, and the treatment protocol applying Jihwangbaekho-tang (Dihuangbaihu-tang) and Hyeongbangsabaek-san (Jingfangxiebai-san), with variational usage of Gypsum, was newly established. The Seong-Jeong and basal disease patterns were suggested as important factors in treating the patients. Also, it was proposed that the symptoms and signs reflecting the condition of the life-preserving energy be assessed to understand the patient's current condition. The importance of post-acute rehabilitation and aftercare as well as the most appropriate acute-stage treatment were emphasized.
A Study on the Soyangin Pathologies that originate from a Common Root Pathologic Category
Kim, Yun-Hee ; Hwang, Min-Woo ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 285~293
1. Objectives: This study examines the pathologies that originate from a Common Root Pathologic Category(CRPC; 同出一屬) in the Soyangin that are suggested in the Sasang Constitutional Medicine(SCM). 2. Methods: The changes in concepts and perceptions on the Soyangin pathologies were compared across the different editions of Donguisusebowon, "Donguisusebowon, Gabo edition(東醫壽世保元甲午本) (DGO)" and "Donguisusebowon, Sinchuk edition (東醫壽世保元辛丑本) (DSC)". 3. Results and Conclusions: The Soyangin pathologies originating from a CRPC that are described in Donguisusebowon are actually detailed classifications of the Yin-deficiency Diurnal-heat symptomatology (陰虛午熱證) and the Chest-congestion symptomatology (結胸證). Lee Jema had introduced the concept of "Common Root Pathologic Category(CRPC)" to approach pathologies of similar exterior/interior classification or severity stage (mild/moderate/severe/critical) by combining them in a comprehensive, integrative pathology system. This comprehensive approach, which promotes better understanding of the Soyangin pathology and maximizes the therapeutic efficiency of SCM, constitutes the "Comprehensive Therapeutic Methodology" that is the hallmark of Sasang therapy.
Study on the Development of Diagnosis Algorithm of Soyangin Symptomatology
Shin, Seung-Won ; Lee, Eui-Ju ; Koh, Byung-Hee ; Lee, Jun-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 294~303
1. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to develop the algorithm, which can help clinicians diagnose Soyangin's symptomatology, based on the indexes for energy and fluid and those for nutrient material. 2. Methods: The items of "Donguisusebowon(東醫壽世保元)" were analysed to figure out the inevitable and sequential indexes of Soyangin's symptomatology diagnosis, in order of exterior-interior pattern differentiation, favorable-unfavorable pattern differentiation, and mild-severe-dangerous-urgent pattern differentiation. 3. Results and Conclusions: 1) 1st step: Soyangin's exterior pattern and interior pattern are differentiated in terms of heat and cold, respectively. Aversion to cold and feces are used to confirm the difference. 2) 2nd step: The existence of diarrhea is used to find out that an exterior pattern is with or without favor, while the indexes of back cold, skinniness of thigh-knee and turbid urine are used to identify an interior pattern with or without favor. 3) 3rd step: The favorably exterior-heat pattern can be either mild or severe by the indexes of stuffiness/rigidity/pain below the heart and digestion, while the unfavorably exterior-heat pattern can be either dangerous or urgent by the ones of cold-heat and specific pain. And, the favorably interior-cold pattern can be either mild or severe mainly by feces and subsidiarily by delirious speech and digestion, while the unfavorably interior-cold pattern can be either mild or severe by afternoon tidal fever and vomiting.
Classification of Aroma Essential Oils by Sasang Constitution
Choi, Eun-Joo ; Hong, Sun-Gi ; Yoo, Jun-Sang ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 304~317
1. Objectives: Aromatherapy is one of the alternative medical treatments by flavors of essential oils extracted from plants. This study was to investigate the classification of aroma essential oils by Sasang Constitution for clinical applications. 2. Methods: 1) We searched scientific name of aroma essential oils and scientific name of herbs, classify aroma essential oils according to Sasang Constitution. 2) If the method 1) is impossible, sort them by regard of aroma essential oils' flavors, specific characters and efficacies. 3. Results: Aroma essential oils suitable for Soeumin are 27 kinds, for Soyangin and Taeeumin are each 16 kinds, and for Taeyangin are 5 kinds.(Duplicates are allowed.) The cases which can not be classified clearly, are 10 kinds, so they are able to consider the Constitution of the more than two-phase. 4. Conclusions: Most of aromatic herbs are warm and spicy by pre-reports. So, aroma essential oils suitable for Soeumin are most often. After this study, studies about Sasang Constitutional herb recipes and more clinical studies are needed.
Attitude and awareness of Sasang Constitution Investigators on the Informed Consent
Yoo, Jong-Hyang ; Kim, Yun-Young ; Kwon, Ji-Hye ; Park, Ki-Hyun ; Lee, Si-Woo ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 318~329
1. Objectives: We surveyed the attitude and awareness of Sasang Constitution investigators on informed consent in clinical study. This study was performed in order to improve the quality of ethical aspects in clinical study by surveying the process of obtaining informed consent. 2. Methods: We sent the questionnaire by email to Sasang Constitution investigators who had the experience in clinical study. The question was about the necessity of informed consent and the process of obtaining it. 3. Results: Twenty-two out of 24 questionnaires were collected. All of investigators recognized that informed consent is needed for clinical study. Sixty-four percent of the respondents 'fully' or 'mostly' explained the informed consent but they added only 41% of participants 'fully' or 'mostly' understood. Fifty-four point five percent of respondents provided participants enough time and opportunity to inquire the study in details to decide whether or not to participate in the study, the rest of respondents obtained informed consent without providing enough time for decision. 4. Conclusions: Sasang Constitution investigators had high awareness of necessity for informed consent in clinical study. But participants' understanding was low despite of the degree of investigators' explanation. A various strategies should be designed for improving consent forms and process. Most of all, investigators should make sure that informed consent intends to protect participants and promote ethical research conduct.
The Association between Sasang Constitution and Quality of Life according to the Personality Pattern
Baek, Young-Hwa ; Kim, Ho-Seok ; Lee, Si-Woo ; Jang, Eun-Su ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 330~339
1. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to find the association between personality pattern and quality of life according to Sasang Constitution. 2. Methods: The 529 subjects whose constitutions had been confirmed by the experts on the base of drug response were recruited. Personality questionnaire was composed of 15 personal characteristics items measuring the influence of yin/yang and health estimating instrument was SF-12 evaluating the quality of life. Two-way ANOVA was conducted to analyze the Sasang Constitutional difference according to personality pattern. 3. Results: There were 5 different items in PCS(physical component summary), 7 different items in MCS(mental component summary). The individual scores of 3 items - give up easily/stand, decide easily/hard and be exited easily/rationalwere different according to the Sasang Constitution. 4. Conclusions: We suggest that psychological factors may affect the health state, especially might affect the health state of Sasang Constitution differently.
A Study on the Constitution Type-Specific Presentation of Physical Symptoms
Kim, Yun-Young ; Kim, Ho-Seok ; Baek, Young-Hwa ; Yoo, Jong-Hyang ; Kim, Sang-Hyuk ; Jang, Eun-Su ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 340~350
1. Objectives: This clinical study was conducted to understand the differences between Sasang constitutional types and to identify the physical symptoms presentation specific to each Sasang constitutional type. 2. Methods: In this descriptive study, 2,629 subjects (1,061 Taeeum-type, 683 Soeum-type, 885 Soyang-type) were surveyed between Nov 1, 2007 and Jul 31, 2010. The subjective symptoms experienced by the subjects were collected using a Physical Symptoms questionnaire, and the subjects were interviewed by Sasang specialists who determined the subjects' constitutional type. The data (in crude number and percentage) was analyzed on the general characteristics, Sasang constitutional type, and physical symptoms using the SPSS 17.0 software. The symptomatic presentation in men and women were analyzed on Sasang constitutional distribution using the chi-square test. 3. Results: 1) The physical symptoms specific to each Sasang constitutional type were as follows: 'frequent aphthous lesions in the oral cavity', 'lingering fatigue after sleep', 'headache', 'common cold symptoms presenting as loss of appetite or indigestion', and 'physical deterioration presenting as problems with digestion' in the Soeum type; 'physical deterioration presenting as problems in perspiration' and 'swelling and puffiness' in the Taeeum type; and 'excessive forgetfulness' in the Soyang type. 2) The physical symptoms specific to each Sasang constitutional type in men were as follows: 'Unilateral or bilateral headaches, 'frequent aphthous lesions in the oral cavity', 'common cold symptoms presenting as rhinorrhea or nasal congestion', 'common cold symptoms presenting as loss of appetite or indigestion', and 'physical deterioration presenting as problems with digestion' in the Soeum type; and 'swelling and puffiness' in the Taeeum type. 3) The physical symptoms specific to each Sasang constitutional type in women were as follows: 'common cold symptoms presenting as headaches', 'common cold symptoms presenting as loss of appetite or indigestion', 'physical deterioration presenting as problems with digestion' in the Soeum type; and 'pain in knees', 'redness of eyes', 'dryness of mouth', 'common cold symptoms presenting as coughing', 'physical deterioration presenting as problems in perspiration', 'swelling and puffiness' in the Taeeum type. 4. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that physical symptoms present in constitutional type-specific patterns. Understanding of the personal Sasang constitutional type and systematic, personalized healthcare based on constitutional typology is anticipated to contribute to improved health management strategy.
Characteristics of each Sasang Constitutional Type as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)
Choi, Dai-Sung ; Kim, Lak-Hyung ; Sung, Won-Young ; Han, Su-Jin ; Shin, Dong-Yoon ; Song, Jeong-Mo ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 351~360
1. Objective: This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of each Sasang constitutional type using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). 2. Methods: A total of 135 healthy subjects (age 19-30) participated in this study, consisting of 35 Soyang-type, 66 Taeeum-type, 30 Soeum-type, and 4 Taeyang-type subjects. A Sasang Constitutional Medicine specialist determined each subject's Sasang constitutional type based on the Two Step Questionnaire for Sasang Constitution Diagnosis (TS-QSCD) and comprehensive constitutional assessment. The subjects were also asked to complete the TCI. 3. Results: Among the four temperament dimensions, the Soyang- and Taeeum-type subjects showed significantly higher scores than the Soeum-type subjects in Novelty Seeking (NS). The Soeum-type subjects showed significantly higher scores than the Taeum- and Soyang-type subjects in Harm Avoidance (HA) (Soeum type > Taeeum type > Soyang type). The Soyang-type subjects showed significantly higher scores than the Soeum-type subjects in Reward Dependence (RD). The Soyang- and Taeeum-type subjects showed significantly higher scores than the Soeum-type subjects in Persistence (P). Among the three character dimensions, the Soyang-type subjects showed significantly higher score than the Taeeumand Soeum-type subjects in Self-Directedness (SD) (Soyang type > Taeeum type > Soeum type). The Soyang-type showed significantly higher scores than the Taeeum-type in Cooperativeness (C). 4. Conclusions: Differences in temperament and character were discovered across the Sasang constitutional types. The Sasang constitutional characteristics should be investigated in larger studies in the future. Similar studies could add to the growing knowledge of Sasang constitutional typology and contribute to a more accurate Sasang constitutional diagnosis.
A Study on the Sasang Constitutional Distribution and the Type of Diseases and Symptoms in Japan
Ryu, Dong-Hoon ; Lee, Hyun-Mi ; Kim, Kyu-Kon ; Jeon, Soo-Hyung ; Kim, Jong-Won ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 361~373
1. Objectives: The purpose of this study was done to learn the Sasang constitutional distribution and to find out if there are differences in the type of diseases and symptoms according to the Sasang constitution in Japan. 2. Methods: We collected data from 366 patients who visited the Department of Oriental Medicine, Keio University and recruited 132 healthy persons in Tokyo, Japan. For sasang constitution diagnosis, they all have done SSCQ-P(Sasang Constitution Questionaire for Patients) questionnaire. and a sasang constitution specialist diagnosed the sasang constitution of them. And We classify the diseases and symptoms of 313 patients according to KCD(Korean Standard Classification of Diseases) and learn the prevalences of diseases and symptoms according to Sasang Constitution. 3. Results: 1) Among the total 498 subjects, distributional rate of Taeyangin, Soyangin, Taeeumin, and Soeumin were 2.0%, 26.3%, 29.9%, and 41.8%. Among the 366 patients, distributional rate of Taeyangin, Soyangin, Taeumin, and Soeumin were 0.8%, 27.3%, 28.7%, and 43.2%. Among the 132 healthy group, distributional rate of Taeyangin, Soyangin, Taeeumin, and Soeumin were 5.3%, 23.5%, 33.3%, and 37.9%. 2) The prevalences of 'V.Mental and behavioural disorders', 'XI.Diseases of the digestive system', 'XV.Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium' and 'feeling of coldness(X VIII.Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, NEC)' of Soeumin were significantly higher than those of the other constitutions.(p-value<0.05) 4. Conclusions: The distributional rate of Sasangin of Japanese was different from that of Korean and especially the distributional rate of Soeumin of Japanese was significantly higher than that of Korean. There were significant differences on the prevalences of some diseases and symtoms according to KCD in Soeumin.
The Effect of Suhwagije-tang Distillate on the Immune Activity of Spleen Cells of Aged Rats
Choi, Jae-Song ; Bae, Na-Young ; Ahn, Teak-Won ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 374~390
1. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Suhwagije-tang(SGT) distillate on the immune activity of spleen cells of aged SD rats. 2. Methods: We used 10, 50, 72 weeks old SD rats in this study. Spleen cells from SD rats were stimulated with ConA and treated with 1% Vitamin C(Vit.C) or Suhwagijetang distillate(SGT). After 24 hours, the concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-
in the cell culture supernatant were measured by ELISA. 3. Results and Conclusions 1) At all concentration of SGT distillate, survival rates of liver cells were higher than the control group. In addition, 50% SGT distillate group's cell survival rates were significantly higher than other groups. 2) In 10 weeks SD rats(SGT group), the concentration of IL-2 significantly decreased in comparison with ConA group, Vit.C group. In 52 weeks SD rats(SGT group), the concentration of IL-2 significantly decreased in comparison with ConA group. 3) In 10, 52 weeks SD rats(SGT group), the concentration of IL-4 significantly decreased in comparison with ConA group. 4) In 10 weeks SD rats(SGT group), the concentration of IL-10 significantly decreased in comparison with ConA group. And in 72 weeks SD rats(SGT group), the concentration of IL-10 significantly increased in comparison with Vit.C group. 5) In 52, 72 weeks SD rats(SGT group), the concentration of IFN-
significantly decreased in comparison with 10 weeks SD rats(SGT group). These results suggest that Suhwagije-tang(SGT) distillate has the effect of increasing the immune activity of spleen cells of aged SD rats.
Effect of Taeeumjoweetang on the Body Composition, Serum Lipid Level and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Obese Female College Students
Kim, Hye-Ju ; Ahn, Hong-Seok ; Oh, Eun-Ha ; Kim, Young-Locke ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 391~401
1. Objectives: Though the eating habits have improved and the living method has become convenient according to the economic growth thanks to the modern industrialization, because of the lack of exercise, obesity, wrong eating habits and stress etc, various symptoms of disease of adults are on the rise. This is the phenomenon that happens as the eating life has become life in the West along with the inundation of the western culture in our society. In this perspective, there has been many various clinical research that's been proceeded so far about the physical constitution and obesity, but there has been little research on the objective analysis of the clinical research about the alimentotherapy using taeeumjoweetang. 2. Methods: In this research we have checked the weights, fat rates, fat weight, abdominal fat rate, blood pressure, and BMI over the objects of the women that were diagnosed as lunisolar system as their physical constitution, and assessed the paramecium lipid, in-blood antioxidation enzyme and the damage of oxidization in the urine by physical constitution-specific of the body shapes that were determined by BMI. The statistical analysis of the current research was processed by using of SPSS 17.0 program. We have figure out statistical amounts such as the arithmetic average, average deviation rate and percentage number. Fro the verification of he significancy of each elements, we have used the paired t-test, ANOVA, Chi-square test at the level of p<0.05. 3. Results and Conclusions: Their characteristics are age
, fat rates are
, fat amount
, abdominal fat rate
, and systolic blood pressure
and diastolic blood pressure
and we have let them take the medicine twice a day for 8 weeks. The clinical result for the Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT, of the object people was that for the function of the liver, the result of the SGOT and SGPT test was
, which was a decrease, and had statistical meaning, but for the SGOT, though the figure reduced to
, it had no statistical meaning. For the whole cholesterol level, the figure reduced to
mg/dL and had statistical significance(p<0.05). Neuter fat number, Triglyceride has slightly increased to
mg/dL but did not have any statistical meaning. The antioxdant enzyme marker standard marker, SOD has increased to
, and had statistical significance(p<0.01). Catalase also increased by
and had statistical meaning(p<0.01). GPx also increased to
nmol/ml and had statistical meaning(p<0.01). But, for the Total antioxidant, though it has raised to
, it did not have any statistical meaning. MDA of oxidative stress marker has decreased to
and had statistical significance(p<0.01). 8-OHdG also decreased
and had statistical meaning(p<0.01). In this research, we have analyzed the various markers relating to BFM and changes in oxidative enzyme in blood by takingtaeeumjoweetang. Taeeumjoweetang has the positive effect on inbody antioxidant system and reducing the content of cholesterol, which is proven to help losing weight and improving hyperlipidemia statistically. With this research, we hope to improve the lifestyle of those who are either obese or need to manage their dietary habits, and also to become the touchstone of integrating Oriental Medicine with the science of food & nutrition.
Three cases of Vascular Dementia Patients
Jang, Moon-Hee ; Choi, Jae-Song ; Bae, Na-Young ; Ahn, Teak-Won ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 402~411
1. Objectives: This study is about three vascular dementia patients with disorientation, memory impairment and cognitive disorder. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Sasang constitutional treatment and suggested using the Mini Mental Status Examination - Korea (MMSE-K), Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). 2. Methods: These three patients were treated by Sasang constitutional herbal medications based on "Donguisusebowon". Acupuncture and west medications were limited as much as possible. We evaluated the symptoms through the Mini Mental Status Examination - Korea (MMSE-K), GDS (Global Deterioration Scale). 3. Results and Conclusions: Disorientation, memory impairment and cognitive disorder that were these three patients chief complaints were improved. This case study shows that Sasang constitutional herbal medications are an effective treatment for vascular dementia patients.
A clinical Study do the patient hot flush on the palms and soles of the feet Improved with Hyangbujapalmul-tang
Han, Su-Jin ; Jung, Sung-Kook ; Choi, Dai-Sung ; Song, Jeong-Mo ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 412~418
1. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Hyangbujapalmul-tang(香附子八物湯) for hot flush on the palms and soles of the feet. 2. Methods: The patient was hospitalized from June 4. 2011 to June 18. 2011. The Patient Was treated with herbal medicine. The changes in symptoms can be diagnosed by the help of DITI(Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging) and VAS(Visual analogue Score). 3. Results By the use of Hyangbujapalmul-tang(香附子八物湯), this patient showed a positive response. We compared the temperature of palm with that of sole the feet on DITI. After the treatment, the symptoms and DITI, VAS results improved. The temperature of palms and soles of the feet after treatment were statistically lower than those before treatment. 4. Conclusions: We suggest that Hyangbujapalmul-tang(香附子八物湯) significantly has a curative effect on hot flush on the palms and soles of the feet patient with Soeumin.
A Case Study of a Taeeumin Patient with Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss that accompanied with Tinnitus who was treated with Cheongsimyeonja-tang
Lee, Mi-Suk ; Hwang, Mim-Woo ; Kim, Yun-Hee ;
Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, volume 23, issue 3, 2011, Pages 419~428
1. Objective: The aim of this study was to report significant improvement of tinnitus and insomnia after treatment with Cheongsimyeonja-tang in a Taeeumin patient with Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss(SSHL) that accompanied with Tinnitus. 2. Method: We measured the hearing recovery. For diagnosis on this case, pure tone audiometry was used. The degree of improvement was evaluated by Siegel's Criteria. Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory(THI) were also used to assess tinnitus objectively. 3. Result: There was no improvement in pure tone audiometry by Siegel's Criteria. However, VAS score was decreased from 10 to 1 and THI score was also decreased from 74 to 48. 4. Conclusion: A patient with SSHL, who has little possibility of recovery of hearing loss, was treated with Cheongsimyeonja-tang in a short period and significant improvement in tinnitus and insomnia was observed. We consider that consistent treatment of Cheongsimyeonja-tang can contribute to improve the hearing loss.