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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
Apoplastic Phloem Loading of Photoassimilate
Kim, Song-Mun ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Han, Dae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 345~361
Photoassimilates translocate from regions of carbohydrate synthensis(source) to regions of carbohydrate utilization or storage(sink). In the source, assimilate loads into the phloem for long-distance transport. Current evidence suggests that there are twig loading mechanisms : one involves assimilate transfer via the apoplasm and then load into the phloem by carrier-mediated proton-sucrose cotransport, while the other involves movement through the continuous symplastic connections between the mesophyll cells and the phloem. Inspite of problems associated with the interpretation of experiments, the evidence for apoplastic loading remains convincing because the apoplastic loading systems explains well the observed accumulation capacity arid the selectivity of assimilate uptake by tile phloem.
An Optimum Control Time of Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis Ohwi in No - tillage Dry Seeded Rice
Hwang, C.D. ; Park, S.T. ; Kim, S.Y. ; Lee, K.Y. ; Kim, S.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 362~367
A field experiment was conducted to determine an optimum control time of water foxtail(Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis Ohwi), a most troublesome weed, in no-tillage dry seeded rice. Paraquat, a non-selective herbicide, was applied at 1.5 days interval from March 15 to May 15 at a concentration of 3,000ml per hectar and its control efficacy to A. aequalis was recorded before and after seed sowing. In addition. other characters such as decayed injury of A. aequalis to rice seedling, and its influence of seedling stand were also investigated in relation to rice grain yield. Dry weight of A. aequalis was rapidly increased with delay in control time from 42g/
at March 15 to 237g/
at May 15. The amount of its regrowth at seeding time was highest with 68.3g, when paraquat was applied at March 15, then decreased thereafter and it was less than 6.2g when paraquat was applied after April 15 which indicates above 98% control rate. The control rate of A. aequalis, at 30 days after paraquat application way likewise similar to that the seeding time. Rice seedling stands in the plot treated with paraquat before April 15 were not affected by decayed injury of A. aequalis while decayed injury of 3 to 4 degree for those after April 30 application was noted. Dwarf virus disease on rice seedling due to occurrence of A. aequalis was not observed when A. aequalis was controled from March 30 to May 15 while it was occurred in the plot of March 15 application and the untreated control. The control plot of A. aequalis at April 15 had the highest grain yield with 4.79ton/10a. Based on control rate of A. aequalis, seedling stands of rice, virus disease, and rice grain yield, the most suitable control time of A. aequalis in no-tillage dry seeded rice is considered to be about April 15.
Weed Occurrence and Yield of Rice in Transplanting Rice Culture with Paper Mulching
Lee, B.W. ; Cui, R.X. ; Lee, H.L. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 368~374
Investigated ware the decomposition of mulch paper, weed occurrence, and rice growth and yield in transplanting rice culture with paper mulching in 1996 and 1997. The mulch paper were developed from domestic old corrugated container. In the experiment of 1996 where 25 percent of nitrogen fertilizer was applied as tillering fertilizer at 15 days after transplanting, it took about 28 to 40 days for the mulch paper to reach 50 percent decomposition according to types of mulch paper and fertilizer amount. The decomposition was faster in 18kg N/10a fertilization plot than in 12kg N/10a fertilization plot, and slower in the mulch paper treated with polyamidepolyamine epichlorohydrin resin(PPE) for the reinforcement of wet strength than in the mulch paper without PPE. In the experiment of 1997 where nitrogen fertilizer was not applied at tillering stage and instead 70 percent of nitrogen fertilizer was supplied as basal fertilizer, it took more than 42 days for the mulch paper(PPF treated) to reach 50 percent decomposition. Paper mulching was found to be very effective in controlling the paddy weeds at early stage of rice growth, but the efficacy, of weed control decreased especially in the mulch paper without PPE at later stage of rite growth due to the occurrence of Ludwigia prostrata in 1996. Few weeds occurred even in non-mulched plot without herbicide in 1997, rending difficulties in evaluating the efficacy of mulch paper in weed control, However, it could be deduced from the durability of mulch paper that paper mulching would have had sufficient efficacy of weed control. Rice yield was only 185kg/10a in the plot without mulching and weed control, but 657kg/10a and 771kg/10a in the paper(PPE treated) mulching plot with 12kgN/10a and 18kgN/10a, respectively, in 1996. The paper mulching plot showed rice yield similar to the weed control plot with herbicide in 1997. It would be concluded that paper mulching could ensure effective weed control and as high yield as the conventional rice cultivation with herbicidal weed control if the corresponding amount of basal nitrogen fertilizer is increased instead of omitting the nitrogen fertilizer at tillering stage.
Search for Allelopathic Compound in Rice Straw
Lee, Choon-Woo ; Kim, Yong-Wook ; Yoon, Eui-Byung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 375~381
When the rice straw mulched, the inhibition of weed growth was observed in the paddy field. If we use these allelopathic effect of decreased weed establishment, we can save labor, and protect environment. Aqueous extract of rice straw were bioassayed using water foxtail seeds to investigate chair effects on the germination and the growth, and to identify allelopathic compounds. The major results obtained were summarized as follows : Aqueous extract was fractioned by solvent, among various fractions, II-3, II-4 fractions inhibited the coleoptile and the radical of water foxtail, by 100%, respectively. There were fumaric acid and 4 unknown organic acids. Seven organic acids including fumaric acid inhibited the growth and germination of water foxtail in
M solution. One of the most effective allelopathic compounds in rice straw was identified the unknown organic acid, as molecular weight 253, by GC/MS.
Weed Flora of Arable Peat in Selangor, Malaysia - Quantitative and Spatial Pattern Analyses
Bakar, Baki Bin ; Wong Nyuk Yin, Fenny ; Kwon, Yong-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 382~389
Collated data from the 1995-1996 floristic surveys of weeds of arable peat in Selangor district were analysed to assess composition and dominance and spatial distribution pattern based on quantitative and dispersion indices. Forty eight weed species belonging to 19 families of which 31 were broad leaves, 10 grasses and 7 sedges were sampled and these ware translated as 77.8 and 15% of the total cover, respectively, The respective important values were 71.11 and 18%. Ten species in the onder of dominance were Fimbristylis acuminata, Murdannia nudiflora, Hedyotis corymbosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Asystasia gangetica, Cleome rutidosperma, Cyperus sphacelatus, Lindernia crustacea, Ludwigia hyssopifolia of spatial distribution based on variance-to-mean ratios, Llouds mean crowding or Lloyds patchiness indices. Other species were either random or regular in their spatial distribution. Differences in species-dominance and spatial distribution pattern may be attributed to inherent variations in patchiness and fecundity schedules of each weed species, crops, cropping patterns and agronomic practices prevailing in the area.
Selection of Herbicide Resistant Potatoes Transformed with Phosphinothricin Acetyltransferase Gene
Han, S.S. ; Jeong, J.H. ; Bang, K.S. ; Yang, D.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 390~399
This experiment was conducted to introduce PAT (phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, non-selective herbicide bialaphos resistant gene) gene into potato (Solanum tuberosum. cv. Desiree). Optimal shoot regeneration from leaf discs and stem segments was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L IBA and 0.5 mg/L BA, and the frequency of shoot regeneration was 54% in left discs and 46% in stem segments. In this condition, leaf discs and stem segments of potato were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens MP90 which contained binary vector with GUS: :NPTII gene and PAT gene. Transgenic shoots were regenerated from leaf and stem-derived calli on selection medium with 100mg/L kanamycin. The 100
acetosyringone treatment during the co-cultivation highly enhanced(4 times than the control) the shoot regeneration on selection medium. When the putative transgenic plants were transferred to medium with 10mg/L basta, all of them were survived. After PCR. GUS test, and Southern blot analysis of the survived plant, we confirmed that the gene was stably integrated into the potato genome and expressed. After the transgenic plants were transplanted in soil, and the transgenic plants were sprayed with the herbicide basta (300ml/10a), the transgenic plants remained green but control plants were died.
Differential Tolerance of Pepper Cultivars to Bentazon
Pornprom, Tosapon ; Pyon, Jong-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 400~406
Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the tolerance of 42 pepper cultivars to postemergence applications of bentazon [3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Cultivars, Jopoong, Singsing House, Sweet Green, Kwangbok, and Ilcheon showed relatively tolerant response to bentazon, while cultivars, Dahhong, Early Glory, Korea, Cheongyang, Nostalgia, and Daejanggyeong were susceptible ones to it. At rates over 2.40 kg ai/ha, the tolerant cultivars appeared to be clearly or more tolerant than the susceptible cultivars. For the determination of growth inhibition by bentazon, the concentration required to reduce growth by 50% (GR_(50)) was 2.00 to 2.40 kg ai/ha for susceptible cultivars, and 10.00 to 12.00 kg ai/ha for tolerant cultivars. Moreover, the herbicide rate required to inhibit growth by 50%
was 2.40 kg ai/ha for susceptible cultivars and 9.60 kg ai/ha for tolerant cultivars, respectively. On the
estimates of growth, the tolerant cultivars were 5- to 6-fold more tolerant to bentazon than susceptible ones.
Allelopathic Effects of Medicinal Plants on Echinoclhoa crus-galli Beauv.
Kim, Sang-Yeol ; Kim, Chil-Ryong ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Kim, Soon-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 407~412
Allelopathic activity of methanol extract from medicinal plants was determined based on the inhibition of germination, shoot and root length of Echinochloa crus-galli. The response was depended on the source of extracts and concentrations. Of the 20 test plants tested, Cnidium officinale showed most inhibition according to germination, shoot and root length of E. crus-galli. Based on the plant parts, the root extract of C. officinale had more inhibitory effect on E. crus-galli than the stem+leaf extract. Phytotoxic effects of the root extract on E. crus-galli showed 75% inhibition of seed germination, 95% inhibition of shoot growth, and 100% inhibition of root growth at the concentration of 1g/petridish. Sequential partitioning of root extract with organic solvents with increasing polarity showed that the ethylacetate fraction had the greatest inhibitory effect on E. crus-galli. Germination was not inhibited at any rate of ethylacetate fraction but shoot and root growth, were significantly inhibited even at 2mg/petridish. This indicates that the most toxic phytotoxin present in the root extract may be moderate polar compound.
Study on the Seed Germination Characteristics of Trapa japonica FEROV.
Choi, J.S. ; Kim, J.S. ; Lim, H.K. ; Kwak, H.H. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 413~420
In this study, germination characteristics and effect of some chemicals on germination of Trapa japonica
seeds were investigated to obtain a fundamental data for controlling them. When the seeds were stored at low temperature for at least 3 months, their dormancy was completely released with a germinability of above 90%. However, those stored under the room or high temperature condition were never germinated. Germination was best at constant temperature of around
or at alternate temperature of 25/
(12 hr-day/12 hr-night), and was nat dependent on light. They could germinate though planted at the depth of 15 cm, but their initial growth were: suppressed with increase of planting depth, especially above 10 cm depth. Germinability was lost when the fresh weight was decreased more than 30%, indicating that the seed is sensitive to dehydration. The freezing at
for 1 hr didn't affect germination, but 5 hr treatment completely killed them. Their germination was inhibited by 100% at 100 ppm ABA and slightly inhibited above 25 ppm of butachlor, whereas pyrazosulfuron-ethylnt is likely to control T. japonica physically and herbicide treatment to inhibit germination may not be recommendatory. and bensulfuron-methyl didn't inhibit the germination at the concentration of 100 ppm. Taken together, dehydration treatme is likely to control T. japonica physically and herbicide treatment to inhibit germination may not be recommendatory.
Identification of Biologically Active Substances from Ginkgo biloba L.
Nam, S.J. ; Kim, K.U. ; Shin, D.H. ; Hwang, S.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 421~430
This experiment was conducted to detect the presence of allelopathic substances in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. Water extracts from G. biloba leaves which collected at different season markedly inhibited the germination and growth of O. sativa, E. crus-galli, D. sanguinalis, and L. sativa, indicating the presence of biological substances. Linolenic and palmitic acid were the major fatty acids of G. biloba leaves. The biochemical substances such as salicylic arid, p-coumaric acid, catechol, hydroquinone, orchinol, ferulic acid, phloroglucinol, and umbelliferone etc., belonging to the phenolic, compounds were, detected in a large amount, which may be responsible for exhibition inhibitory effects. The common phenolic compounds were detected in the early-harvested and late-harvested G. biloba leaves were salicylic and p-coumaric acid. All these compounds were related to the allelopathic activities in G. biloba leaves.
Effects of Magnesium Deficiency on Induction of Activity of Antioxidative Enzymes
Kim, B.C. ; Lee, J.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 431~438
The influence of deficient(7
) and suffcient(1000
) magnesium(Mg) supply on the content of mg, chlorophyll, protein and the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD), scavengers of superoxide radical(
), and ascorbate peroxidase(AP),
scavenging enzyme, and glutathione redutase(GR) were studied in pumpkin(Cudurbita moscata
) plants over a 11-day period. Over the 11 days Period of growth in nutrient solution with sufficient and deficient Mg supply, the contents of Mg, chlorophyll protein and the activities of the antioxidative enzymes remained more or less constant in Mg-sufficient leaves. In Mg-deficient leaves, the contents of Mg, chlorophyll and protein was seriously decreased with time, however the activities of SOD, AP and GR highly enhanced compared to those of Mg-sufficient. The results indicated the stimulative effect of Mg deficiency on toxic oxygen species and scavenging enzymes in plants.
Reason of Late Establishment of Barnyardgrass and Their Density Effects on Rice Yield Loss
Seong, K.Y. ; Lee, S.B. ; Ku, Y.C. ; Song, D.Y. ; Huh, I.P. ; Kim, Y.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 17, issue 4, 1997, Pages 439~444
The causes of late establishment of barnyardgrass and their density effect on rice yield loss were examined in 1996 and 1977. Herbicide application on 5 to 15DAT(Days after transplanting) increased from 6% to 52.5%, 1988 to 1992, and their ingredient amount for barnyardgrass control decreased to 41.7-87.5% in Korea. Most late establishment of barnyardgrass in machine transplanted rice field were not late germinated but revived ones. The number of late established barnyardgrass were 0.5, 2.0 and 13.3/
, on direct seeded at May 10, and machine transplanted May 23 and June 9, individually. Relation on rice yield and the number of barnyardgrass at machine transplanted field showed highly significant equation, as y=543.3 4.7x, r=0.9039 in 1996 and y=515.8 10.4x+0.066
=0.9532 in 1997. Theoritical yield loss by regress equation showed 2% per one plant of barnyardgrass per
and 5, 10, 20, 50, and 80 plants of barnyardgrass decreased rice to 10, 19, 35, 69 and 79%, individually.