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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
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Survey of Weed Population Distribution and Change of Dominant Weed Species on Paddy Field in Kyonggi Area
Kim, H.D. ; Park, J.S. ; Su, K.K. ; Moon, M.H. ; Jo, Y.C. ; Park, K.Y. ; Choi, Y.J. ; Yu, C.J. ; Shim, S.W. ; Rho, Y.D. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 1~9
The survey of weed community in paddy field was carried out to investigate the changes of weed species on 340 fields in Kyonggi Area in 1995, that is almost same condition as sampled in 1991. The weed species observed include 3 species of grasses, 5 species of sedges and 14 species of broadleaf and other weed. Herbicide treatment system in one time treatment vs more than two time treatment was 34:66 percentage. About 25 percentage among one time treatment system was used butachlor G. Ratio of annual weed vs perennial weed was 38:62, and then perennial weed ratio was high. Major dominant weed species were Sagitaria trifolia, Eleocharis kuroguwai, Echinochloa crus-galli, Bidens tripartita and Monochoria vaginalis. Weed occurrence was decreased as order of normal soil, poorly drained soil and saline soil. Dormant weed species were S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, E. crus-galli and B. tripartita in normal soil and were S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, E. crus-galli and Polygonium hydropiper in poorly drained soil, and were Scirpus planiculmis, S. trifolia and E. kuroguwai in saline soil. Weed occurrence was increased with delaying the transplanting time; dominant weed species were S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, E. crus-galli and M. vaginalis in May transplanting field and were E. kuroguwai, S. trifolia, and C. serotinus in June transplanting field. Weed occurrence was decreased as order of non-plowing transplanting field, autumn plowing and spring plowing paddy field. Dominant weed species were S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, E. crus-galli and M. vaginalis in autumn plowing, were S. trifolia, E. kuroguwai, E. crus-galli and B. tripartita in spring plowing, and were E. crus-galli, S. hotarui and S. trifolia in non-plowing transplanting field.
Studies on Tuberization Characteristics of Water Chestnut(Eleocharis Kuroguwai Ohwi)
Kim, H.D. ; Park, J.S. ; Park, K.Y. ; Choi, Y.J. ; Yu, C.J. ; Shim, S.W. ; Rho, Y.D. ; Kwon, Y.W. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 10~23
This study was carried out to determine distribution and tuberization characteristics of tubers of water chestnut(Eleocharis Kuroguwai Ohwi) which is a dominant weed species and diffult to control during 1993 to 1994. By early planting of E. kuroguwai tubers, more and heavier tubers were developed, but the tubers were tended to distribute at the upper soils. Large proportion of tubers was remained at the upper 0 to 10cm soil layer and a few tubers were formed below 20cm. Tubers developed earlier tended to be at deeper layer, while later developed tubers were at upper layers. Tuber weight was increased from the surface to 20cm soil depths, but that formed below 20cm was almost same. No tillage resulted in more tuber formation which were distributed at upper soil layers when compared to conventional tillage. Cool water irrigation pumped from ground water resulted in less tuberization but smaller tubers when compared to control. Shading with color cellophan films resulted in smaller tuber formation with lower in sprouting percentage. Among the films tested, the most significant effect was obtained with green color.
Factors and Recovery of Herbicide Phytotoxicity on Direct-seeded Rice - 2. Phytotoxicity of Herbicide with Nutrient Condition
Im, Il-Bin ; Usui, K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 24~30
The influence of nutrients on the phytotoxicity of herbicides (bensulfuron-methyl, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, imazosulfuron, dimepiperate, and molinate) was investigated in controlled-environment growth chamber with direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin). The phytotoxicity of bensulfuron-methyl, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, and imazosulfuron for rice was greater in nutrient culture than in no-nutrient condition. The root growth of rice applied with these herbicides was more inhibited than the shoot growth. The most severe inhibition was obtained with pyrazosulfuron-ethyl application. The growth inhibition of rice applied by dimepiperate was increased under no-nutrient culture condition. Dimepiperate suppressed more remarkably shoot growth than root. Especially the shoot elongation was much more inhibited than the others. The shoot growth inhibition in rice applied by molinate was severer than the root. The shoot growth was reduced under nutrient culture condition, while the root growth was reduced under no-nutrient culture.
Difference of Classification, Growth and Herbicidal Tolerance in Collected Weedy Rice(Oryza sativa)
Kuk, Y.I. ; Guh, J.O. ; Chon, S.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 31~43
This study was carried out to investigate classfication of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) based on isozymes esterase and peroxidase, growth and developmental difference of weedy rices and rices grown under dry and water condition, and weedy rice control and tolerant difference of weedy rices in various herbicides using weedy rices collected from thirteen strains of Chonnam, one Chonbuk, two Kyeongki and two rice cultivars. 1. The collected weedy rices were classified into three groups based on isozyme esterase and peroxidase using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGE) method. The classified groups were not same each other. 2. Plant height was taller in collected weedy rices than rice cultivars at 18 days after seeding under dry and water conditions, but number of leaves, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight and root length were not significantly different between collected weedy rices and rice cultivars. In addition, growths of collected weedy rices were greater in dry- than water-condition. 3. After thiobencarb(S-4-chlorobenzyl diethythiocarbamate), molinate(S-ethyl hexahydro-1H-azepine-1-carbothioate) and oxadiazon(5-tert-butyl-3(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one) were applied at 6 days before seeding, the weedy rices controlled 100% by thiobencarb at 2.1kg ai/ha and 024kg ai/ha oxadiazon treatment but controlled 26% to 67% by molinate at 6.5kg ai/ha. Rice due to the herbicides was injured severely(25% to 100%) in flood condition at time of rice seeding after oxadiazon at 0.48kg ai/ha and 2.1kg ai/ha thiobencarb application, except for molinate which injured rice slightly(4% to 13%) in drain condition. The collected weedy rices to all experimented herbicides showed slight intraspecific variations. The intraspecific variations of weedy rices decreased in the order of thiobencarb>molinate>oxadiazon.
Immunological Detection of Cytosolic Immature and Plastidial Mature EPSP-synthase after Glyphosate Treatment in Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum) Apical Meristem
Kim, T.W. ; Heinrich, Georgr ; Kim, T.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 44~51
Glyphosate had no effect on 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase(EPSP-synthase) biosynthesis per se. But it inhibited clealy the activity of EPSP-synthase. EPSP-synthase seemed to be synthesized as a higher molecular weight(54 kDa) presusor protein and to be transported into plastid. The apparent molecular weight of mature EPSP-synthase in plastid is 45 kDa. Thus, the molecular size of transit peptide appeared to be about 9 kDa. The etiolation for 48 h after glyphosate application did not exhibit the inhibition of translocating level of EPSP-synthase across chloroplast envelope in actively growing meristematic leaves. But even when the plants were etiolated 2 hr after glyphosate treatment, a complete inhibition did not occur at least within 12 hr, i.e. 2 hr after beginning light period, suggesting that EPSP-synthase biosynthesis appeared to be not completely light dependent and the level of EPSP-synthase translocation to chloroplast could be controlled by an unknown regulatory mechanism of light dependent herbicidal effect of glyphosate.
Allelopathic Potential Evaluation of Rice Varieties on Echinochloa crus-galli
Chung, Ill-Min ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Ahn, Joung-Kuk ; Ju, Ho-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 52~58
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains water-soluble substances that inhibit the germination of Echinochloa crus-galli. This study investigated the allelopathic potential of rice in which rice had been grown with E. crus-galli in the field. Extracts of forty-seven rice varieties were screened for allelopathic potential in the laboratory. Double distilled water was used as a control. Based on the germination percentage, the varieties may be classified in the following order of decreasing inhibition : Namweon(36%) and Gyehwa(38%) hulls extracts and Sambaeg(43%) and Seoan(46%) leaves extracts. In the comparison of allelopathic activity test between leaves and hulls extracts, hulls extracts contain more allelopathic toxic substances. In the effect of concentration treatment on the six levels of extract solutions(3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100%, v/v) germination percentage was significantly inhibited as the extract concentration increased. The highest concentration(100%) caused the greatest reduction in E. crus-galli. Allelopathic potential effects were significantly different among the various varieties and between '94 and '95 year extracts. The results indicate that there are genetic differences among varieties for allelopathic potentiality on E. crus-galli. Allelopathic potential in the ecological aspects can be decided through variety selection.
The Enhancement of Cytochrome P-450 Mediated Aryl Hydroxylation of Bentazon in Rice Microsomes
Pyon, J.Y. ; Balke, N.E. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 59~65
Bentazon 6-hydroxylase (B6H) and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (CA4H) activities were determined in rice (Oryza sativa L.) microsomes to study methods of enhancing cytochrome P-450 mediated aryl hydroxylation of bentazon by hydoxylase inducing compounds. Pretreating rice seeds with 1,8-naphthalic anhydride at 0.5-2% and fenclorim at 5 and 10
increased B6H and CA4H activities. Treatments of rice seedling with ethanol 2.5% enhanced B6H and CA4H activities, and with phenobarbital at 12 mM enhanced B6H activity, and CA4H activity was enhanced at 2 mM. B6H activity was synergistically enhanced by combined treatments of ethanol 2.5 or 5% and phenobarbital 8 or 12mM and also that of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride 0.5 or 1% and phenobarbital 8 or 12 mM, but CA4H activity was decreased by combined treatment. Five-day-old rice seedlings showed higher B6H and CA4H activities which decreased with seedling age.
In vitro Acetolactate Synthase Inhibition of LGC-40863 in Rice and Barnyardgrass
Bae, Y.T. ; Lee, J.H. ; Koo, S.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 66~70
LGC-40863(proposed common name ; pyribenzoxim), (benzophenone O-[2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)oxy]benzoyl]oxime) is a new rice herbicide being developed by LG Chemical Ltd. The herbicide is highly selective between rice(Oryza sativa L.) and weeds including barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli(L.) P. Beauv.), and assumed to inhibit acetolactate synthase(ALS ; EC 22.214.171.124) because other structurally related herbicides inhibit the enzyme. To know inhibitory activity and the mode of inhibition of LGC-40863,
(concentration inhibiting ALS activity by 50%) and inhibition kinetics were investigated using ALS extracted from rice and barnyardgrass.
values of LGC-40863 were 14 and 16mM in rice and barnyardgrass, respectively. In contrast to imazapyr(2-[4,5-dihydro-4-mythyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridine-carboxylic acid) which showed an uncompetitive inhibition pattern, LGC-40863 was a noncompetitive inhibitor to ALS with respect to pyruvate similar to chlorsulfuron(2-chloro-N-((4-methoxy-6-methyl-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl) aminocarbonyl)benz-enesulfonamide) in both plants.
International Harmonisation of Pesticide Environmental Safety Assessments
Riley, D. ; Dyson, J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 73~79
Governments and industry have a growing interest in the harmonization of environmental test methods and risk assessment procedures. OECD are currently producing a set of harmonised test guidelines for studying the environmental fate and ecological effects of pesticides. FAO has published an environmental risk assessment procedure. This procedure, which is similar to those used in US and Europe, is based on calculating the ratio of the toxicity of a pesticide to indicator organisms to their level of exposure to the pesticide. The exposure depends on both the concentration of the pesticide and its bioavailability. Ratios which indicate a pesticide will not produce a harmful effect have been established using ecological field studies. Examples are presented for assessing the risk to aquatic ecosystems, earthworms and honeybees. Long-term field studies(up to 20 years) have also shown that pesticides can be used indefinitely without harming soil fertility. Herbicides can be used to avoid the ecologically damaging effects of using soil cultivations excessively for weed control.
Weed Management Using a Potential Allelopathic Crop
Kim, Kil-Ung ; Park, Kwang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 80~93
Allelopathic compounds as naturally occurring herbicide have originally reported from local vegetation since B.C. 300. These compounds are known as secondary plant metabolites which released from plants into the environment often attract or repel, nourish or poison other organisms. In recent, many natural plant allelochemicals be used to attempt to biologically or ecologically control weed among worldwide weed scientists. Some allelochemicals have also used as fungicides, insecticides, and nematodicides, and were less than man-made agrochemicals to damage the global ecosystem. It makes efficient use of resources internal to the farm, relies on a minimum of purchased inputs. Some scientists selected for allelopathic activity when breeding weed-controlling cultivars of rice, sorghum, cucumber, surflower etc. Thus, this paper is focused on allelopathic compounds isolated from cultivated crop with the high potential of prospective herbicides. The most environmentally acceptable and sustainable approach to utilization of allelopathy for weed control is to develop plant cultivars with proven allelopathic characteristics. In rice accessions, there are 60 cultivars/lines which have known as allelopathic activity and some of these cultivars control weed more less 90% within certain radius of activity. These accessions are originated from 15 countries including Korea, Japan, USA, India, Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Taiwan, Afghanistan, Mali, Pakistan, Colombia, Egypt, China, and Dom. Rep. From these cultivars, the most common allelopathic compounds identified in rice are p-Hydroxybenzoic, Vanillic, p-Coumaric, and Ferulic acids. In addition, allelopathic lines of the following crop have shown inhibition of weed growth : beet (Beta vulgaris), lupin(Lupinus spp.), com(Zea mays), Wheat(Triticum aestivum), oats(Avena spp.) peas(Pisum sativum), barley(Hordeum vulgare), rye(Secale cereale), and cucumber(Cucumis sativus). Thus, future allelopathy research must be designed its potentially phytotoxic propertices and the ecotoxic features of the allelochemicals from release to degradation ; its ecological sustainability, its allelopathic effect in early growth. stages, and selectivity properties in combination with chemical stages, and selectivity properties in combination with chemical concentrations. Also, research approach in allelopathy might be screened for highly allelopathic germplasm collection of crops, the idea being to ultimately transfer this agronomic character into improved cultivars by either conventional breeding or other genetic transfer techniques.
Development of Environmentally Sound Herbicides and Their Formulations
Oh, Byung-Youl ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 94~111
A relatively wide range of weed technology concerning sound herbicide development, its formulation exploitation, and application techniques was extensively reviewed in accordance with least inputted sustainable agriculture. Herbicide plays an integral part of farmers' cultural practices in Korean agriculture like rest of world over. Weeds are more obstacle to the adaptation of more sustainable agriculture system. Because weeds dictate most of the crop production practices, weed scientists must become the leaders of collaborative integrated approaches to agriculture systems research. Feasible ways to minimize herbicide input involve the positive introduction of low-rate selective chemistries, innovative formulations, biological herbicides and newly developed application technology. Since herbicide will remain to be a core position in weed management for the foreseeable future, research is needed to optimize herbicide application technology and to minimize their impact on the environment. Public concerns and regulatory pressures on agricultural chemicals are likely to strengthen throughout this decade and coming. Researchers, pesticide manufacturing industries and regulatory authorities have to work together more closely, leading to understand each other better, as well as the needs of our customers and those of society. To be taken extensively, weed control management practices in the future have to be accepted such a way the respective demands of environment, society and economics are entirely matched.
Present and Future of Microbial Pesticides
Choi, Yong-Chul ; Lee, Jeang-Oon ; Kim, Yung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 112~123
Chemical pesticides have been re used for a long time to protect crops from diseases, insects, and weeds ; ample and secure supply of foods in present days would not be possible without them. However, concerns on the risk of using chemical pesticides rising steadily in recent years forced discard many of them and seek an alternate, environment-friendly control strategies. Microbial pesticide is regarded as one of the most promising methods because if properly developed, it will be effective, cheap, and environment-safe. Currently, about 180 microbial pesticides are under development throughout the world and at least 20 of them including B.t. and antibiotics are registered in Korea. This paper discusses some of the successful examples, intriguing problems, and future prospects of microbial pesticides.
Environment-Friendly Cultural and Mechanical Practices for Weed Management
Pyon, J.Y. ; Guh, J.D. ; Ku, Y.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 1, 1997, Pages 124~134
As control of plant diseases, insects and weeds were heavily relied on pesticides, residues of pesticides in environment and food supply were recently focused by environmentalists and consumer groups. The reduction of pesticide use was implemented in Sweden, Denmark, Netherland, England, and United States. Therefore, it is very important to discuss environmentally sound systems of weed management including cultural, mechanical, and integrated weed control. Mechanical methods using tillage, cultivation, mulching, burning, mowing, solarization, and UHF are used as one of most effective environmentally sound weed management systems. Cultural practices favoring the crops are excellent weed management measures. Correct seedbed preparation for the soil and cultural system, and use competitive cultivars contribute to weed management. Increasing crop density by higher seeding rate or by narrowing row width and careful attention to optimum fertility to produce vigorous crop plants increase competitiveness of crops against weeds. Crop rotation breaks life cycles of weeds by alternating the crop it must associate with. Herbicides are efficient and profitable to control weeds, but must be part of a total weed management program with use of minimum rate. The best weed management will be an integrated approach including two or more methods to manage weed problems.