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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
Selecting the target year
Physiological Responses of Rice Seedlings to Butachlor
Tsai, Wen-Fu ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 247~253
The herbicide butachlor [N-(butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-N-(2,6-di-methylphenyl) acetamide] is widely used by farmers as a tool for weed management of transplanted rice(Oryza sativa L.) in Taiwan. The herbicide did not stop germination of rice and weed seeds, but strongly inhibited the subsequent growth of young shoots and roots. The inhibition was also strong on established seedlings. However, they could recover to normal growth after the herbicide effect disappeared. Butachlor greatly decreased the endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) but increased the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contents of rice seedlings. Addition of lAA into growth medium (Hoagland's solution) partly relieved growth inhibition. Pretreatment of both gibberellic acid (
) and IAA 24 hours before butachlor treatment almost completely alleviated the butachlor-interfere with GA and/or IAA metabolism or their action resulting in the growth inhibition of rice. Butachlor was readily absorbed by rice roots. During 24 hours of uptake experiment, 32% of the applied herbicide was absorbed. Pretreatment of the herbicide for 2 days did ncx affect the absorption. Of the absorbed herbicide, 80% remained in roots, only 20% transported into shoots, and more than 50% was metabolized to water soluble substances. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis indicated that the Rf value of the most abundant metabolite was butachlor-glutathione conjugate. Rice, barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.), and monochoria (Monochoria vaginalis Presl) seedlings contained relatively high level of non-protein thiols, while the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was found highest in rice, barnyardgrass the next, monochoria the lowest. The difference in GST activity among these species might be related to their sensitivity to butachlor.
Changes of Weed Community in Lowland Rice Field in Korea
Park, K.H. ; Oh, Y.J. ; Ku, Y.C. ; Kim, H.D. ; Sa, J.K. ; Park, J.S. ; Kim, H.H. ; Kwon, S.J. ; Shin, H.R. ; Kim, S.J. ; Lee, B.J. ; Ko, M.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 254~261
The nationwide weed survey was conducted in lowland rice fields over whole country of Korea in 1992 in order to determine a change of weed community and to identify a major dominant weed species and/or problem weed. Based on morphological characteristics of weeds, population ratio of broad leaf weed was 42.6%, grasses weed-9.0%, sedges-33.4% and others were 15.0%. Annual weed was 33.4% while perennial weed was 66.6% in terms of life cycle of weeds. Meanwhile, there was different weed occurrence as affected by planting method of the rice plant. In hand transplanted paddy fields predominant weed species was Sagittaria trifolia L., Monochoria vaginalis Presl., and Aneilema japonica Kunth. In machine transplanted rice fields of infant and young rice seedling Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi. and S. trifolia L. were more predominant. There was high occurrence of M. vaginalis, Echinochloa crus-galli L., and Leesia japonica Makino in water seeding while E. crus-galli and Cyperus serotinus Rottb. were predominant weed species in dry seeded rice. Monoculture of the rice plant would cause to high occurrence of E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, M. vaginalis, E. crus-galli, and Sagittaria pygmaea Miq and there was higher population of S. trifolia, S. pygmaea, M. vaginalis, E crus-galli, and E. kuroguwai in double cropping system based on rice culture. In particular, there was high different weed occurrence under different transplanting times. E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, S. pygmaea, M. vaginalis, and C. serotinus were higher population at the transplanting of 25 May and S. trifolia, E crus-galli, C. serotinus, and M. vaginalis at 10 June and S. pygmaea, E. kuroguwai, M. vaginalis, S. trifolia, and E. crusgalli at 25 June in Korea, respectively. Autumn tillage in terms of tillage time would cause more predominant weed species such as S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, M. vaginalis, and S. pygmaea while spring tillage was higher population of E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, E. crusgalli, M. vaginalis, and S. pygmaea. In plain area of paddy field there was higher occurrence of E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, M. vaginalis, E. crus-galli, and S. pygmaea and in mid-mountainous area S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, M. vaginalis, E. crus-galli, and Ludwigia prostrate Roxb. while in mountainous area S. trifolia, M. vaginalis, Potamogeton distinctus Ben., E. kuroguwai, and E. crus-galli were. In 1992 the most ten predominant weed species at the rice field of Korea based on summed dominant ratio(SDR) were E. kuroguwai > S. trifolia > E. crus-galli > M. vaginalis > S. pygmaea > C. serotinus > L. prostrate > P. distinctus > A. japonica > Scirpus juncoides Roxb.
Specifics in Weed Competition and Herbicide Response of Korean Lawngrass(Zoysia japonica) under Foggy Condition
Guh, J.O. ; Lee, B.R. ; Chon, S.U. ; Han, S.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 262~269
The reseach was conducted to find out if there are any difference in growth, specific pattern in weed competition, and herbicide response of Korean lawngrass(Zoysia japonica Steud.) in a green house equipped with auto-foggy system. Plant height and leaf stage of Korean lowngrass under foggy condition were increased through all growing stages, whereas the number of tillers and shoot fresh weight harvested at 100 days after seeding were reduced by 24% and 29%, respectively, comparing with non-foggy condition. Weed emergence(total fresh weight) under foggy condition was much greater than that under non-foggy condition. Plant height, number of tillers, number of plant and shoot fresh weight of lawngrass under foggy condition were severely reduced with increasing the duration of competition(above 40 day-competition). Among the herbicides treated, oxyfluorfen completely inhibited plant height of lawngrass regardless of foggy condition, and bensulide considerably inhibited plant height of lawngrass under foggy condition. On the other hand, flazasulfuron did not affect the growth of lawngrass under both foggy and non-foggy conditions. At 40 days after herbicides application, weeding efficacy of bensulide and mecoprop under foggy condition were reduced by 6% and 13%, respectively, comparing with non-foggy condition.
Specifics in Weed Competition and Herbicide Response of Chinese Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis) under Foggy Condition
Guh, J.O. ; Park, T.D. ; Chon, S.U. ; Kuk, Y.I. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 270~277
The research was carried out in tray in greenhouse equipped with Auto Foggy Systems(SAE KI RIN Co.) and the results were summarized as follows. 1. The number of leaves and fresh weight of Chinese cabbage were not different, but the plant height was increased due to foggy condition. 2. Plant height was decreased in 40 and 60 days of weed competition by foggy condition, the number of leaves was not different. And, shoot fresh weight was decreased by in all the duration of weed competition under foggy condition. Especially, that was greater in 40 days. 3. The shoot fresh weight was decreased by pendimethaline and napropamide application under foggy condition. Also, the number of leaves was decreased at 60 days after transplanting by pendimethaline application under foggy condition. 4. Pendimethalin, napropamide and alachlor treatments were not different in the weeding efficacy between non-foggy and foggy conditions. Trifluraline showed lower weeding efficacy by seedling emergence of large crabgrass as the days of treatment got longer under foggy condition.
Emergence of Weed Species and Their Competitive Characteristics in Direct-Seeded Rice (Oryza sativa) - 1. Distribution and Growth of Weeds in Direct-Seeded Rice
Huh, S.M. ; Cho, L.G. ; Kwon, S.L. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 278~288
Weed species occurred in dry- and water-seeded rice were 14 (2 grasses, 8 broadleaves, and 4 sedges) and 12 species (1 grasses, 7 broadleaves, and 4 sedges), respectively. Dominant weed species in dry-seeded rice were Lindernia procumbens, Cyperus difformis, Cardamine flexuosa, and Cyperus serotinus in discending order. The species in water-seeded rice were Cyperus difformis, Scirpus juncoides, and Lindernia procumbens. The number of weed species emerged in direct-seeded rice was determined at about 45 days after seeding, and dry weights of weeds were increased up to 75~90 days after seeding. Timing for great increase of plant height varied depending upon weed species. Regardless of weed number emerged, the most dominant weeds until late stage of growth were Cyperus difformis, Bidens frondosa, Digitaria ciliaris and Echinochloa crus-galli in dry- seeded rice, and Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa eras-galli and Scirpus juncoides in water-seeded rice.
Emergence of Weed Species and Their Competitive Characteristics in Direct-Seeded Rice (Oryza sativa) - 2. Durations of Weed Competition with Direct-Seeded Rice
Huh, S.M. ; Cho, L.G. ; Kwon, S.L. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 289~297
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitive characteristics of weeds with direct-seeded rice. In both dry- and water-seeded rice a weeds) started to grow over the plant height of rice from 45 days after seeding, and there was a great difference in plant height between rice and weeds from 75 days after seeding. Dry weights of weeds drastically increased from 30 days after seeding in both dry- and water-seeded rice, and the increase of dry weight was faster in dry-seeded rice than in water-seeded rice with time. Although weeds competed with rice at earlier growth stages, they did not reduce rice yields and its components until competition period of 75 days after seeding. Required period of weed free at the beginning of the season was 30 to 45 days from seeding in order to avoid any yield loss. The numbers of panicle per plant, spikelets per panicle, grain weight and yield of rice in dry-seeded rice had highly negative correlations with the growth ratios of Echinochloa crus-galli, Ludwigia prostrata, Cyperus difformis, Bidens frondosa, and Cyperus serotinus. In water-seeded rice, the number of plants, panicle per plant, spikelets per panicle and yield had highly negative correlations with growth rate of Echinochloa crus-galli, but the percentage of filled spikelet had negative correlation with Cyperus difformis. Research indicated that in direct-seeded rice weed competition with rice started from 30 days after seeding and significant yield loss by weed competition occurred from 75 days after seeding.
Effect of the Alternation of Lowland-Upland Field and the Cropping Pattern on Weed Population
Yoo, C.H. ; Yang, C.H. ; Kim, J.G. ; Rhee, G.S. ; Han, S.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 298~304
This study was carried out to make the most of them as the fundamental data for reasonable weed control when population of weeds was observed in the alternated fields of lowland and upland. The annual and the perennial paddy weeds in the continuous paddy rice field remarkably decreased when compared to that in the alternated field of paddy rice and soybean. The longer was the duration of upland field condition, the less was the population of lowland weeds and the more was the population of upland weeds. Biennial weeds in the contiuous paddy rice field were less than that in the rotated field of paddy rice and soybean, and this tendency was clear in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. In the continuous cropping of paddy rice, population of biennial weeds in the culverted field was higher than that in the unculverted one, but in the continuous cropping of soybean this tendency was vice versa.
Weed Occurrence in Paddy-Upland Rotating Field
Kim, K.U. ; Shin, D.H. ; Park, S.J. ; Jeong, J.W. ; Yeo, M.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 305~312
Weed communities in the dry-direct seeded rice(Oryza sativa L.), soybean(Glycine max(L.) Merr.), and dry-direct seeded rice-soybean rotation system from the transplanted rice field were investigated in order to identify a change in weed species by paddy-upland rotation. Echinochloa species was the most dominant species in the dry-direct seeded rice and their great increase was observed in the continued practices of dry-direct seeded rice. Echinochloa spp., Chenopodium ficifolium, and Digitaria spp. were identified as the major weeds in soybean cultivation in paddy field. Practice of soybean rotation in the dry-seeded rice reduced weed occurrence, particularly at the soybean after 2-yr continued dry-direct seeded rice and at dry-direct seeded rice culture after 2-yr continued dry-direct seeded rice and at dry-direct seeded rice culture after 2-yr soybean compared to the continued cultures of rice or soybean. In addition, cultivation of dry-direct seeded rice or soybean culture in the paddy rice field seemed to be helpful for suppression of perennial weeds(Eleocharis kuroguwai, Cyperus serotinus, Scirpus juncoides) and aquatic weeds(Monochoria vaginalis, Sagittaria spp. Potamogeton distinctus).
Weed Occurrence and Control at Soybean Culture in Rice-Soybean Rotated Paddy Field
Kim, K.U. ; Shin, D.H. ; Park, S.J. ; Jeong, J.W. ; Hwang, S.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 313~320
The major weeds observed in soybean(Glycine max(L.) Merr.) culture at the paddy field where transplanted rice was cultivated in previous year were Digitaria spp., Echinochloa spp., Chenopodium ficifolium, Rorippa islandica and Stellaria alsine. C. ficifolium and R. islandica increased as soybean was cultivated for two years in the same field. Weed biomass decreased by 84.8% as the seeding date was delayed from April 26 to May 20. Most of weeds started to emerge from 20 days after seeding(DAS) until 40 DAS, and higher seed yield was obtained by eliminating the weeds emerged until 40 DAS. The development of soybean branches, pods stem diameter was severely injured by weed interference, and thus soybean seed yield was reduced by 70% in comparison with a full season weed free plot. Herbicides such as pendimethalin, metolachlor, metolachlor+prometryn and alachlor controlled very effectively weeds present in soybean culture in rice-soybean rotated paddy field.
Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of Bensulfuron in Rice and Weeds at Different Temperatures
Kang, T.G. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 15, issue 4, 1995, Pages 321~328
Absorption, translocation, and metabolism study of
-bensulfuron were conducted to determine selectivity and herbicidal action of bensulfuron in two rice cultivars and three paddy weeds at different temperatures. 1. Absorption of
-bensulfuron was greater at 30/
than at 25/
and also in cv. Sangpung than in cv. Samgang, and Cyperus serotinus and Sagittaria pygmaea showed greater amount of absorption than Echinochloa crus-galli. 2. Translocation rate of bensulfuron was higher at 30/
than at 25/
and also in cv. Sangpung than in cv. Samgang, and C. serotinus showed highest translocation rate followed by the S. pygmaea and E. crus-galli. 3. In metabolism study, concentration of parent compound in rice plants was greater in cv. Sangpung which was susceptible to bensulfuron than in cv. Samgang. More amount of parent compound was distributed in shoots and root of C. serotinus and S. pygmaea than E. crus-galli. 4. It may suggested that sensitivity to bensulfuron between rice cultivars may be due to different inactivation metabolic ability and phytotoxicity of rice increased at high temperature since higher amount of bensulfuron was absorbed. Higher herbicidal activity of bensulfuron may caused by higher absorption and translocation in three weed species at high temperature.