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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Dec 1981
Selecting the target year
Present Status and Prospect of Weed Control in Korea
Ahn, Soo-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 5~14
Weed is one of the problems in the crop land as well as in uncultivated land, raising the farm management costs. Therefore, the weed control is essential for effective agricultural management. The cost for weed control in Korea occupies on the average 27.6% of the total labor cost required. Agricultural policies since 1960 were transferring from yield increase due to land productivities to increase of income due to labor productivities. Therefore, the weed control by hand is also changed to weed control by chemicals. The weed control by chemicals has also brought about some side-effects and needs better, improved weed control methods. The present weed control situation and related problems were studied to present new approaches for agricultural development in the future. There were 458 species of weeds in 82 families which were growing in the crop land. The weeds to control, however, are 12 in paddy field and 9 in upland. So far weeds in paddy field are well under control, while weeds in upland are poorly controlled due to change in chemical efficiency and chemical damage in the upland. The administration, research and extension work for the efficient use of agricultural chemicals have been done by various institutions, such as Office of Rural Development, Office of Forestry, and chemical companies. The courses for agricultural chemicals were offered in the agricultural colleges. However, the efficiency of chemicals could not be maximized due to the poor relationships among related institutes. The newly established Agricultural Chemical Research Center at the Office of Rural Development and the Korean Weed Science Association are expected to contribute toward improving weed control in Korea. The Korean agriculture in the future will eventually be mechanized and the varieties resistant to high nitrogen application and to high plant density will be required for high yields. The rice will be transplanted earlier and the whole growing period will be extended. The application of organic matter will be increased for increasing soil fertility, and the use of agricultural chemicals will be continued. Under such a condition, the studies on the weed occurrence and its integrated control measures will be needed. Also weed controls in the newly exclaimed land, crop varieties, horticultural varieties, forage crops, and forests are also needed to study. Basic and practical researches for the weed control to improve the labor productivity will be also needed. In order to meet the all requirements for efficient weed control, weed control systems including all the academics, research and extension workers, administratives, farmers and companies should be established. Also securing researchers and education of personnels are pre-required and research funds for the chemical studies should be provided efficiently and timely.
Agricultural Chemical Development: An Industry View
Kern, Albert D. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 15~20
Distribution of Weed Population in the Paddy Field in Korea, 1981
Oh, Y.J. ; Ku, Y.C. ; Lee, J.H. ; Ham, Y.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 21~29
Nationwide survey of weed population in paddy rice field was conducted from 1760 fields all around Republic of Korea in 1981. The weed species observed include 2 species of grasses, 7 species of sedges, and 18 species of broadleaf weeds, and the dominant weed species were Monochoria vaginalis, Sagitraria trifolia, Potamogeton distinstus, Sagittaria pygmea and Cyperus serotinus. More and many weeds were growing in single cropped field than double cropped field. In single cropped fields, weed population was reduced when autumn plowing was conducted. In double cropped fields, more weeds were growing in barley or wheat grown fields than vegetable gown fields. Among the five paddy soil types, more weeds were growing in saline soils and poorly drained soils than others. The proportion of annual and perennial weeds in national average was 44% and 56%, and perennials became more dominant in central part of the peninsula. Autumn plowing and double cropping appeared to reduce the perennial weed population, however, the increased perennial weed population, presumably due to continuous use of herbicides which controls mostly annuals, seemed to an urgent problem to be solved.
Emergence and Growth of Weeds in Paddy Fields as Affected by Cropping Pattern
Guh, J.O. ; Kwon, S.L. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 30~43
On unwedded paddy fields, six cropping patterns of rice cultivation, namely direct broadcast seeding, direct row seeding, machine transplanting, early season hand transplanting, standard season hand transplanting, and late season hand transplanting, were detected with two representative rice cultivars (Milyang 23 and Sadominori) to estimate the comparative fluctuation patterns of weed flora. As a result, number of emerged weed species, most crowding stages, differences of weed growth among cropping patterns, possible tendencies of competition in plant heights among plant groups, variations in Importance Values, and Simpson's Index analysis were discussed, respectively.
Competition between Transplanted Lowland Rice and Weeds as Affected by Plant Spacing and Rice Cultivar Having Different Culm Length
Kim, S.C. ; Lee, S.K. ; Park, R.K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 44~51
An experiment was conducted to obtain the basic information about competitive ability of rice against weeds as affected by culm length at the Yeongnam Crop Experiment Station, Office of Rural Development in 1980. More weeds were harvested from the plot of short statured cultivar, Manseogbyeo compared to the plot of Cheongcheongbyeo that was approximately 10cm taller than Manseogbyeo regardless of planting density variables. Weeds also decreased as rice population increased from
, in order. The degree of weed suppression and floristic composition was varied depending upon plant spacing and weeding regime subjected at the previous year. The degree of weed suppression became increased with increasing rice population. The degree of weed suppression at the
plant spacing showed as high as hand weeding subjected in the previous year. However, in terms of floristic composition, Scirpus hotarui Roxb. became dominant when rice had cultivated at
plant spacing in the previous year while S. hotarui and Sagittaria pygmaea Miq. were both important in the hand weeding plot. The highest grain yield of rice showed at the
plant spacing while no significant difference was observed between
plant spacings for both weeding regimes and both cultivars. However, response of grain yield to weeding regime was differed in two cultivars. For Manseobgyeo, significant grain yield decreased in no weeding plot regardless of plant spacing variables. But in case of Cheongcheongbyeo, grain yield reduction was only recognized at the
plant spacing. Based on these result it could be concluded that Cheongcheongbyeo (10cm taller in height) seemed to be more competitive against weeds than Manseogbyeo.
Effect of Soybean Seeding Time on Competitive Relationship between Soybeans and Annual Weeds
Pyon, J.Y. ; Kim, C.H. ; Kim, S.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 52~56
A 2-year field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of early and late soybean (Clycine max Merr) seeding times on competitive relationships between soybeans and annual weeds. Soybeans were planted on May 20 and June 20. Durations of weed competition and weed control were 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after planting sad for full growing season. Dominant weeds were Portulaca oleracia, Centipeda minima, Rorippa cantonienais, Chenopodium album, Acalypha australis, Echinochloa crusgalli, and Digitaria sanguinalis. The dry weight of weeds increased with extended competition, especially at early seeding time of soybeans. Soybean yields were decreased as duration of weed competition was extended. More severe yield reduction occurred at late-planted soybeans with early stage weed competition but at early-planted soybeans when weeds competed with soybeans for a 2 weeds and full growing season. The dry weight of weeds emerged after weeding was decreased at early and late seeding times of soybeans as duration of weed control was prolonged. Soybean yields decreased with shortening duration of weed control end this trend of yield reduction was slightly more remarkable at late-planted soybeans than at early-planted soybeans. Late-planted soybeans were required longer than 6 weeks of weed control period to achieve maximum yield as compared to early-planted soybeans.
Uptake of Butachlor by Rice Seedlings and Its Phytotoxic Action to the Physiological Activities
Chung, Bong-Jin ; Kwon, Yong-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 57~68
To clarify the mode of uptake of butachlor (2-chloro-2', 6'-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide) by rice seedlings, its phytotoxic action to growth and physiological activities, studies were conducted with rice seedlings, at the 6th or 7th leaf-stage, which were treated with nutrient solution containing butachlor 0, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, 10.8 or 14.4 ppm for 1, 2 or 4 days, in other case, the solutions were thereafter renewed with the untreated nutrient solution for further growth. Uptake of butachlor by rice seedlings increased linearly with increase of its concentration and duration of uptake. Butachlor inhibited root growth more than shoot growth, furthermore, the inhibitory effect on the shoot growth was greater in height than in weight or leafing rate. After 4 day-treatment, the rates of shoot growth in weight were delayed for 4 days. Butachlor inhibited water uptake rapidly and linearly with increase of its external concentration. The reduced uptake of water was followed by slow increase in the stomatal resistance of leaves. Upon completion of butachlor treatment, rate of water uptake was recovered rapidly, but the stomatal resistance with lag in time. Butachlor did not affect the uptake of cation such as ammonium, potassium and calcium, but inhibited substantially uptake of nitrate in proportion to its concentration. Especially, butachlor did not affect synthesis and degradation of nitrate reductase. In addition, butachlor has shown much greater binding to the lipidic substances from rice roots than the proteinous material. The primary mechanism of phytotoxic action of butachlor does not seem to be its effect on the protein synthesis, but great affinity to membranes. The inhibition of water uptake, and its subsequent closure of stomates is thought very important for reduced growth under mild phytotoxicity.
Weeding Effect and Phytotoxicity Variable in Herbicide Treatment in Mechanically Transplanted Paddy Field - 1. Effect of Application Time on Weeding Effect and Phytotoxicity
Ryang, Hwan-Seung ; Han, Seong-Soo ; Kim, J.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 69~77
Six herbicides were evaluated to investigate the phytotoxicity of rice plant and the weeding efficacy influenced by the time of application in mechically transplanted paddy field. The amount of each chemical applied was 3 kg, a. i, /ha. Chlormethoxynil : Rotala indica KOEHNE and Lindernia pyxuiaria PHILCOX were effectively controlled when applied on the 12th day after transplanting (12 DAT) and this herbicide was excellent for the control of Echinochloa crusgalli P. BEAUV, Monochoria vaginalis PRESL and Sagittaria pygmaea MIQ, when applied early (7 days after puddling) but its weeding effect for these weeds decreased greatly as the application time became later. It had a controlling effect for Potamogeton distinctus A. BENN, Cyperus serotinus ROTTB and Scirpus hotarui ROXB at the initial period at the earlier application time. Butachlor was effective in controlling E. crusgalli, R. indica and L. pyxidaria at 12 days after transplanting (DAT) but was not effective in controlling P. distinctus and S. pygmaea even at the early application time. M. vaginalis, C. serotinus and S. hotarui were effectively controlled by the butachlor treatment at 7 days after final puddling (2 DBT-SDAT) but this weeding effect decreased at the late application time. A combination of butachlor and naproanilide excellently controlled E. crusgalli, R. indica, L. pyxidaria and S. pygmaea regardless of the application time. For the control of M. vaginalis, C. serotinus and P. distinctus, the weeding effect of this mixtures was much greater than that of the single treatment of butachlor. Perfluidone was excellent for the control of E. crusgalli, R. indica, L. pyxidaria, M. vaginalis and S. pygmaea at either application time tested. P. distinctus, C. serorinus and S. hotarui could be controlled by this chemicals until the time of first observation (23 DAT) but the effect for these weeds somewhat decreased as time passed. The effect of pyrazolate on E. crusgalli, M. vaginalis, S. hotarui and P. distinctus was very excellent regardless of the application time but R. indica and L. pyxidaria could not be completely eliminated by this chemical. This chemical was effective in controlling C. serotinus when applied at 7-9 days after final puddling and showed a controlling effect for S. hotaruionly at the initial period. Piperophos + dimethametryn was very excellent for the control of all the annual weeds and P. distinctus. It showed a controlling effect on S. pygmaea, C. serotinus and S. hotarui only at the initial period. There was no difference in the effects on phytotoxicity and yield between chlormethoxynil and pyrazolate at either times of application tested. The later the application time was, the less the phytotoxicity of butachlor and piperophos+dimethametryne was. The phytotoxicity of butachlor + naproanilide and perfluidone decrease in the plots treated at the later application time. When the last two chemicals were treated at 2 days before transplanting (DBT) the yield decreased as compared with the hand weeded plot.
Establishment of Management Practices in Korean Turfgrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) - 1. Survey of Major Weed Species Occurring in Korean Turfgrass and Their Control Methods
Kim, Kil-Ung ; Kim, Dal-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 1, issue 1, 1981, Pages 78~83
This study was attempted to determine the major weed species occurring in Korean turfgrass, Zoysia japonica Steud. and to evaluate the most effective means for controlling them. More or less 40 weed species were determined to occur in Korean turfgrass. In terms of quantity and frequency of occurrence, Trifolium repens L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Draba nemorosa var. hebecarpa Lindbl, Erigeron canadensis L., and Cyperus amuricus Max were observed to be the major weeds. Simpson's index, 0.306 was obtained to be the major weeds. Simpson's index, 0.306 was obtained in the golf course, Jinryang, Gyungsan-gun, meaning that no specific weed species were dominant, but in Kyungpook National University campus, Trifolium repense L. was a single dominant species, indicating Simpson's index, 0.776. The most effective herbicides to control Trifolium repense L. and other broad leaf weeds were MCPP [2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid), followed by 2,4-D (2,4-dichlolophenoxy acetic acid). Increased rates of both herbicides increased markedly their effectivity against weeds, with very slight injury against turfgrass. MCPP at 2.8 kg(a.i.)/ha gave excellent control without any injury and 2,4-D at 1.0 kg(a.i.)/ha.