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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Dec 1992
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Sep 1992
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Jun 1992
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Mar 1992
Selecting the target year
Improvement of Seedling Stand and Lodging Prevention in Direct Seeded Rice
Oh, Yun-Jin ; Kim, Chung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 3, 1992, Pages 200~222
The results of recent researches for improvement of seedling stand in direct seeded rice on the dry paddy in Korea were summarized as the following ; a variety to be cultivated should be chosen the characteristics of high percentage germination under low temperature, shorter period of shoot emergence, and better growth of the mesocotyl and shoots. Meanwhile, there was 40% increase in seedling stand at the treatment of removal of the seed awn under using the drill seeder. After seeding the rice seed covered with soil of 3cm depth was better seedling emergence and also there was the hightest seedling emergence at the 70% of moisture content of the soil. In addition, the application of the Release containing GA 10% enabled to increase the seedling stand and furthermore it was effective under deep seeding depth. The optimum seeding date should be seeded around May 10 when mean air temperature is above 12-13
so that may establish more less 70% in seedling stand. Based on an appropriate seedling stand of 150/
, the optimum seeding rate was 5kg/10a. It was the best in seeding method using drill seeder and the most desirable recommended seeding method was the drill seeder in terms of seedling stand. In order to improve seedling stand water management was more effective in canal irrigation and in drainage at 6hr after irrigation following by the seeding process. On the other hand, for the increase of seedling stand under flooded condition a variety might have characters being better germination at low concentration of dissolved oxygen and vertically deeper growing of the crown root. Also, seedling stand was able to increase with the seed coating of
in the flooded soil. It was possible to be seeded on the early part of May being mean air temperature of avove 10
and the optimum seeding rate was 5kg/10a. For an effective water management water would be flooded up to 3cm depth for 2-3 weeks after seeding. The rice plant grown under the direct seeded cultivation might be not so much strong in lodging resistance compared to that grown under the transplanting and moreover direct seeded rice cultivation under flooded condition would be more weak growth of the rice plant than that on dry paddy. Meanwhile, the lodging would be affected by the seeding rate, the soil depth after seeding. and seeding method even in the same variety. In particular, roots in the lodging pattern of direct seeded rice cultivation under flooded condition were largely distributed on the soil surface so that resulted easily in the lodging. In general, the lodging resistance would be greater as seeding rate and amount of N fertilizer application are lower and soil depth after seeding is higher. Among the introduction of different seeding method the high ridged drill seeding method on dry paddy soil resulted in the lowest in the lodging index and also it was lower in the drill seeding method than in the scattering seeding method under flooded condition. In case of more than 150 seedlings per
there was a severe lodging due to high lodging index at the 3rd and 4th internodes. The effective lodging prevention was able to at the treatment of the Inabenfide at 45 days before heading and the Uniconazol at 15 days before heading which caused the shortage by 10-15cm in culm length. Also, fertilizer management using split application of nitrogen would be contributed the reduction of lodging at the rate of 20-30-20-20-10%(basal-5th leaf stage-7th leaf stage-panicle initiation stage-heading stage) on the dry paddy soil.
Change in Weed Problems as Influenced by Transition of Cultural Pattern into Direct Seeding
Guh, Ja-Ock ; Im, Il-Bin ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 3, 1992, Pages 223~229
Very recently, the cultural pattern of paddy rice in Korea was transitted in a short period, and resulted as earlier in season and more in fertillizer application among others. Specially the weed emergence in paddy fields was drastically increased as affected by change of cultural pattern into early planting and into direct seeding methods. Of course, the direct-seeding in row seeding induced more weeds than in broad-cast direct -seeding. By maintaining the water level with saturation of the paddy surface induced more weeds, relatively more annual weeds than by deep in water level, respectively. Relatively more annuals in number of species and in emerged quantity comparing with perennials was caused by the shifting of cultural methods from transplanting to direct seeding. The severe weed competition damages were mainly resulted due to the shading by taller plant heights of weeds than crop during the whole growing seasons. Conclusively, accepting of direct seeding methods in paddy rice culture in Korea, the present bases for weed control methods ought to be naturally and effectively improved to meet the newly made weed problems.
Weed Ecology and Effective Weed Control Technology in Direct-Seeded Rice
Kim, Soon-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 3, 1992, Pages 230~260
The paper was reviewed the research results on weed dynamics and effective control methods in direct-seeded rice crop. Direct seeding method resulted in drastic increment of weed growth compared to transplanting method and also changed in troublesome weed flora. Two to three fold more weeds were harvested at the direct seeded rice and weed flora of dominant species shifted toward
type grass weeds. Some of the important troublesome weeds in direct seeded rice were Echinochloa crus-galle, Oryza saliva ssp spontanea, Leptochloa chinensis. Setaria viridus. Digitaria adsendens, Sesbania exaltata, Aeschynomene indica, Algae, etc. Yield loss due to weed competiton was about 40-60% for water-seeded and about 70-100% for dry-seeded rice while these for transplanted rice were about 25-35% for mechanical transplanting and about 10-20% for manual transplanting, respectively. Integrated weed management concept was neede to approach weed control effectively. Several cultural technologies were very effective to suppress the weed growth. These were tillage operation, water management, seeding date and seeding rate. Crop residues of barley, rice, wheat, oat and italian ryegrass were also effectivly suppressed the paddy weeds particularly to Potamogeton distiuctus, a perennial broadleaf weed. A pathogen of Epicoccosorus nematosporus identified from Eleocharis kuroguwai was an excellent potential bioagent to control the most troublesome perennial sedge weed of E. Kuroguwai without arising any detrimental effect. The herbicidal efficacy of this pathogen was as high as bentazon herbicide. Plant growth regulator of paclobutrazol (pp-333) was another possible alternative to reduce the herbicide use. In current, herbicide exhibited the most conspicuous results to control weeds in direct-seeded rice even though the application technologies were not fully established. Recommendations for herbicide application were suggested for in both water-and dry-seeded rice in USA, Japan and Korea, respectively. To make better and comprehensive recommendations further studies on weed ecology and herbicide development were emphasized.
Crop Injury (Growth Inhibition) Induced by Herbicides and Remedy to Reduce It
Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 3, 1992, Pages 261~270
Many herbicides that are applied at the soil before weed emergence inhibit plant growth soon after weed germination occurs. Plant growth has been known as an irreversible increase in size as a result of the processes of cell divison and cell enlargement. Herbicides can influence primary growth in which most new plant tissues emerges from meristmatic region by affecting either or both of these processes. Herbicides which have sites of action during interphase(
) of cell cycle and cause a subsequent reduction in the observed frequency of mitotic figures can be classified as an inhibitor of mitotic entry. Those herbicides that affect the mitotic sequence(mitosis) by influencing the development of the spindle apparatus or by influencing new cell plate formation should be classified as causing disruption of the mitotic sequence. Sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, chloroacetamides and some others inhibit plant growth by inhibiting the entry of cell into mitosis. The carbamate herbicides asulam, carbetamide, chlorpropham and propham etc. reported to disrupt the mitotic sequence, especially affecting on spindle function, and the dinitroaniline herbicides trifluralin, nitralin, pendimethalin, dinitramine and oryzalin etc. reported to disrupt the mitotic sequence, particularly causing disappearence of microtubles from treated cells due to inhibition of polymerization process. An inhibition of cell enlargement can be made by membrane demage, metabolic changes within cells, or changes in processes necessary for cell yielding. Several herbicides such as diallate, triallate, alachlor, metolachlor and EPTC etc. reported to inhibit cell enlargement, while 2, 4-D has been known to disrupt cell enlargement. One potential danger inherent in the use of soil acting herbicides is that build-up of residues could occur from year to year. In practice, the sort of build-up that would be disastrous is unikely to occur for substances applied at the correct soil concentration. Crop injury caused by soil applied herbicides can be minimized by (1) following the guidance of safe use of herbicides, particularly correct dose at correct time in right crop, (2) by use of safeners which protect crops against injury without protecting any weed ; interactions between herbicides and safeners(antagonists) at target sites do occur probably from the following mechanisms (1) competition for binding site, (2) circumvention of the target site, and (3) compensation of target site, and another mechanism of safener action can be explained by enhancement of glutathione and glutathione related enzyme activity as shown in the protection of rice from pretilachlor injury by safener fenclorim, (3) development of herbicide resistant crops ; development of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes can be explained by either gene pool theory or selection theory which are two most accepted explanations, and on this basis it is likely to develop herbicide-resistant crops of commercial use. Carry-over problems do occur following repeated use of the same herbicide in an extended period of monocropping, and by errors in initial application which lead to accidental and irregular overdosing, and by climatic influence on rates of loss. These problems are usually related to the marked sensitivity of the particular crops to the specific herbicide residues, e.g. wheat/pronamide, barley/napropamid, sugarbeet/ chlorsulfuron, quinclorac/tomato. Relatively-short-residual product, succeeding culture of insensitive crop to specific herbicide, and greater reliance on postemergence herbicide treatments should be alternatives for farmer practices to prevent these problems.
The Status, Problems and Countermeasure of Direct Rice Seeding in Honam Province - On Weed control -
Ryang, Hwan-Seung ; Kim, Jong-Seog ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 3, 1992, Pages 271~291
This study was conducted to survey the situation of direct rice seeding in Honam province in Korea to investigate problems and seek countermeasure of weed control in direct rice seeding. The total area of direct rice seeding in the south-western part of Korea (Chonbuk, Chonnam, and Chungnam) was 1650.8ha (732.1ha for direct seeding in dry field and 918.7ha for direct seeding in flooding field) in 1992. The followings are summary of the study. 1. In case of direct rice seeding in dry field, butachlor EC and G at 3 to 5 DAS was mostly selected by farmers to control weeds in dry field. Benthiocarb or chlornitrofen was also used in few cases. At 10 to 14 DAS just before rice emergence, tank misture of butachlor EC and paraquat was treated by some farmers. At 35 to 40 days, after flooding mixture of sulfonylurea derivatives was sequentially applied. Surviving weeds including barnyardgrass were finally controlled by mixture of bentazon+quinclorac WP foliage application. 2. In case of direct rice seeding in flooding field, weed control were mostly unsuccessful partially due to wrong selection of herbicide and missing the optimum application time. Three relatively successful weed control in the survey were summarized as follows. 1) Oxadiazon EC, butachlor or benthiocarb were treated just after puddling(5 to 7 days before seeding). then mixture of bentazone+quinclorac WP or sulfonylurea derivatives was sequently applied to control remaining weeds at 20 days after seeding. 2) Mixtures of bensulfuronmethyl+dimepiperate G, pyrazosulfuronethyl+molinate G, or bensulfuronmethyl+mefenacet+dymron G were applied at 11 days after puddling when barnyardgrass were at 2.0 leaf stage. Phytotoxicity was not found in case of mixture of bensulfuronmethyl+dimepiperate G but found in the other two cases but disappeared later. 3) Mixtures of bensulfuronmethyl+quinclorac G., pyrazosulfuronethyl+quinclorac G or betazone and quinclorac G were treated after 18 to 20 days after puddling when barnyardgrass was within 3.0 leaf stage. It showed good weed control in both annuals and perrenials without phytotoxicity. On the contrary, other sulfonylurea derivatives such as middle periodic herbicide showed poor weed control against barnyardgrass, so that sequential treatment of bentazone+quinclorac WP mixture was required. 3. Herbicidal characteristics and optimum application time of 45 rigistered herbicides in Korea were analyzed to discover new substitute for quinclorac mixture, that showed excellent weed control against barnyardgrass at its 3 leaf stage or older. The analysis revealed that 70% of herbicides were for preemergence and the others were post periodic herbicide. Most farmers favor to apply herbicide when rice seedlings completely rooted, at this time barnyardgrass are at 2.5-3.0 leaf stage. Therefore herbicide of which optimum application time had long is required. In this study. 6 middle periodic herbicides among sulfonylurea derivatives and 2 quinclorac mixture were selected and evaluated their weeding spectrums at different leaf stage of barnyardgrass in both soil application in flooding condition and foliage application in dry paddy field. The order of weeding spectrum in magnitude was as follows : bentazone+quinclorac WP> bentazone + quinclorac G>bensulfuronmethyl + quinclorac G>pyrazosulfuronethyl + quinclorac G> pyrazosulfuronethyl + Molinate G>bensulfuronmethyl + mefenacet + dymron G>bensulfuronmethyl + mefenacet G>bensulfuron methyl+benthiocarb G. The above results coincided with that of the survey. In conclusion, there is no proper substitute for quinclorac mixrure, which can control barnyardgrass at 3.0 leaf stage or even older. Therefore quinclorac should be supplied continuously to farmers in order to anchor direct rice seeding in Korea. Author suggested the followings to eastablish direct rice seeding technology effectively and quickly : 1) A tentatively named "The research committee for direct rice seeding" which was composed of farmers. researchers and goberment. should be eastablished to cooperate effectively. 2) Development of a pricise direct rice seeding machine for both dry and flooding paddy field. which is workable regardless of condition and varieties of seeds. 3) Study on protecting rice seed and seedling from sparrows. 4) Systematic studies of weed control techniques in direct rice seeding to standardize herbicide application. 5) Studies on farm-land reformation. techniques of precise land preparation. and direct rice seeding using an airplane.
Development of Direct Seeded Rice Cultivation in the Future
Park, Seok-Hong ; Lee, Chul-Won ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 12, issue 3, 1992, Pages 292~308
Recently agricultural situations are being placed in unfavourable socio-economic environment as followed by rapid decrease of rural population, poor labor quality and high wages of rural society due to high speedy industrialization of social structure in Korea. In addition to those circumstances, under the UR system to be expected in the early future, free trade of agricultural products will be faced inevitably in Korea. Practically prices of rice as a principle food in this country are expensive about three times compared to those of foreign rice markets, and so how to increase the international competitiveness and food supplies are important problems to be solved rapidly. Accordingly an urgent goal is reduction of agricultural production cost by the improvement of labour productivity as a labour saving and cost down cultivation methods as the direct seeding cultivation in rice. But there are many problems in the direct seeded rice cultivation. The important things to be improved in that cultivation are development of rice varieties with lodging tolerance, effective seedling stand, weed control, irrigation management and fertilizing and so on. Moreover agricultural basis as irrigation facilities, land consolidation and farm machineries must be improved for the stability of rice cultivation in the future.