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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Dec 1990
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Sep 1990
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 1990
Selecting the target year
Weed and Herbicide Use in Taiwan
Wu, L.Q. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 243~247
Effect of Transplanted - Seedling Age on the Herbicidal Phytotoxicity and Yield in Machine-Transplanted Rice
Ryang, H.S. ; Choi, Y.C. ; Lee, J.H. ; Choi, E.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 248~254
Initial crop injury, plant growth and yield of machine-transplanted rice of seedlings different in plant age (8-, 20-, and 35-day-old seedlings) after application of herbicides were investigated in field. The herbicides employed were butachlor, dithiopyr, pyrazolate(applied only for 8-day-old seedling), dithiopyr+pyrazolate, dithiopyr+ bensulfuron methyl), and butachlor+bensulfuron methyl(applied only for 20-and 35-day-old seedlings). There was no significant difference in plant growth, yield components and yield between the different-aged seedlings of the untreated check, except for the heading date, The heading date of 8-day-old seedling was delayed for 2 and 6 days as compared with those of 20-and 35-day-old seedlings, respectively. A very slight initial crop injury was found with the tested herbicides for all the different-aged seedlings. No significant differences in plant height and tiller number occurred between different-aged seedlings and the respective untreated check. All the herbicides used gave a good weeding effect. Yield components and yields were not affected by different-aged seedlings after application of the herbicides.
Herbicidal Phytotoxicity of Early Rice Seedlings as Affected by Cultural Practices - I. Screening of Promising Herbicides
Han, S.U. ; Guh, J.O. ; Chon, S.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 255~260
Seventeen different herbicides were screened to select promising ones for the control of weeds, which may be used in paddy fields transplanted with 8 days old young rice seedlings. Four classes of herbicides were chosen and tested with seedlings grown under different cultivating conditions. Contact herbicides such as diphenyl-ether and oxadiazol showed severe growth retardation of rice seedlings. Carbamate class(dimepiperate), quinoline class (quinclorac), pyrazol class(pyrazolate), acid amide class(mefenacet and pretilachlor), addition of safener (pretilachlor+fenclorim and mefenacet+bensulfuron+dymuron) and unknown class (KC-7079) exhibited normal growth of seedlings. Sulfonyl urea herbicide class(cimosulfuron, bensulfuron, pyrazosulfuron), and oxarane class(tridiphane) showed the slight growth inhibition but recovered shortly.
Herbicidal Phytotoxicity of Early Rice Seedlings as Affected by Cultural Practices - II. Effect of Endosperm, Transplanting Depth, and Time Chemical Application
Han, S.U. ; Guh, J.O. ; Chon, S.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 261~268
Various herbicides were applied to the young rice seedling from which endosperm were removed and their effects were determined at 40 days after transplanting. Generally, growth was retarded, but the number of tillers was not effected. Application of bensulfuron and pretilachlor showed slight growth inhibition compared to dimepiperate and pyrazolate. Injury due to herbicide application was dependent on the transplanting depth. Injury was severe when pretilachlor and pyrazolate were applied to rice transplanted 0 and 4cm deep, respectively. However, bensulfuron showed much injury regardless of transplanting depths with the tendency of general growth retardation. Dimepiperate was fairly safe at all transplanting depths. The application of herbicides at 3 and 6 DAT showed higher injury than that at g and 12 DAT. The degree of injury was severe when pretilachlor and bensulfuron were applied.
Effects of Weeds Emerged at Different Developmental Stages of Rice on Its Yield in Gangweon Province
Kim, K.S. ; An, M.H. ; Chang, J.S. ; Hah, B.L. ; Kim, D.R. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 269~276
Weed species belonging to the broadleaf family prevailed in the experimental sites followed by Cyperucea and grass family. In terms of life cycle, the dominant weed species were the perennial weeds rather than annual weeds. Most of weeds were emerged between 30-60days after transplanting in Chuncheon and between 40-60 days after transplanting in Hongcheon and Hoengseong areas. Among agronomic characteristics of rice affected by weed emergence were decrease of plant height by 2-4㎝, panicle number by 1.3-2.9, spkelet by 3. 7-7.5, ripening rates by 3.3-6.5%, and milled yield by 12-17%.
Effect of Mixing 2, 4-D with Other Herbicides on Growth of Different Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars
Shin, D.H. ; Moody, K. ; Zapata, F.J. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 277~284
The response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to mixtures of 2, 4-D(2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and other herbicides was investigated to determine if there was an interaction between them. When 2, 4-D was applied, shoot growth of Taipei 309 was more affected than that of IR28 at all concentrations used. In contrast, when thiobencarb (S-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]diethylcarbamothioate), butachlor [N-(buthoxymethyl) -2-chloro-N-(2, 6-diethylphenyl) acetamide], and glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] were applied, the shoot growth of Taipei 309 was less affected than that of IR28 at all herbicide concentrations. Combination of 2, 4-D and the lowest thiobencarb concentration was antagonistic for shoot length for both cultivars, but at higher concentrations, it was synergistic. Synergism for shoot fresh weight between 2, 4-D and thiobencarb was observed with IR28 at all concentrations but, for Taipei 309, synergism was observed only at lower 2, 4-D concentrations. Mixing 2. 4-D with butachlor resulted in greater inhibition in shoot length and fresh weight of IR28 than Taipei 309 at all concentrations indicating a synergistic interaction. With combinations of 2, 4-D and glyphosate, an antagonistic interaction for shoot length was observed for both cultivars. A synergistic interaction for shoot fresh weight was observed with IR28 when combinations of the highest concentration of glyphosate and 2, 4-D were applied but there was an antagonistic interaction with Taipei 309.
Selection of Herbicide - Tolerant Rice(Oryza sativa L.) Callus by Tissue Culture
Shin, D.H. ; Moody, K. ; Zapata, F.J. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 285~293
The response of callus growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars which showed different responses to herbicides as seedlings was investigated to select resistant or tolerant calli. Callus growth of IR28 which was susceptible to thiobencarb (S-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]diethylcarbamothioate) during callus induction was not inhibited by
M thiobencarb, indicating that there was a difference in tolerance among callus induction and growth, and the intact plant level. A similar result was obtained with IR31917-45-3-2-2 to butachlor [N - (buthoxymethyl) -2-chloro-N- (2, 6-diethylphenyl) acetamide]. The fresh weight of IR28 callus transferred into
M thiobencarb after treatment at
M for 30 days was not affected by the herbicide, indicating that transferring callus into gradually higher herbicide concentrations can be a useful method for selection of herbicide-tolerant cell lines.
Weed Occurrence in Upland Crop Fields of Korea
Chang, Y.H. ; Kim, C.S. ; Youn, K.B. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 294~304
For the survey of weed distribution in the cultivated upland of Korea, weed species were investigated at 2 field by crop of 2 myon per kun in 81 kun selected among the 139 kun of the whole country. 232 species in 46 families were observed, totally. From among the result, 165 species in 39 families the in winter crop field, 189 species in 41 families in the summer crop field were classified. 122 species in 34 families were emerged the from the upland crop field of the whole season. Further more, in the 10 dominant weed species which emerged from upland crop field, Alopecurus aequalis, Chenopodium album, slellaria media, Galium spurieum, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Rorippa islandica were dominated in the winter upland and paddy field, and that Erigeron canadensis, Cyperus amuricus, Equisetum arvense and Arenaria serpyllifolia were dominated in the winter upland field, additionally. Stellaria alsine, Bothriospermum tenellum, Trigonotis peduncularis and Polygonum arviculare were dominated in the winter cropping on drained paddy field, additionally. In the summer crop field, Digitaria sanguinalis, Portulaca oleracea, Acalypha australis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria viridis, Persicaria hydropiper, Amaranthus lividus, commelina communis, Chenopodium album and Cyperecs amuricus were dominated.
The Effect of Light on Germination of the Major Weed Seeds in Upland Fields
Woo, I.S. ; Choi, K.S. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 305~311
Effects of light on germination of major weeds in upland fields were examined. Most weeds showed light positive response to germination at above 25
, but germination percentage was very low at lower temperatures. Red light promoted germination of Amaranthus lividus, Portulaca oleracea, and A. retroflexus, but far-red light inhibited germination. Germination resposnse of A. retroflexus, A. lividus, and P. oleracea showed reversible reaction to red/far-red light, and thus it seemed that phytochrome was involoved in seed germination, Echinochloa crusgali and Eleusine indica showed higher germination percentage under the conditions of continuous illumination of red, white, and bule lights, and thus it was estimated that blue light pigment (HIR, high irradiation reaction) related to long time illumination was involved in germination in addition to phytochrome.
Weed Community Analysis on the Roadways of Kyungnam and Kyungpook Provinces
Kim, K.U. ; Chung, J.S. ; Back, K.W. ; Kwon, S.T. ; Kim, H.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 312~327
Weed species investigated on the roadways of Kyungnam and Kyungpook provinces in September, 1989 were 75 species in 31 families and 89 species in 31 families, respectively. Five weed community types were observed on the roadway of Kyungnam province, namely, Kummerowis striata, Humulus japonicum-Artermisia princeps, Digitaria sanguiralis-Eleusine indica, Artermisia princeps-Degitarin sanguinalis and Digilaria sanguinalis-Setaria viridis. In contrast, Kyungpook province had six community types which were Eleusine indica, Humulus japonicum-Commelina communis, Ihgitaria sanguinalis-Eeusine indica, Digitaria sanguinalis-Artermisia princeps, Dzgitaria sanguinalis-Setaria viridis and Setaria viridis community types. Ten major weed species on the roadway of Kyungnam province were Dtgitaria sanguinalis(23.3%). Setaria viradis(8.3%). Edeusine indica(7.3%). Kummerowis striata(6.0%). Humulus japonicum(5.2%), Phaseolus nipponensis(3.5%), Echinochloa crusgalli (2.9%) and Imperata cyliudrica(2.0%). On the roadway of Kyungpook province, ten major weeds were Digitaria sanguinalis (25.4%). Setaria viridis (10.5%). Eleusine indica(9.0%). Humulus japonicum(8.6%). Eragrostis fernsginea(6.5%), Artermisia princeps(3.8%), commelia communis(2.2%), Irexis dentata(1.8%), Equisetum arvense(1.8%) and Kummerowis striata (1.7%).
Physiological Interactions Between the Herbicide Pretilachlor and the Safener Fenclorim on Rice
Han, S.S. ; Hatzios, K.K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 328~337
The incividual and combined effects of the chloroacetanilide herbicide pretilachlor and of the safener fenclorim on the growth and selected physiological processes of rice (Oryza sativa L., var 'Lemont')were evaluated under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. Fenclorim applied at rates ranging from 50 to 300 g a.i./ha antagonized the injurious effects caused by 150 to 900 g a.i./ha of pretilachlor on 15-day old wet-sown rice grown under greenhouse conditions. When used rates of 150 g/ha or higher, fenclorim reversed completely the effects of all doses of pretilachlor on rice. When the two compounds were given simultaneously, fenclorim enhanced the uptake of
pretilachlor into rice leaf mesophyll protoplasts measured for 1 hr, indicating that competition for uptake at the protoplast level is not involved in the protective action of this safener. The safener-induced stimulation of pretilachlor uptake was particularly evident when fenclorim was used at concentrations of 10, 20 and
. Following 4 hr of incubation, individual treatments with pretilachlor inhibited the in vitro incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into proteins, DNA, and lipids of rice leaf protoplasts only when used at the high concentration of
M. Individual treatments with high concentrations (10 or
) of the safener fenclorim inhibited the incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into proteins and lipids of rice protoplasts, but had no DNA synthesis. The combined effects of pretilachlor and fenclorim on the incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into these macromolecules of isolated rice mesophyll protoplasts appeared to be additive or slightly synergistic rather than antagonistic. Fenclorim at
antagonized the effects of pretilachlor on total lipids of rice leaf protoplasts. In addition, individual and combined treat-menu with pretilachlor and fenclorim influenced the incoroporation of
acetate into polar lipids, triglycerides and steryl esters of rice leaf protoplas causing a redistribution of carbon in these lipid fractions. However, these effects were not large enough to explain the herbicidal activity of pretilachlor or to account for the protective action of the safener fenclorim. Overall, the uesults of the present study idnicate that the safener fenclorim does not seem to protect rice against pretilachlor injury by antagonizing its effects on protein, DNA, or lipid syntheses.
Ecotypic Variation in Echinochloa colona - II. Intraspecific Variations in Sensitivity to Herbicides
Chun, J.C. ; Moody, K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 10, issue 4, 1990, Pages 338~343
The intraspecific susceptibility of twelve Echinochloa colona(L.) Link ecotypes to herbicides was studied at three different stages of growth. At germination and post-germination stage, the Batangas ecotype was most susceptible to both butachlor (N-butoxymethyl-2-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide) and thiobencarb (S-4-dichlorobenzyldiethylthiocarbamate), whereas the Bukidnon ecotype was the most tolerant. The susceptibility of the ecotypes used was not associated with the seed weight and maturity. When the preemergence herbicides were applied at the 2-leaf stage of the ecotypes, the Nueva Ecija ecotype was least susceptible to butachlor at 1 ppm, but it was most susceptible to thiobencarb. The reverse was exhibited by the Cagayan ecotype. Differential susceptibility of the ecotypes to propanil (3', 4'-dichloropropionanilide) as determined by the necrotic length of the third leaf of 20-day-old seedlings was pronounced in the Camarines Sur, Iloilo, and IRRI (red) ecotypes. However, no necrotic tip appeared in the Cagayan and Batangas ecotypes. The differential responses varied with the type and the concentration of the herbicide studied and the growth stage of the ecotypes.