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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
Selecting the target year
Effective Weed Control in Direct-Seeded Rice under Dry Fields
Park, T.S. ; Park, J.E. ; Ryu, G.H. ; Lee, I.Y. ; Lee, H.K. ; Lee, J.O. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 99~104
This experiment was conducted to evaluate effective weed control in direct-seeded rice under dry fields. The results obtained are as follows. Cyhalofop/bentazone EW and cyhalofop/pendimethalin EC were very effective for the weed control but cyhalofop/cinosulfuron WP and cyhalofop/azimsulfuron SC were tended to exhibit the lower weeding effect. The plant height and the tiller number of rice were not greatly affected by herbicides, but rice yield was greatly influenced by them. The control efficacy was observed the extend of 94% until 60days after seeding under the treatment of systematic herbicides such as foliar applied pendimethalin propanil EC at 15days after seeding mowed by pyrazosulfuron molinate GR at 5days after irrigation. Irrigation at 25days after seeding was able to control annual weeds by the extent of 25% and exhibited control effect of 94% on systematic treatment of herbicides compared with that of 35days after seeding.
Weed Occurrence and Competitive Characteristic under Different Cultivation Types of Rice(Oryza sativa L.) - 5. Competition Period of Rice and Weed
Im, I.B. ; Guh, J.O. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 105~114
Differences in critical period of weed competition were investigated among five types of rice(Oryza sativa L.) cultivation. Increase in weed-free period resulted in 1-2 days delay of heading date in machine transplanting and direct-seeding as compared with complete weed-free plot. When weedy period increased, there was no difference in heading date in transplanting cultivations. In direct-seeding, however, weedy period of 7-10 weeks after seeding(WAS) resulted in 4-7 days delay of heading date, whereas further increase in the weedy period caused rather 5-6 days advance in heading date. Weed-free period did not significantly affect yield components in conventional hand transplanting. In machine transplanting with 30-day-old seedling decreases in percent ripening and 1,000-grain weight were caused by weeds emerged within 4 weeks after transplanting(WAT). All yield components were decreased due to weedy period in machine transplanting with 10-day-old seedling. In direct-seeding weedy periods caused to decrease in number of panicles, number of spikelets, percent ripening, and 1,000-grain weight were 8-9, 4-5, 3-4, and 8-10 WAS, respectively. The critical periods of weed competition were determined as the following. In conventional hand transplanting weed-free must be maintained for either 4 weeks after transplanting or the rest period after 8 WAT. In machine transplanting with 30-day-old seedling weed-free must keep for either 5 weeks after transplanting or the rest period after 8 WAT. In machine transplanting with 10-day-old seedling weeds must be removed for either 5 weeks after transplanting or the rest period after 7 WAT. Weed-free must be kept between 5 and 7 WAS in flood direct-seeded rice and between 6 and 9 WAS in dry direct-seeded rice.
Phytotoxicity Response of Herbicide in Infant Seeding Machine Transplanting of Rice(Oryza sativa L.) - I. Difference of seedling age
Im, I.B. ; Baek, N.H. ; Shim, I.S. ; Lee, S.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 115~120
This experiment was conducted in the paddy field to investigate the influence of bensulfuron (methyl-2-[[[[[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonil]methyl]benzoate)+butachlor (N-(butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl acetanilide) and bensulfuron+mefenacet(2-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yloxy)-N-methylacetanilide) for seedling age of rice with Dongjinbyeo of medium-late-maturing variety, Hwaseongbyeo of medium-maturing variety and Namwonbyeo of early-maturing variety. Two herbicide applications interfered with the early growth of all rice varieties, the root was especially damaged more than the shoot. The phytotoxicity of bensulfuron+butachlor and bensulfuron+mefenacet was not significant statistically and the phytotoxicity of these herbicides for seedling age was apt to be similar, also. Twenty and 35days seedlings of Dongjinbyeo and Hawseongbyeo had more growth amount than 8days seedlings, but Namwonbyeo had opposite trend. The number of maximum tillers in the plots applied herbicides were fewer than untreated control but, the percentage of productive tillers was higher than those. Heading date for Namwonbyeo was delayed 2, 1-2 and 2-3days on 35, 20 and 8days seedlings by herbicide application, respectively.
Assessment of Allelopathic Potential of Some Weed Species on Alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) Germination and Early Seedling Growth
Chung, I.M. ; Miller, D.A. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 121~130
Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to investigate allelopathic potential of some weed species on alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) germination and seedling growth. In the comparison between top(leaves+stems) and root extracts, top extract exhibited greater allelopathic effects on alfalfa germination than that of root. The various weed species extract differently responded to alfalfa test species, WL-320, in terms of allelopathic effect. Top and root aqueous extracts of lambsquarter(Chenopodium album L.), giant foxtail(Setaria faberii Herrm.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), velvetleaf(Abutilon theophrasti Medic.), crabgrass(Digitaria sanguinalis L.), canada thistle(Cirsium arvense L.) and prostrate knotweed(Polygonium aviculare L.) significantly inhibited germination, seedling length, weight, vigor, and rate of germination of alfalfa. The regression slopes of various top extracts showed that velvetleaf(b=3.69) extracts were the most inhibitory, while large crabgrass(b=2.39) extracts had the least allelopathic effect on alfalfa germination. Germination, seedling length and weight of alfalfa were inversely proportional to the concentration of dried velvetleaf extracts. Also, more of the toxic effects were observed from the dried extracts compared to the fresh extracts. Residue of velvetleaf inhibited significantly alfalfa emergence and survival percentage compared to the control. The emergence and survival percentage of alfalfa were 44%, 57% at 1.0% residue treatment, respectively. When weed residues were mixed with silica sand with incubation time, velvetleaf residue most inhibited alfalfa growth. The degree of inhibition increased as incubation time increased. An incubation for 72h caused the greatest inhibition of alfalfa growth. These results demonstrate the different allelopathic activity of weed species extracts on alfalfa and suggest that weed may affect alfalfa growth and development through the inhibitory effects of allelochemicals present in weed tissue.
The Allelopathic Effect of Alfalfa residues on Crops and Weeds
Yu, C.Y. ; Jeon, I.S. ; Chung, I.M. ; Hur, J.H. ; Kim, E.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 131~140
This experiment was conducted to test the effect on germination and seedling growth of major industrial crops and weed control potential using alfalfa plant. When dried alfalfa residues were mixed into vermiculite, germination, length of shoot and root of crops, such as Perilla frutescens, Sorghum nevosum, Platycodon grandiflorum and weeds, Digitaria saguinalis, Setaria viridis, Siegesbechia pubescens, Ammaranthus lividus, and Solanum nigrum, were significantly inhibited as the dried residue concentration increased. More than 10% concentration of the dired residue caused 80% germination and growth inhibition. The fresh alfalfa exudation also inhibited the germination and seedling growth of crop, barley, rye, alfalfa, and sesame, and weeds, Echinochloa crus-galli, Siegesbechia viridis, and Portulaca oleracea. The degree of inhibition showed the different response according to the fresh exudation concentration, types of crops and weeds. Generally, as the exudation concentration increased, the germination and seedling growth of crops and weeds inhibited. The exudation of dried residue also exhibited the strong inhibition effect on germination and seedling growth of crops, alfalfa, Platycodon grandiflorum, barley, sesame, rye and weeds, D. sanguinalis, S. pubescens, S. viridis, P. oleracea, E. crus-galli, At the 10% concentrations, S. pubescens, and P. oleracea were not germinated and showed only 15% germination in the S. viridis. From this study, would conclude that alfalfa plant contained water soluble phytotoxic substances which were inhibitory to weeds and crops. This results suggest that alfalfa had some possibility to control some weed species using toxic compounds like natural herbicide.
Glyphosate Toxicity: I. Long Term Analysis of Shikimic Acid Accumulation and Chlorophyll Degradation in Tomato Plant
Kim, Tae-Wan ; Amrhein, Nikolaus ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 141~147
Glyphosate(N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) applied to the assimilate-exporting leaves or sprayed to the whole plants of tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mil var. Moneymaker). Glyphosate induced the rapid accumulation of shikimic acid within 24 h. The accumulation of shikimic acid companied with chlorophyll loss in meristematic leaves, i.e. apical leaves. The chlorosis was acropetal in apical region of young growing leaf. The degradation of chlorophyll seems to be a secondary or tertiary effect of glyphosate. However, the level of shikimic acid accumulated was reduced except for roots and apical leaves from 5 days after treatment. The accumulating levels are considerably differed through the applicated regions. The level of shikimic acid is highest at the apical meristem 4 days after the application to 3rd old leaf.
Glyphosate Toxicity: II. EPSP-synthase Activity in Cell Suspension Culture of Corydalis Sempervirens and Lycopersicon Esculentum
Kim, Tae-Wan ; Amrhein, Nikolaus ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 148~153
Glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) applied to the assimilate-exporting leaves or sprayed to the whole plants of tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mil var. Moneymaker) induced the rapid inhibition of 5-enolpyruvyl skimic acid 3-phosphate synthase(EPSP-synthase). It shows that EPSP-synthase activity precedes chlorophyll loss. There is no difference in EPSP-synthase activity between in vivo tomato meristem and cell suspension culture if glyphosate is not applied. The EPSP-synthase activity is in a range of 4 to 6 nkat per mg protein. The inhibition of EPSP-synthase action is induced within 36 h after glyphosate application while the Chl contents were reduced 48 h after the application. In cell suspension culture of tomato and Corydalis (Corydalis sempervirens), a sublethal concentration of glyphosate retards the fresh weight increase and prolonged lag phase. The fresh weight is reached maximal about 14 days after the subculture in the presence of glyphosate. The inhibitory effect of glyphosate on EPSP-synthase is remarkably induced in lag phase.
Development of Useful Secondary Product Through Plant Cell Culture(I)
Kim, K.U. ; Park, Y.G. ; Kwak, S.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 154~159
Water extracts from Polygonum aviculare and Salix koreansis markedly inhibited the germination of lettuce and rice seeds, indicating the presence of biologically active substances. The biochemical substances such as salicylic and+vanillic acid, tannic acid + gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-cressol, sinapic acid and catechol etc. belonging to phenolic compounds were detected in the cultured cells, suggesting that the secondary metabolites can be synthesized in plant cell and tissue culture. In addition, fatty acid like linolenic acid and organic acid such as oxalic acid were presented in the highest amount, 3.7 mg/g and 14.288 mg/g, respectively, which seem to be related to exhibiting phytotoxicity of P. aviculare. Petroleum ether extract exhibited another potential relating to inhibitory effect which needs further investigation. Calli from two plant sources were easily introduced by uses of 1.0 mg/l of 2.4-D and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/l of BAP in MS basal medium which can be implemented for a large scale production through cell culture.
Development of Useful Products Through Plant Cell Fusion and Culture of Populus spp.(II)
Kim, K.U. ; Park, Y.G. ; Choi, M.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 160~165
Anthocyanin formation in callus cultures using Populus alba
Populus glandulosa was evaluated on basal MS medium supplemented with various levels of growth regulators, sucrose and nitrate concentrations. The highest yield of anthocyanin from cultured cells was produced under 5% sucrose, 1/8 strength of nitrate(12.5% of basic concentration) and combination of 1.0 mg/l IAA with 2 mg/l BAP, respectively. The high anthocyanin producing cell line no. 11 was selected among 15 cell lines, showing over 80% cells contained anthocyanin producing cells. From these cells, the highly productive red protoplast was isolated and the highest protoplast yield,
was obtained in enzyme combination IV which is composed of 2.0% cellulase, 0.5% macerozyme and 0.1% pectolyase.
Studies on Photosynthetic and Respiratory Characteristics in Warm Season and Cool Season Turfgrasses
Nan, Xuan Song ; Kaneko, Seiji ; Ishii, Ryuichi ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 166~174
This experiment was conducted to investigate a cause of summer depression of cool season turfgrass, using nine cultivars in warm season and twenty-eight cool season turfgrasses. Even though an average of apparent photosynthesis(APS) per fresh weight was 13.09 mg
/g/h in warm season turfgrass and 7.75 mg
/g/h in cool season turfgrass, the Creeping bentgrass in cool season type was higher than Kikuyugrass and Bahiagrass in warm season type. The optimum temperature for the heighest APS was
in warm season type and
in cool season type. In
compensation point(CCP) as an index of dark respiration, it was higher in cool season turfgrass(75.6ppm) than warm season turfgrass(29.5ppm). In warm season type, even though the temperature increased from
the CCP was not increased. But the higher temperature rises the more increased CCP in cool season type. Dark respiration(DR) was higher in cool season type than warm season type under various temperature conditions, but the increasing ratio of DR with the temperature increment was not so much differed between two types.