Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
Chemical Stabilization Study for Sulfonylurea Herbicides
Chen, Chia-Chung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 135~138
Sulfonylureas are highly active herbicides which can be applied at very low rate(10-50g/ha) to control broadleaf weeds. The nature of this category of compound is, however, very unstable toward hydrolysis. Therefore, the preparation of these compounds as liquid formulation was not possible. Most of the current formulations of sulfonylurea are in dry forms such as water dispersible granule or wettable powder. Even in these dry forms, the active ingredients also encounter significant chemical decomposition. This study involves the preparation of the sulfonylurea salts by reacting the parent compound with base such as sodium hydroxide. The salt becomes stable toward hydrolysis and it turns soluble when diluted with water. This discovery makes the preparation for liquid formulation or soluble granule of sulfonylurea possible. The stoichiometry of base added to the neutral sulfonylurea is controlled quite precisely. The base has to be added enough to quench the acidic impurities in the technical material and to convert the active ingredient into salt. However, the base should not be overused to cause further saponification of the sulfonylurea salts. The chemical nature of these compounds is presented and the chemical reaction is described. New soluble liquid formulation and solid granule formulation of sulfonylurea are suggested.
Shift in Weed Occurrence Accompanied Type of Direct - seeded Rice Fields
Choi, C.D. ; Won, J.G. ; Lee, W.H. ; Choi, B.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 139~146
The experiment was conducted at Gyeongbuk Provincial Rural Development Administration in 1996 to obtain basic information on weed ecology and effective weed control in direct-seeded rice fields under different seeding types and seeding times. A large number of upland weeds such as Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Stetaria viridis etc occurred at early growth stage, while Eleocharis kuroguwai, Aneilema keisak and Cyperus serotinus dominated at late stage in dry seeded rice field. In wet seeded rice field, the dominance of E. crus-galli was lower and the occurrence of M. vaginalis and A. keisak were higher than in dry seeded field. Amount of weed occurrence in dry seeded field was 1.8 to 2.4 times greater than in wet seeded field and it increased with delaying seeding time. Increasing rate of weed occurrence through whole life cycle was the highest at 20 days after seeding (DAS) to 40 DAS, regardless of seeding types and seeding times. Simpson index in wet seeded field was higher than in dry seeded field and it gradually increased as growing of dominant species. For F-value test, it was recognized as statistical significant in seeding types, seeding times and interaction of two factors.
Weed Occurrence in Apple Orchard in Korea
Jung, J.S. ; Lee, J.S. ; Choi, C.D. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 147~156
The survey of weed population in apple orchard was conducted to investigate basic information on weed flora and its ecology at 27 locations in 1996. The weed species observed include 7 species of grasses, 60 species of broadleaves and 2 species of sedges, and the ratio of annual weed vs perennial weed was 64 : 36. Major dominant weed species by frequence were Chenopodium album, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Digitaria sanguinalis, Rorippa islandica, Alopecurus aequalis and Erigeron canadensis. While, on the basis of dry weight, the most dominant weeds were C. album followed by E. canadensis, A. aequalis, R islandica and R indica. The dominant weed species in middle-north Kyeongbuk region were C. bursa-pastoris, C. album, R indica and R islandica, were E. canadensis, Persicaria hydropiper, A. aequalis and Arenaria serpylliforia in Chungbuk region and were A. aequalis, E. canadenris and R islandica in Honam region.
Change of Weed Community in Paddy - Upland Rotation
Ku, Y.C. ; Seong, K.Y. ; Song, D.Y. ; Lee, S.B. ; Huh, I.P. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 157~162
This study was conducted to investigate the change of weed community on paddy-upland rotation in 1996. In paddy-upland rotation, dominant weed species in paddy condition were Cyperous amuricus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Rotara indica and Lindernia procumbens. They were E. crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and C. amuricus in upland condition. The number of weed occurrence on paddy and upland rotation reduced about 74-78% as compared with continuous paddy and upland condition. Similarity coefficient and Simpson index on paddy and upland rotation was 8-64, 0.34-0.35, respectively.
Germination Characteristics and Control of Abutilon theophrasti, Troublesome Weed in Corn Fields
Lee, I.Y. ; Park, J.E. ; Ryu, G.H. ; Park, T.S. ; Oh, S.M. ; Kim, Y.K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 163~168
The experiment was conducted in 1996 to investigate distribution, germination characteristics, and effective control of Abutilon theophrasti in corn fields. The regional distribution of A. theophrasti showed that it was higher in Gyenggi province than in Kangwon, Chungnam, or Chonllanambug provinces because of many dairy farms located in Gyenggi province where fresh corn was used as ensilage. The optimal temperature of the weed seed germination was around 15~
and germination rate was 73~93% in 1~5cm of burial depth. The weed was able to be controlled effectively when treated 10 days after seeding more than just after seeding with herbicides, pendimethalin 31.7% EC, linuron 50% WP and pendimethalin linuron 25% EC with an acceptable phytotoxicity.
Effect of Different Cultural Patterns on the Growth and Herbicidal Responses of Rice and Barnyardgrass
Park, T.S. ; Park, J.E. ; Lee, I.Y. ; Lim, E.S. ; Kim, Y.K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 169~175
The effect of different cultural patterns on the growth and herbicidal response of rice(Oryza sativa L.) and barnyardgrass(Echinochloa crus-galli var. oryzicola) was studied tinder direct-seeded rice and early rice seedling conditions. In dry-seeded rice condition, the growth of rice and barnyardgrass was the greatest in 3cm-seeding depth and 40% soil moisture, respectively. At 10 days after herbicide application, plant height of rice was severely inhibited in 1cm-seeding depth and 50% soil moisture, and the degree of inhibition was severer at application of pendi+molinate EC as compared to that of butachlor EC. On the other hand, plant heigth of barnyardgrass by treatment of herbicides was severely reduced regardless of seeding depth and soil moisture. The lengths of barnyardgrass mesocotyl and rice coleoptile were increased with increasing seeding depth and were severely inhibited by applied herbicides in 1cm-seeding depth under dry-seeded rice condition. The dry weight of rice at different leaching times after herbicides application showed slightly decreasing trend as the leaching time was delayed, but the growth of barnyardgrass was very severely inhibited regardless of the leaching time. In addition, the phytotoxicity of rice showed decreasing trend with the increase in transplanting depth and delay of application time under early rice seedling condition.
Tolerance of Rice(Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes to Herbicide Thiobencarb
Shin, Seo-Ho ; Lee, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 176~184
The rice(Oryza saliva L.) tolerance to herbicide thiobencarb was determined. At the concentration of thiobencarb 3.0kg ai/ha, Yamabiko, M73 (23)F.A, and wx 139-3-64-220-3-1 were the most tolerant among 643 rice genotypes tested. Thiobencarb reduced plant height until 14 days after treatment by 10% and 13% in tolerant and susceptible genotypes, respectively, but increased plant height in 21 days after treatment for both the genotypes, though partial stunting or dwarfing was observed during the early period until 14 days after treatment. Number of tillers per plant was greater in the plants treated by thiobencarb than in the control, showing that the tolerant genotypes had 2 to 3 tillers which were more than the susceptible ones. Regardless of the genotypes, shoot dry weight was increased by 30 to 50% in 35 days after thiobencarb treatment. The root dry weight increased by 50 to 100% in 35 days after the treatment.
Selective Mechanism of Cyhalofop-butyl ester between Rice(Oryzae sativa L.) and Echinochloa crus-galli - III. Uptake, Translocation, and Metabolism, of
Kim, K.U. ; Park, J.E. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 185~191
This experiment was conducted to determine the selective mechanism of cyhalofop-butyl ester on uptake, traslocation, and metabolism of the herbicide in both rice and Echinochloa crus-galli. Uptake and translocation of
-cyhalofop-butyl ester was higher in E. crus-galli than rice when treated to shoot.
-uptake by root of E. crus-galli increased rapidly at 30 minute after treatment and reached the maximum at 12 hoots after treatment. After that, uptake was leveled off. Uptake pattern in rice root was not significantly affected by the duration of herbicide treatment. In E. crus-galli, the absorbed
-cyhalofop-butyl ester seemed to be rapidly metabolized into free acid and the content of changed free acid was higher than rice.
Selective Mechanism of Cyhalofop-butyl ester between Rice(Oryzae sativa L.) and Echinochloa crus-galli - IV. Effect on Enzyme Activity, Biosynthesis of Fatty Acid and Protein in Rice and Echinochloa crus-galli
Park, J.E. ; Lee, I.Y. ; Park, T.S. ; Ryu, G.H. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 192~198
This experiment was carried out to determine selectivity of herbicide cyhalofop-butyl ester on enzyme activity, biosynthesis of fatty acid and protein between rice and Echinochloa crus-galli. Activity of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase(ACCase) was inhibited greater in E. crus-galli than in rice by the treatment of cyhalofop-butyl ester. The ACCase activity in E. crus-galli was observed with
at 1-2ppm of cyhalofop-butyl ester, while in rice only at above 10ppm. Cyhalofop-butyl ester also inhibited the biosynthesis of fatty acid by 61% of palmitic acid, 54% of linoleic acid and 41% of linolenic acid in E. crux-galli. In contrast, no significant difference of fatty acid content was observed in rice at 5DAT as compared with the untreated control. Protein patterns of rice between the herbicide treatment and the untreated control were not significantly different, but in E. crus-galli, 3 protein spots were disappeared in between 29KD and 45KD.
Chlorsulfuron-induced Phytotoxicity in Canola(Brassica napus L.) Seedlings
Kim, Song-Mun ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Han, Dae-Sung ; Vanden Born, William H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 199~206
Chlorsulfuron, an acetolactate-synthase-inhibiting sulfonylurea herbicide, induces many metabolic and physiological changes in susceptible plants. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent chlorsulfuton-induced phytotoxicity was due to a shortage of final products(the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine) or to an accumulation of a toxic metabolite(2-ketobutyrate), or both, in a susceptible species. Chlorsulfuron-treated canola seedlings showed growth inhibition and injury symptoms that included chlorosis, downward leaf rolling, and accumulation of anthocyanins. Supplementation with valine, leucine, and isoleucine prevented the chlorsulfuron-induced growth inhibition and injury symptoms only partially, suggesting that factor(s) other than a shortage of the branched-chain amino acids also are involved in the phytotoxicity. Canola seedlings treated with 2-ketobutyrate showed reduced growth, but they showed different changes in metabolites than seedlings treated with chlorsulfuron. The results suggest that 2-ketobutyrate is not involved in chlorsulfuron-induced phytotoxicity. We conclude that chlorsulfuron-induced phytotoxicity is due at least in part to a shortage of branched-chain amino acids.
Effect of Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitor Ancymidol on Growth, Floral Initiation and Endogenous GA levels in Sorghum bicolor
Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Kil-Ung ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Shin, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 207~213
This study was conducted to correlate changes in plant growth and flowering behavior with inhibition of gibberellin synthesis following application of GA biosynthesis inhibitor. Two sorghum genotypes, wild-type and phyB-1(phytochrome B mutant) which grow fast and flowers early relative to the wild-type, were used. Both growth and floral initiation of these two genotypes were greatly affected by ancymidol concentration increased. However, these growth inhibition and delayed flowering are almost completely overcome by simultaneous applications of 31.6ppm
. The ability of
to reverse the effect of the inhibition on both growth and floral initiation in sorghum suggests a role for native GAs in sorghum flowering. This result was contrast to the fact that in some long day plants GA biosynthesis inhibitors will inhibit shoot elongation but not floral initiation. In sorghum, inhibition of vegetative growth by GA biosynthesis inhibitor is accompanied by a delay in flowering. Ten ppm of ancymidol treatments drastically reduced all early-13-hydroxylation pathway GAs(
Influence of Soil Pollutants and Fertilizers on Degradation Rate of Herbicide Alachlor in Soil
Kim, Young-Seok ; Kim, Yong-Hwi ; Moon, Young-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 2, 1997, Pages 214~219
The influence of manure, chemical fertilizers, heavy metals and cleaner on the rate of degradation of alachlor in soil was studied. The degradation rate of alachlor in the soil followed first-order reaction kinetics. The half-life was 6.4 days. The degradation was accelerated by the amendment of manure. Adding chemical fertilizers to the soil enhanced alachlor degradation more in the presence of nitrogen than potassium. On the other hand, adding heavy metals or cleaner to the soil decreased the degradation rate. The half-life of alachlor in soil treated with Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu was 11.0, 8.3, 7.9, 7.2 and 6.7 days, respectively, and that of the cleaner is 7.5 days. The microbial biomass and the respiration rate in the soil were promoted by the amendment of manure and chemical fertilizers, and inhibited by the addition of heavy metals and cleaner. The degradation rate correlate positively with the microbial biomass and the respiration rate.