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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Dec 1992
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Sep 1992
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Jun 1992
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Mar 1992
Selecting the target year
Selectivity of Bleaching Herbicides Caused by Physiological Differences between Rice and Barnyardgrass
Na, J.Y. ; Kim, J.S. ; Kim, T.J. ; Cho, K.Y. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 89~101
In this study, various physiological and biochemical experiments were conducted to know whether the selectivity between rice and barnyardgrass treated with bleaching herbicides containing diphenyl ether compounds was also partly based on their basic physiological proterties such as peroxidation ability, membrane stability or antioxidant system. It seemed to be partly based on the differences of their physiological characteristics that barnyardgrass was commonly more susceptible to most of the bleaching herbicides than rice. The scenescence of intact leaf segment was more rapid in barnyardgrass than in rice, indicating that barnyardgrass is weak at early stage. Also pigment metabolic ability, antioxidant enzyme activities(peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase) and antioxidant content (tocopherol, ascorbic acid, glutathione, carotenoids) were lower in barnyardgrass on the basic of fresh weight. However, lipoxygenase activity and the content of unsaturated fatty acid which is vulnerable to oxygen radicals were higher in barnyardgrass, suggesting that barnyardgrass seedling bave a properties easy to be peroxidized. The differences of PPIX (protoporphyrin IX) or carotenoid content, which are the primary substances inducing herbicide activity, were not related to the selectivity between rice and barnyardgrass.
A Study of Mode of Action of Alachlor III. Effect of Alachlor on Cell Division, Cell Kinetics, Cell Elongation, and Cell Differentiation in Oat (Avena sativa L.)
Kwon, S.W. ; Kim, J.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 102~109
There was significant reduction in the mitotic indices of oat roots treated with alachlor. Uniform decrease in prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase as treatment time increasing was observed. Alachlor did not disrupt mitosis, but rather inhibited the onset of mitosis. Labeled dividing cells were significantly inhibited, but the number of labeled interphase cells of all treatment were increased, as compared with control in 8 hr and 12hr period. Labeled dividing cells which entered mitosis thru
were inhibited approximately 68% at 8hr after treatment with
M of alachlor. Alachlor apparently inhibited from the
stage into mitosis of dividing cells. After 24 hr treatment, 12.1% abd 46.6% inhibition of coleoptile growth occurred at
M, respectively. Cell elongation was inhibited by alachlor but was less sensitive than cell division. The longitudinal section cells of oat roots treated with
M alachlor for 12 hr were observed to be enlarged central cylinder and also showed degradation of apical meristem zone, as compared with the untreated roots.
Effect of Mixed Application of Cinosulfuron with Dymron on Rice
Choi, Y.S. ; Kim, K.U. ; Shin, D.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 110~123
To investigate the safening effect of dymron against cinosulfuron, the responses of 104 rice cultivars and lines to single and mixture treatments of cinosulfuron [3-(4.6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)-phenylsulfonyl]-urea] and dymron [1-(
-dimethylbenzyl)-3-p-tolyl urea] were evaluated. The responses of 104 rice cultivars and lines to cinosulfuron were differed. Among the rice cultivars, growth of Calrose, Dasukei, Hwajinhyeo, and Milyang 105 was significantly inhibited by cinosulfuron but there was no inhibition in Daeseongbyeo, Iri 371, Jangseongbyeo, Taebaegbyeo and IR 74. The japonica types were generally inhibited more than the indica and indica
japonica types. When Kwangmyungbyeo was treated with the mixtures of cinosulfuron 48g and 96g ai/ha with dymron 450g ai/ha, the inhibition of plant height was significantly reduced regardless of dymron concentrations. With increase in cinosulfuron concentration, the safening effect of dymron against cinosulfuron was more evident in plant height than fresh weight. On the other hand, dymron did not have any safening effects of cinosulfuron on Echinochloa crus-galli at any concentrations. The mixtures of dymron and cinosulfuron produced antagonistic effects on the plant height regardless of rice cultivars and treatment concentrations. At cinosulfuron 24g ai/ha, the effects of the mixtures of cinosulfuron and brassinolide on the plant height of Kwangmyungbyeo and IR 74 were similar irrespective of brassinolide concentrations but the inhibition of Kwangmyungbyeo was greater than that of IR 74 as the concentrations of cinosulfuron increased. The effects of the mixtures of cinosulfuron at concentration of 96g ai/ha with various ABA levels on the plant height of both Kwangmyungbyeo and IR 74 showed synergistic effect regardless of ABA concentration. However, the response of fresh weight of both cultivars treated with cinosulfuron at 96g ai/ha with ABA synergisism was observed in Kwangyungbyeo while IR 74 showed antagonism.
Application Rate Modification of Paddy Herbicide Quinclorac Depending on Different Cultural Patterns
Guh, J.O. ; Im, W.H. ; Han, S.U. ; Kuk, Y.I. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 124~131
Not only reducing the carry-over effects of quinclorac [3, 7-dichloro-8-quinoline carboxylic acid] used in paddy field to some following vegetable crops but also rationalizing agro-ecology conservation and farm economy, the reducing feasibility of application rates by various cropping patterns and application timing after rice seeding and transplanting. Four cropping patterns namely dry direct seeding(DDS), flooded direct seed(FDS), transplanting of 8 days old early seedlings(EST) and 25 days old machinery seedling(MST) were experimented with 7 application timings as 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 days after seeding/transplanting and 9 levels of application rates as 0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375, 450, 525, and 600g ai/ha of the chemical, respectively. Within the maximum permitted limit of rice phytotoxicity, the minimum application rate of quinclorac to complete control of Echinochloa crus-galli as influenced by various cropping patterns with application timing could be evaluated as follows : A. Dry direct seeding : The minimized application rate at application timing upto 10 days after seeding (DAS) was counted 150g ai/ha, and delaying upto 15-30 DAS, the rates were increased upto 225-525g ai/ha. B. Flooded direct seeding and transplanting : The application rates were minimized 75g ai/ha at application timing upto 10 days after seeding/transplanting(DAS/T), 150g ai/haupto 15 DAS/T, and 225g ai/ha at later than 20 DAS/T, respectively.
Anatomical Difference in Selectivity between Paddy Rice and Weed Species by Mixture Use of Oxyfluorfen and Bensulfuron
Guh, J.O. ; Chon, S.U. ; Han, S.U. ; Kuk, Y.I. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 132~143
The study was conducted to find out synergistic effects by interaction on the basis on anatomical changes between paddy rice and weed species by mixture use of oxyfluorfen and bensulfuron at 0,
M, respectively. Tissues were sampled at 72 hrs after soaking treatment and prepared for light microscopic examination and sectioned longitudinally and transversely stem into
thick. As the results of microscopic examination, the major response of treated plant involved rupture and constrict in mesophyll cells and epidermal cells, and shrinks in bundle sheath cells by oxyfluorfen and disorganization and swelling in meristems by bensulfuron. Anatomical changes in rice was the least affected by even high concentration and two herbicide mixtures, whereas Echinochloa crus-galli was severely disorganized in meristem regions and ruptured in epidermal cells by mixture use. Monochoria vaginalis was completely ruptured by any treatment concentrations and mixtures. Scirpus juncoides was considerably tolerant to both herbicides and their mixture and was similar to those that occur in rice. Perennial weed, Sagittaria pigmaea was observed vacuolation, non-nucleation of cell, and irregular cell layering but in mixture injury was slight. Cyperus serotinus was severely shrunk and ruptured by mixture treatment. Eventually anatomical variations in all weed species was shown synergistic effect by use of herbicide mixtures.
Interpretation of Interaction of Herbicides on Principal Paddy Weeds - By Use of Oxyfluorfen and Bensulfuron-methyl Data -
Han, J.H. ; Guh, J.O. ; Chon, S.U. ; Kwon, O.D. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 144~157
The study was conducted to compare the interprete methods and examine the feasibility of mixture use of oxyfluorfen and bensulfuron in controlling principal Paddy weeds, annuals and perennials. Application ratio of both chemicals were obtained from the combinations of 5 levels(0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g ai/ha) of each chemicals, respectively. All the treatments were applied at 5 days after transplanting and water was maintained at 3.0cm in depth. Shoot fresh-weight of weeds was assessed at 35 days after treatments. Data obtained was analysed by Colby, Isobole, Calculus, Regression and EQM method, respectively. The results from the analysis of variance on the principal weeds treated with oxyfluorfen and bensulfuron showed significant interactions at 1% level on both Echinochloa crus-galli and Eleocharis Kuroguwai, and total species at 0.5% level on both Potamogeton distinctus and Cyperus serotinus, but non significant on Scirpus juncoides and Sagittaria pygmaea. Thereafter, the results of the models applied to Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleocharis kuroguwai and total species were as follows ; 1. The Colby method gave values nearly identical to regression estimate method (both multiplicative models) as provided by Akobundu et al. The Colby method and Regression method indicated synergistic toward Echinochloa curs-galli, and total species, but antagonistic toward Eleocharis kuroguwai. 2. The Isobole method shows synergism on Echinochloa crus-galli at
, and total species at
on Eleochari kuroguwai. 3. The Calculus method gave positive signs for the first differentiation and negative signs for the second differentiation except for some rates on Echinochloa crus-galli and total species, but reverse on Eleocharis kuroguwai. These result does not agree with the observed values. 4.
value from the EQM method was greater than one at all combinations. This result was quite different from those of other methods. 5. The various models did not show the same results, but mixture of oxyfluorfen and bensulfuron tend to have synergistic effect. Weeding effect also was high. Treatment in terms of two chemical combination was expected to reduce rates, and to enhence weeding efficacy compared with single treatment.
Fresh-water Algae Occurred in Paddy Rice Fields I. Regional Distribution
Lee, H.K. ; Park, J.E. ; Ryu, G.H. ; Lee, J.O. ; Park, Y.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 158~165
A survey on nation-wide distribution of fresh-water algae occurring in paddy rice fields was conducted in 1991. The algae which were collected from the whole nation were classified into a total of 54 genera including 14 genera in the blue-green algae. 29 genera in the green algae, 1 genus in the stoneworts. 3 genera in the euglenoids and 7 genera in the diatoms. The green algae and diatoms occurring in plain regions were diverse in terms of the number of genera distributed, whereas there was no regional difference in diversity of the blue-green algae and the euglenoids. Among the green algae, the suspended unicellular algae such as the genera, Chlamydomonas, Pandorina and Gonium, were widespread in plain regions, but the multicellular algae such as the genera, Spirogyra, Oedogonium, Ulothrix and Hydordictyon, were major in mountainous and attitudinal regions. The filamentous green algae such as the genera. Cladophora and Rhizoclonium, were dominant in reclaimed saline fields. The blue-green algae Oscillatoria spp. and the diatoms Navicula spp. were abundant in soil flakes.
Fresh-water Algae Occurred in Paddy Rice Fields II. Identification of Blue-green Algae
Lee, H.K. ; Park, J.E. ; Ryu, G.H. ; Lee, J.O. ; Park, Y.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 166~172
The identification on blue-queen algae which were collected from paddy rice fields of the whole nation was carried out in 1991. The blue-green algae identified were 20 species in 5 families including 7 species in the Chroococcaceae. 1 species in the Chamaesiphonaceae. 1 species in the Pleurocapsaceae, 6 species in the Nostocaeae and 5 species in the Oscillatoriaceae. Among the blue-green algae, 6 species in 4 genera including Cylindrospernum, Anabaenopsis, Anabaena and Nostoc were characterized by heterocysts concerning with nitrogen fixation capacity. A concentrated population of Oscillatoria spp. induced soil flakes with blue tint in paddy rice fields. The genera. Spirulina and Oscillatoria, showed their specific motility.
Allelopathic Activity and Determination of Allelochemicals from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Root Exudates II. Elucidation of Allelochemicals from Sunflower Root Exudates
Park, K.H. ; Moody, K. ; Kim, S.C. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 173~182
Regardless of the test species, germination was adversely affected by the different concentrations of the acidic and neutral fractions of sunflower root exudates while the basic and aqueous fractions had no effect on germination. In both test species, root lengths were inhibited slightly more than shoot lengths. Significant reduction in fresh weights of the test species was observed when the test species were treated with the acidic and neutral fractions but not with the basic and aqueous fractions. Six compounds, hydroquinone,
-resorcyclic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, salicylic acid, and quercetin, were characterized from the acidic fraction. Seven compounds, hydroquinone, gentisic acid,
-resorcyclic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and quercetin, were elucidated from the neutral fraction.
Chemical Weed Control in Direct-Seeded Angelica gigas
Kim, J.S. ; Chun, J.C. ; Seong, N.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 2, 1992, Pages 183~187
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of systematic herbicide application and polyethylene(PE) film mulching in direct seeded Angelica gigas Nakai. Freshly-collected-seed showed 86% of emergence rate and required 18 days of emergence duration. Cold treatment of seeds increased emergence rate by more than 90% and shortened 2 days of emergence duration. Paraquat) 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium dichloride was the most effective when applied just before emergence of A. gigas and provided 96% of emergence rate and 91% of weeding effect when applied 23 days after seeding. Soil applied herbicides used did not cause any phytotoxicity on emergence with application of 2-fold recommended rate and gave more than 90% of weeding effect. Black PE film mulching gave excellent emergence rate and weeding effect, and shortened emergence duration by 8 days.