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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
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Studies of Stimulation of Early Growth of Rice Seedlings and Effects of Rice Seeds and Seedlings on Seasonal Variations in Emergence and Growth of Monochoria vaginalis in Direct-sowing Cultivation
Takeuchi, Yasutomo ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 251~258
Weed Occurrence in Autumn Vegetable Crops in Chungnam Area
Park, K.W. ; Roh, S.W. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 259~263
Occurrence and distribution of weeds were surveyed in autumn vegetable crops(Chinese cabbage, radish, cucumber and Welsh onion) in 16 cities or counties of Chungnam area during October and November 1995. Thirty weed species were occurred, and Rorippa globosa, Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis, Stellaria media, Portulaca oleracea, Digitaria sanguinalis and Chenopodium album var. centrorubrum showed higher importance values among them. S. media, P. oleracea and A, aequalis var. amurensis were dominant in northwest coastal area, R globosa, D. sanguinalis and S. media in southwest coastal area, R globosa, A. aegualis var. amurensis and D. sanguinalis in northern area, and R globosa, A. aequalis var. amurensis and P. oleracea in southern area. S. media, R globosa and P. oleracea were dominant in Chinese cabbage fields, R globosa, Amaranthus retroflexus and S. media in radish fields, A. retroflexus, S. media and D. sanguinalis in cucumber fields, and R. globosa and P. oleracea in Welsh onion fields.
Studies on Characteristics of Sprouting and Occurrence on paddy field of Water Chestnut(Eleocharis Kuroguwai Ohwi)
Kim, H.D. ; Park, J.S. ; Park, K.Y. ; Choi, Y.J. ; Yu, C.J. ; Rho, Y.D. ; Kwon, Y.W. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 264~281
As a consequence of wide use of herbicides, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi became a dorminant problem weed for rice cultivation in Korea. To understand the establishment of the weed, experiments on physio-ecological characteristics were carried out sprouting and occurrence, the results could be summarized as follows: Sprouting percentage remained 68 to 73% until the time of field emergence, indicating many of the them are still dormant. The proportion of the dormant tubers were greater for the smaller than the bigger tubers. Apical dominance was apparent in sprouting, with 84% of tuber sprouted from only one of the apical buds. Tubers sprouted from 2 or 3 buds were less than 20%, and were mostly from the bigger tubers. When the shoot growth was compared, by controlling the others, ones from apical and the next 3 buds showed similar vigorous growth, but the later ones showed poorer growth. For the longevity of tubers, deep soil storage appeared to be better than storage in temperature controlled room to 2~
. Emergence of E. kuroguwai was better in clay soil than in sand, and the possible depth for emergence in clay soil appeared to be up to 21cm, but was 15cm in sand. When tubers were exposed to salt solutions before emergence tests, E. kuroguwai appeared to be much sensitive to salts than S.planiculmis. Among the tubers formed in previous year, 12.7% remained still viable until the end of next crop season, but with relatively strong dormancy. The first emergence was about 10 days after planting at ordinary cropping seasons, and the days to the maximum shoot number stage were 60~90 from planting. The duration was extended at early transplanting, and shoot number, leaves per shoot, and tubers developed per plant were also greater at early plantings. The 6th order offshoots were developing when E. kuroguwai was planted at early season. When planted at later seasons, generation and the number of offshoots was reduced planted at early season. When planted at later seasons, generation and the number of offshoots was reduced and the number of tubers, runner and rhizome lengths was also reduced.
Herbicide Response to Cultural Environment in Flooded Direct-seeded Rice
Huh, S.M. ; Kim, B.H ; Im, I.B. ; Kwon, O.D. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 282~291
This experiment was conducted to investigate the phytotoxicity of several herbicides for rice and weed control with herbicides application times and seeding times in flooded direct-seeded rice field. The phytotoxicity of herbieides(bensulfuron methyl+dimepiperate, bensulfuron methyl+mefenacet+dymron, bensulfuron methyl+quinclorac, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl+molinate, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl+thiobencarb, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl+cyhalofop, imazosulfuron+molinate, imazosul-furon+cyhalofop) for rice in different seeding dates was the most high at 7 days after seeding(DAS) Followed by 12 and 17 DAS. In particular, the bensulfuron methyl+mefenacet+dymron showed very high phytotoxicity to rice plants. Weed species occurred in direct-seeding field seeded on May 1 were 10 species (grasses ; 1, broad-leaves ; 6, sedges ; 3) and Echinochloa crus-galli was the most dominant weed among them. Whereas weed species occurred rice field seeded on May 22 were 7 species(grasses ; 1, broad-leaves : 3, ridges ; 3) and Echirochloa crus-galli was the most dominant weed among them. The weed control for annual weeds(Echinochloa crus-galli, Aneilema keisak, and so on) and perennial weeds(Cyperus serotinus, Scipurus juncoides) was remarkably effective at the application of 7 and 12 DAS, but it of Eleocharis kuroguwai was effective at the application of 17 DAS on two seeding times. The yields were decreased significantly at the plot affected severely by herbicides applied at 7 DAS and the plots showed low efficacy at herbicides application of 17 DAS.
Factors and Recovery of Herbicide Phytotoxicity on Direct - seeded Rice - I. Variation Factors of Phytotoxicity
Im, Il-Bin ; Usui, K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 292~300
This experiment was conducted to investigate the factor of phytotoxicity for herbicides(bensulfuron methyl, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, dimepiperate, molinate) on flood direct-seeded rice. The phytotoxicity of herbicides was evaluated under controlled environment condition. Bensulfuron methyl and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl reduced more rice growth, especially root growth on low temperature(20/
) than high temperature(30/
) cultivations. The phytotoxicity of bensulfuron methyl and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl were increased relatively by non-nutrient and nutrient solution. cultivation, respectively. The rice applied bensulfuron methyl and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl with pH 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5 solution became low growth rate on low pH of pH 3.5 and 5.5 solution cultivation. Bensulfuron methyl application with pH 5.5 and pH 7.5 solution, and pyrazosulfuronethyl application with pH 7.5 and 9.5 solution reduced rice growth inhibition. The root growth of rice seeded in 6cm depth of water solution applied herbicides was suppressed by bensulftuon methyl and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, the growth of shoot was suppressed heavily by dimepiperate and molinate, in particular dimepiperate suppressed about the growth of 90%. The phytotoxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl became high on light clay soil of non-fertilizer condition and sand loam soil of fertilizer condition, bensulfuron methyl became high on sand loam soil.
Propagation Characteristics of Seed and Rhizome of Green kyllinga(Kyllinga brevifolia var. leiolepsis H.)
Kim, J.S. ; Kwak, H.H. ; Jung, S.Y. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 301~308
In this study, a propagation characteristics of green kyllinga(Kyllinga brevifolia var. leiolepsis H.) was investigated. Two to three rhizomes(1st rhizome) arised from the basal part of main shoot at 4th leaf stage and were grown to extend on the soil surface. Then new shoots(lst tillers) emerged from every node of the 1st rhizome. Second rhizomes also arised from the basal part of lst tiller at the time of 4th leaf openning. With such a regularity, 5th rhizomes and about 688 shoots were produced from one plant during one year-cultivation without competition under the natural condition. The degree of vegetative growth and seed formation was 3 times and 2.5 times higher in rhizomeoriginated plant than in that from seed, respectively. The amount of seed formation and the 1000 seeds weight was highest in one planted on June 1 and Aug. 1, respectively. Short-day treatment of less than 14hr appeared to be necessary for the induction of flowering and it was effective as treated not during germination but since at least 2 leaf stage of green kyllinga. Each shoot individually responded to short-day. When plants were exposed to short-day (9hr, day / 15hr, night) treatment at the stage of 2-3 leaves, more than 7 cycles were required for flowering induction. Bolting in main shoot occurred after emergence of 4 leaves under the short-day condition. Exogenous
slightly accelerated the velocity of bolting only in short-day condition.
Herbicidal Response and Germination Characteristics of Green kyllinga(Kyllinga brevifolia var. leiolepsis H.) Propagules
Kim, J.S. ; Park, E.Y. ; Choi, J.S. ; Choi, S.H. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 309~316
In this study, germination characteristics and herbicidal response of green kyllinga(Kyllinga brevifolia var. leiolepsis H.) were investigated. The storage method desirable for a rapid dormancy release was to keep the seed under low temp. and wetting condition for one to two months, or high temp(
) and drying condition for three months. The dormancy of rhizome was hardly observed. The optimum temperature for germination of seed and rhizome was around
, repectively. The germination of dormancy-breaked seed was completely dependent on light. Shoot emergence ratio(%) was decreased with increase of planting depth ; for example, only 18% of rhizome segments planted in the depth of 4cm under soil surface emerged above soil surface. Flooding at earlier growth stage resulted in significant decrease in shoot emergence as well as in dry weight. The germinablity of rhizome was almost lost as a decreased in fresh weight reached to 50%. Usually, green kyllinga was sensitive to herbicides such as bentazone, bensulfuron and benfuresate etc. which were known to be effective in Cyperaceae weeds, indicating that green kyllinga can be used as a representative plant in the screening of herbicides for Cyperus weeds.
Comparison of Herbicidal Action between Pyrazosulfuron - ethyl and Imazaquin
Hwang, I.T. ; Choi, J.S. ; Kim, J.S. ; Cho, K.Y ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 317~326
To know whether pyrazosulfuron-ethyl(PYR) and imazaquin(IMA), known as a acetolactate synthase(ALS) inhibitors, have a same herbicidal action pattern in rice(Oryza sativa) or barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli), an inhibition pattern and a response characteristics in combination with dymron or butachlor were investigated. In contrast to the phytotoxicity of rice treated with IMA, the one treated with PYR was completely tended to be recovered after 25 days after treatment. Safening effect of dymron against PYR was effectively developed to transplanted-rice, while such an effect was not shown in combination with IMA. In combination with PYR and butachlor, antagonistic effect was observed in both simultaneous or sequential treatment on bamyardgrass, however, additive effect was rather shown in combination with IMA and its activity was dominantly dependent on the first applied compound.
of PYR and IMA on the ALS extracted from barnyardgrass was
M, respectively. Butachlor did not affect their activities on ALS in vitro. These results suggest that PYR and IMA might have a different action each other in the pathway to a final herbicidal activity even though their primary action site is ALS.
Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - V. Different Content of Antioxidant and GST Activity
Kuk, Y.I. ; Guh, J.O. ; Park, R.D. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 327~336
This study was conducted to investigate the content of antioxidant and GST activity of the oxyfluorfen-tolerant and -susceptible rice cultivars with barnyardgrass, a typical susceptible weed in accordance by oxyfluorfen treatment. The content of vitamin C was higher in the tolerant rice cultivar than in the susceptible rice cultivar and barnyardgrass. The contents of vitamin E, carotenoid, glutathione(GSH, GSSG, total glutathione) were not different between the tolerant and susceptible plants. In the case of the content of vitamin C due to the treatment of oxyfluorfen, the tolerant rice cultivars, Hawon and Baru decreased less than the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass. After the treatment of oxyfluorfen the contents of vitamin E and GSH in the tolerant rice cultivars were higher than in the susceptible rice cultivars or barnyardgrass. But in the content of carotenoid was greater in the tolerant rice cultivars than in the susceptible rice cultivars but they didn`t have any difference in comparison with the susceptible barnyardgrass. And there was no difference in the content of GSSG between the tolerant and susceptible plants. When CDNB or oxyfluorfen were used as substrate, the GST activity, was higher in the tolerant rice cultivars than in the susceptible rice cultivars or batnyardgrass. After the treatment of oxyfluorfen the GST activity was not induced in the rice, but was induced in the barnyardgrass. Even after the treatment of acifluorfen, bifenox and oxadiazon the GST activity was not induced in the rice cultivars.
Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - VI. Responses of Oxyfluorfen - Similar Herbicides
Kuk, Y.I. ; Guh, J.O. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 337~345
This study was conducted to investigate the protox activity, the PPIX accumulation and the activity of antioxidative enzymes of the oxyfluorfen-tolerant and -susceptible rice cultivars by oxyfluorfen and oxytluorfen-similar herbicides treatment. When treated with acifluorfen, bifenox or oxadiazon, the oxyfluorfen-tolerant rice cultivars showed less decreased in fresh weight than the susceptible rice cultivars. The inhibition of protox activity was in the order of acifluorfen > oxyfluorfen > bifenox > oxadiazon, and the PPIX accumulation was in the sequence of oxadiazon > acifluorfen > oxyfluorfen > bifenox. The inhibition of protox activity and the PPIX accumulation by the herbicide was greater in the susceptible rice cultivars than in the tolerant rice cultivars. The effect inhibiting the decrease of chlorophyll content resulting from the treatment of GC, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis inhibitor, was in the order of oxyfluorfen > acifluorfen > bifenox > oxadiazon, and the tolerant rice cultivar had more than the susceptible rice cultivar. In the treatment of DPE and oxadiazon, the activities of MDAR, POX and GR was higher in the tolerant rice cultivar than in the susceptible rice cultivar, and in the case of POX isozyme the activities of main D and E bands increased in the tolerant rice cultivars at tested herbicides but they didn't in the susceptible rice cultivar.
Effect of Metals on Anti - Oxidase Activity in Persicaria vulgaris Webb. et Moq.
Sung, Mi-Hyang ; Jeong, Hyung-Jin ; Kim, Kun-Woo ; Kwak, Sang-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 346~353
To study the effects of metal ions on the activities of antioxidative enzymes, the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT) of Persicaria vulgaris has been studied after treating with Cd, Cu, Zn and Al. 1. The activities of SOD in leaf and stem were decreased, but that in root was increased. Among the metal ions studied in this report, Al gave the highest increase in SOD activity in root. 2. The activities of POD after treating with Cd or Cu did not show any significant differences. POD activities after treating with Zn and Al has been decreased, however, that in root showed increased activities after treating with Zn 5,000 ppm or Al 500 ppm. 3. The activity of CAT in leaf was decreased with every metals studied. The CAT activity in root was increased with increased concentration. The root treated with Al showed highest activity. 4. The presence of isozymes after treated metal ions has been studied in gel electrophoresis. The POD treated plant did not show any new isozymes, but the intensity of one of pre-existent band was increased. The SOD treated plant showed the several new isozymes.
Protein Patterns of Rice(Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars as Affected by Herbicide Thiobencarb
Kim, H.Y. ; Kim, K.U. ; Shin, D.H. ; Kim, K.W. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 354~361
This study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of rice(Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to herbicide thiobencarb through the determination of protein patterns using SDS-PAGE. In both greenhouse and laboratory screening tests, IR 10198-66-2 and IR 9660-50-3-1 showed relatively tolerant response to thiobencarb, while IR 22, IR 31802-48-2-2-2 and IR 20656-R-R-R-6-1 were susceptible to it. The total protein content of susceptible cultivars markedly decreased as the thiobencarb concentrations increased, but tolerant cultivars such as IR 10198-66-2 and IR 9660-50-3-1 showed very slight changes suggesting that protein synthesis of susceptible cultivars may be inhibited by thiobencarb. The protein profiles of the tolerant cultivars were not much affected by thiobencarb treatment. However, the protein spots with molecular weights of 14.4 kD and 55 kD in the susceptible cultivar of IR 22 disappeared with the treatment of 3 ppm thiobencarb, indicating that differential susceptibilities of rice cultivars against thiobencarb can be attributed to their difference in protein metabolism affected by thiobencarb.
Mechanisms of Tolerance to Diphenyl Ether Herbicide Oxyfluorfen in Rice Cultivars
Choi, S.H. ; Kim, N.Y. ; Lee, J.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 362~371
In this study, the relationships between sensitivity to oxyfluorfen, absorption of the herbicide, protoporphyrin IX(Proto IX) accumulation and activities of antioxidative enzymes were examined to identify the tolerance mechanism against oxyfluorfen in various rice cultivars having different level of tolerance to this herbicide. Absorption of oxyfluorfen in tolerant rice cultivars was slower than in susceptible cultivars. Proto IX accumulation in various rice cultivars treated with oxyfluorfen was higher in susceptible cultivars than in tolerant ones. In susceptible cultivars especially, Proto IX accumlated rapidly during the herbicide treatment in the dark. Large amounts of Proto IX accumulation were considered to cause membrane lipid peroxidation in the light. However, among the tested rice cultivars, there was little relationship between their tolerance to oxyfluorfen and the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Therefore, it is assumed that differential susceptibility of rice cultivars to oxyfluorfen was due to difference in their capability to absorb the herbicide and to subsequently accumulate Proto IX.