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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
Effect of Rice Cultural Practices on Emergence of Echinochloa crus - galli and Monochoria vaginalis
Kim, J.S. ; Chun, J.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 171~175
Seed occurrence patterns of Echinochloa crus-galli (L) P. Beauv. and Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) Presl. were investigated in irrigated and rainfed rice cultures. There was not much difference in seed population of E. crus-galli between irrigated and rainfed fields, but M. vaginalis occurred in about 1.6-fold greater number in rainfed fields. In seed distribution patterns under the two conditions, about 50% and 30% of E. crus-galli and M. vaginalis, respectively, were found in the uppermost 5cm layer. Under both conditions M. vaginalis was distributed to a depth of 25cm, but distribution of E. crus-galli was only 15cm deep. Early rice transplanting brought about greater emergence of the two weeds than optimal or late transplanting. Emergence of the weeds was significantly greater in single cropping system of rice than in double cropping systems of rice followed by barley and/or strawberry.
Occurrence Pattern and Control Method of Water - foxtail(Alopecurus aequalis Ohwi) in No - tillage Paddy
Hong, Kwang-Pyo ; Kim, Jang-Yong ; Kang, Dong-Ju ; Shin, Won-Gyo ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 176~180
In order to estabilish a labour-saved and environmental protected paddy rice system in Southern Korea, new system, called no-tillage paddy system, was proposed and investigated from 1988 to 1996. Under the no-tillage paddy system, occurrence pattern, control value and regrowth of water foxtail each treatment(herbicides and application dates), and occurrence of volunteer rice plant in application dates of herbicide were investigated. The growth of water-foxtil was markedly increased from middle of May and no. of tillers and dry weight of water-foxtail increased up to 3rd crop year in no-tillage. Glyphosate application for control of water-foxtail was 20 days before transplanting. And when the soil under the no-tillage paddy system in May 1 and May 10 application of herbicide machine-transplanted with 8-day-old seedlings missing hills were increased compared to April 20 and early growth stages of machine transplanted of rice in April 20 applications of herbicide showed increased plant height, no. of tillers of rice, occurrence of volunteer rice plants from the shattered seeds were 1,600plants/10a and decreased in May 10 compared to April 20 and May 1.
Effects of Early Flooding in Dry Seeded Rice on Rice Growth and Weed Occurrence
Park, Sung-Tae ; Hwang, Chung-Dong ; Hwang, Dong-Yong ; Son, Yang ; Kim, Soon-Chul ; Oh, Yun-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 181~186
This experiment was conducted at National Yeongnam Agricultural Experiment Station in 1995 to identify effects of early flooding in dry seeded rice on rice growth and weed occurrence. The early flooding of emergence date and the 2-leaf stage were not differed significantly on seedling stand, seedling growth of rice and plant characteristics associated with lodging compared to flooding of the 4-leaf stage. However, weed occurrence resulted in 39-61% suppression. Most predominant weed regardless of flooding times was Echinochloa crus-galli, followed by Aneilema japonicum. The Aneilema japonicum, in general, was higher occurrence with earlier flooding, while dry land weeds such as Digitaria sanguinalis, Stellaria alsine etc. reduced. Grain yield of early flooding at emergence date and the 2-leaf stage was higher by 2-5% than that of the 4-leaf stage due to better grain filling ratio and heavier 1,000 grain weight.
Studies on Germination Characteristics and Differential Responses to Herbicides in Setaria Spp.
Kim, J.S. ; Kim, T.J. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 187~193
To supply seeds with a good quality as plant materials for herbicide screening and to know whether the germination characteristics could be associated with a differential response to herbicides, germination characteristics and differential responses to herbicides were investigated with 3 species of a genus Setaria ; Yellow foxtail(Setaria glauca P. Beauv, SETGL), Giant foxtail(Setaria faberi Hetrm, SETFA), and Green foxtail(Setaria viridis P. Beauv, SETVI). Degree of dormancy was high in the order of SETGL, SETVI and SETFA. The dormancy of SETGL seed was relatively well removed by room temperature and drying storage, but SETFA and SETVI by low temperature and wetting storage(stratification). For breaking dormancy of SETGL, SETVI and SETFA, it was necessary for being kept under the above storage conditions for at least 2, 4 and 4-5 months, respectively. When the dormancy-breaked seeds were transfered to low temperature(
) and drying condition, SETGL showed germination rate of 96% even after 2 month storage. However, SETVI and SETFA showed a decreased germination of 54% and 69%, respectively, with a decreased velocity of germination, indicating that secondary dormancy might be induced. On the other hand, a significant change in germination rate was not observed as the seeds were transfered to room temperature(
) and drying condition. The germinability of SETGL seed began to decline from 6th year after storage in room temperature and drying condition. All of 3 species showed relatively high germination rate at alternating temperature of
(14hr/10hr) and their germination were not increased by light. All of 3 species exhibited similar responses to cycloxydim, sethoxydim and primisulfuron in greenhouse experiment. In contrast, SETVI and SETFA were relatively susceptible to fenoxapropethyl, SETFA to fluazifop-butyl, SETGL and SETFA to clorimuron-ethyl, and SETGL to EK-2612. The difference in herbicidal response among 3 species was the highest in the treatment of EK-2612. These results suggest that there is no a consistent tendency in responses of 3 species to herbicides which have the same target site. And the relationship between germination characteristics and differential responses to herbicides was not found.
Difference in Early Growth of Echinochloa Species and the Differential Susceptibility to Herbicides
Chun, J.C. ; Kim, S.E. ; Park, N.I. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 194~199
Seed size and days required to reach specific growth stages were determined for Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. varieties which are major grass species found in Korean paddy field and the results were compared with E. frumentacea (Roxb.) Link. In addition, responses of the Echinochloa species on preemergence herbicides (molinate, esprocarb, and mefenacet) were investigated with respect to time of application. One thousand seed weight of E. crus-galli var. oryzicola was about 3 times heavier than that of var. praticola, but was not significantly different that of E. frumentacea. Days requited to reach the 2.5 leaf-stage (LS) were 11, 13, and 14 days after seeding for E. frumentacea, E. crus-galli var. oryzicola, and E. crus-galli var. praticola, respectively. E. crus-galli var. praticola was more sensitive to molinate, esprocarb and mefenacet than var. oryzicola and the sensitivity of both the varieties decreased as the time of application LS was delayed. However, there was no great difference in the response for E. frumentacea when applied between 1.5 and 3.0 LS. In thiocarbamate hebicides esprocarb was more active to Echinochloa species than molinate and the higher the active ingredient of the herbicides, the greater was the activity to Echinochloa species. Differential susceptibility of Echinochloa species to the herbicides was not related to the seed size, but to the early growth stages at the time of herbicide application which were affected by the seed size.
Effect of Storage Conditions on the Dormancy Release and the Induction of Secondary Dormancy in Weed Seeds
Kim, J.S. ; Hwang, I.T. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 200~209
It is assumed to be an efficient method for keeping a germinability of weed seeds as long as possible, if a secondary dormancy is not induced by transferring the seeds of which dormancy was broken in wetting condition into drying condition. To investigate its validity, two experiments were carried out on seeds of 9 weed species ; to find out the most effective storage condition in breaking the dormancy of each weed species and to know whether there is a decrease in the germinability by transferring into drying storage condition. The dormancy of Chenopodium album and Stellaria aquatica was released well under the drying condition, but that of Echinochloa crus-galli var. oryzicola by soaking in water. Other weed species were released from dormancy by storage in wetting condition. When the seeds stored in the wetting or soaking condition, are air-dried and then restored at room or low temperature, a decreasing tendency of germinability which might cause a trouble in using them practically, was not observed except on the seeds of Persicaria vulgaris. In the case of Persicaria vulgaris, the low germination since 3 month-storage seemed not to be caused by drying, because a decrease of its germinability was observed with increasing storage period in all of the storage conditions. In contrast, high germination was induced as the seeds of Echinochloa crusgalli var. oryzicola, which were not germinated during the storage in low temperature and wetting condition, were transferred into the room temperature and drying condition. These results suggest that this approach can be one of the efficient methods for keeping a good germinability as long as possible in most weed seeds.
Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - IV. Different Activity of Antioxidative Enzymes
Kuk, Y.I. ; Guh, J.O. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 210~220
Ten-day-old seedlings of the oxyfluorfen-tolerant and -susceptible rice cultivars with barnyardgrass, a typical susceptible weed were soaked in oxyfluorfen at
for 2 hrs kept for 24 hrs in the dark, and exposed to light for 0, 2, 4, or 6 hrs to investigate changes in the activity and isozyme of antioxidative enzymes. The activities of antioxidative enzymes of APOX, CAL, POX, NR, GR, MDAR and SOD in the tolerant and susceptible rice cultivate themselves didn't show any difference but the activity in the susceptible barnyardgrass was very low in comparison with rice cultivars. The activity of lipoxygenase tended to be some slightly higher in the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass than in the tolerant rice cultivars. The activities of MDAR, POX, GR and SOD, antioxidative enzymes, were higher in the tolerant rice cultivars than in the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass after the treatment of oxyfluorfen. After the treatment of oxyfluorfen, in the change of POX isozyme, the activity of C band in the tolerant rice cultivars increased with increased concentration but it didn't in the susceptible rice cultivar. The activity of B band decreased slightly at
in the susceptible barnyardgrass. Isozyme of GR, SOD and AO by the treatment of oxyfluorfen, the activity of each band between the tolerant and susceptible rice cultivars showed no difference but GR isozyme C band was disappeared in the susceptible barnyardgrass at
. In the change of esterase isozyme resulting from the treatment of oxyfluorfen, the activities of B, C and D bands decreased more in the susceptible rice cultivars than in tolerant rice cultivars, and A band was disappeared in the susceptible barnyardgrass at
Effect of Growth Regulators, Carbon Sources and Silver Nitrate on Callus Formation and Plant Regeneration of Turf Grass
Han, S.S. ; Rim, Y.S. ; Jeong, J.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 221~229
This study was carried out to determine the effects of growth regulators, carbon sources and silver nitrate on callus formation and plant regeneration of turfgrass. The results were summarized as fallows : Callus from Korean lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) and pencross creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustrir Huds.) induced better in MS medium than in N6 medium and by addition of 2,4-D than by that of NAA. Callus formation from Korean lawngrass and penncross creeping bentgrass was very effective at MS medium adding 1mg/L 2,4-D and at the medium adding 2mg/L 2,4-D, repectively. Growth of callus was good at MS medium containing 2mg/L 2,4-D+0.2mg/L NAA. Callus growth of Korean lawngrass and penncross creeping bentgrass was good when kinetin was added 0.2mg/L and 0.3mg/L, individually, to MS medium containg 2mg/L 2,4-D+0.2mg/L NAA. Regeneration rate from leaf and stock callus of Korean lawngrass was 44% at MS medium adding 2,4-D 2mg/L+NAA 0.2mg/L+kinetin 0.3mg/L and 32% at the medium containing 2,4-D 2mg/L+NAA 0.2mg/L+kinetin 0.3mg/L, each and that from leaf and stock callus of penncross creeping bentgrass was 80% and 67%, each, at the medium adding 2,4-D 2mg/l+NAA 0.2mg/L+kinetin 0.3mg/L. Regeneration rate of Korean lawngrass and penneross creeping bentgrass increased by 3 to 4% and by 10 to 16%, respectively, when added
1~2mg/L to the above-mentioned regeneration medium.
Morphological and Anatomical Response of Rice and Barnyardgrass to Herbicides under Various Cropping Patterns -II. Response to Bensulfuron
Chon, S.U. ; Guh, J.O. ; Kuk, Y.I. ; Han, S.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 230~236
Pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted to determine the effect of growth and anatomical characteristics of bensulfuron on the seedlings of rice and barnyardgrass. Formulated bensulfuron was soil applied at 102g ai/ha to rice and barnyardgrass grown under various cropping patterns at 5 days after seeding or transplanting. At 10 days after application, plants were harvested to examine growth and anatomical changes of rice and barnyardgrass. Bensulfuron did not affect the growth and development of rites under dry seeded condition and trnsplanting condition while inhibited severely those of rice under water-seeded condition compared with untreated control. Under water-seeded condition, root growth of rice was much more severely inhibited by bensulfuron than shoot growth. The herbicide retarded the growth of barnyardgrass under dry-seeded condition and more severely inhibited than that under water-seeded condition. Microscopically, the anatomical change induced by bensulfuron occurred only in barnyardgrass under dry-seeded condition, and involved constriction of leaf primordia within leaf sheaths, rupture of mesophyll cell, and irregular cell arrangement. These anatomical alterations differed from and were not associated with the differential growth response.
Morphological and Anatomical Response of Rice and Barnyardgrass to Herbicides under Various Cropping Patterns. - III. Response to Propanil
Chon, S.U. ; Guh, J.O. ; Kuk, Y.I. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 3, 1996, Pages 237~244
Propanil [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) propanamide] which was applied at 4,200g ai/hapostemergence 7 days after seeding or transplanting, completely reduced the growth of shoot and root of barnyardgrass at 100% under dry condition while plant height, root length and shoot fresh weight of barnyardgrass at 63, 40 and 78%, respectively under water condition. On the other hand, the herbicide did not affect the growth of shoot and root of rice grown under water condition and transplanting condition, but reduced the plant height, root length and shoot fresh weight of broadcast rice on soil at 24, 18 and 28%, respectively, under dry condition. Microscopically, the epidermal cells of treated-barnyardgrasses under both conditions were severely constricted, chloroplasts in the cells of vascular bunble sheath were partially lacked, and mesophyll cells were often ruptured, whereas those of treated-rice were not affected. Histological observations showed that propanil reduced the thickness of leaf blade of barnyardgrass under both conditions at 36-48% due to mainly reduction and constriction of mesophyll cell, while it did not affect or even increased the thickness of leaves of rice under all conditions compared to control. These results indicate that broadcast rice on soil were more injured than drilled rice in soil under dry condition, however, in the other tested conditions ricer were not affected.