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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Weed Infestation and Effective Weed Control in Direct - Seeded Rice
Kim, H.H. ; Lee, S.G. ; Lee, J.C. ; Song, I.M. ; Shin, C.W. ; Moon, C.S. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~11
This experiment was conducted to investigate weed infestation and to determine effective weed control methods in direct-seeded rice. Twenty two weed species occurred in dry- and water-seeded rice, which was mainly composed of annual weeds. Dominant weed species in dry-seeded rice were Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Aneilema keisak and Digitaria sanguinalis in discending order. Dominant weed species in water-seeded lice were E. crus-galli, C. difformis, Monochoria vaginalis and Scirpus juncoides. E. crus-galli emerged at 7 days after sowing. In water-seeded rice, E. crus-galli emerged at 5 days after sowing, and M vaginalis, S. juncoides and C. difformis at 8~10 days after sowing. Mean days to emerge important weeds was 20 days in dry-seeded rice and 13 days in water-seeded rice. Leaf development of weeds was faster than that of rice in dry-seeded rice. In water-seeded rice, E eras-galli was more vigorous than rice, but leaf development of other weeds were slower than that of rice. Changes in number of weeds and dry weight oil weed species varied depending upon weed species in the direct-seeded rice. Dry weight of weeds were increased greatly from 30 days to 60 days after sowing in dry-seeded rice. Number of weeds tended to increase up to 40 days after sowing drastically, and then trend of the increase was dull thereafter. Dry weight and number of weeds increased up to 20~60 days after sowing in water-seeded rice. Most effective herbicide treatments was foliar application of cyhalofop/bentazon at 20 days after sowing followed by fenoxaprop/bentazon at 45 days after sowing in dry-seeded rice. All herbicide treatments except foliar applications were very effective to control weeds in water-seeded rice. Slight phytotoxicity was observed in foliar applied fenoxaprop/bentazon at 45 days after sowing in water-seeded rice, but it did not affect rice yield.
Weed Occurrence and Yield Loss due to Weeds in Different Direct - Seeded Rice Paddy Fields
Kim, H.H. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 12~19
The pattern of rice cultivation in Korea is changing from hand transplanting and machine transplanting into direct-seeding for low input and cost-down practices. However, there are still some obstacles to establish the direct-seeding cultural practices because of poor seedling stand, lodging, and weed infestation. In particular, there were much more and wide weed occurrence in direct-seeding rice as compared with the transplanted rice. Weed occurrence in terms of dry weight of weeds was highest in dry direct-seeded rice followed by sowing an puddled soil, sowing on submerged soil in order as compared with transplanting with infant rice seedling. Echinochloa crux-galli was a common dominant weed with 35~44% distribution in any direct-seeding methods. The dominant weed species were E. crux-galli, Cyperus difformis, C. serotinus, and Ludwigia prostrata in dry-seeded rice. The dominant weed species in water-seeded rice were E. crus-galli, Eleocharis kuroguwai, Scirpus juncoides, and Monochoria vaginalis. Yield loss of rice due to weeds at weedy condition was 96% in dry direct-seeded rice. In water-seeded rice, yield loss was 61%, whereas yield loss was 40% in machine transplanting with infant rice seedling.
Factors and Recovery of Herbicide Phytotoxicity on Direct - seeded Rice - 3. Phytotoxicity of Herbicide by Three Elements of Fertilizer
Im, Il-Bin ; Usui, K. ; Cho, S.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 20~27
This experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fertilizer for herbicides phytotoxicity of rice(Oryza sativa L. japonica cv Dongjin). The shoot and root growth of rice were inhibited more by pyrazosulfuron-ethyl or pyrazosulfuronethyl+molinate than bensulfuron methyl or bensulfuron methyl+dimepiperate application in nitrogen or nitrogen mixed solution. In phosphate or phosphate mixed solution, rice growth were inhibited more by bensulfuron methyl or bensulfuron methyl+dimepiperate than pyrazosulfuron-ethyl or pyrazosulfuron-ethyl+molinate application. In solution mixed with nitrogen and phosphate or fertilizer three elements, rice shoots were more. inhibited by pyrazosulfuron-ethyl or pyrazosulfuron-ethyl+molinate treatments, roots were inhibited more relatively by bensulfuron methyl or bensulfuron methyl+dimepiperate treatments. In all fertilizer solutions, rice plant heights were reduced by dimepiperate and molinate applications, but root growth was reduced only by nitrogen and phosphate mixed solution. Rice growth in sulfonylurea or their mixed herbicide application were more inhibited in high :nitrogen concentration arid by phosphate exclusion than by nitrogen exclusion culture.
Herbicidal Efficacy of Cyhalofop/Bentazon and Pyribenzoxim as Affected by Application Time in Dry - Seeded Rice
Moon, Byeong-Chul ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Kim, Sang-Yeol ; Kim, Soon-Chul ; Oh, Yun-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 28~35
Cyhalofop/bentazon ME and pyribenzoxim EC herbicides were originally developed as foliarapplied herbicides to control weeds at 4-5 leaf stages of barnyard grass 20-25 days after seeding (DAS) in direct-seeding culture but further possible utilization of these two herbicides earlier than 3-4 leaf stages of rice were evaluated for a field where early weed infestations might be severe. The application of cyhalofop/bentazon ME and pyribenzoxim EC at right after rice emergence and the 2-3 leaf stages of rice had an excellent weed control efficacy with above 90% up to 30 DAS without a phytotoxicity of rice plant and the control efficacy of over 80% was maintained until 60 DAS. However, these two herbicides controlled Echinochloa crus-galli very effectively above 97% but Aneilema keisak and Aeschynomene indica were not controlled by cyhalofop/bentazon ME and Cyperus serotinus by pyribenzoxim EC. Therefore, to control those problem weeds, second systematic application of pyribenzoxim EC and pyrazosulfuron/mefenacet G for A. keisak and A. indica, and pyrazosulfuron/molinate G, cyhalofap/ azimsulfuron/molinate G, pyrazosulfuron/mefenacet G and bentazon SL for C. serotinus at 30 DAS was found to be very efficient herbicide systems.
Growth and Anatomical Responses of Rice and Barnyardgrass to Molinate under Different Cultural Patterns
Han, S.U. ; Guh, J.O. ; Chon, S.U. ; Shin, C.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 36~41
Growth and anatomical responses of rice and barnyardgrass to molinate were examined under various cultural patterns in a greenhouse in which molinate had been applied at 3kg ai/ha 10 days after sowing or transplanting of rice. Molinate severely reduced growth of broadcast-sown rice compared to drill-seeded or transplanted rice. Molinate also significantly reduced the growth of barnyardgrass. The growth reduction of both species by molinate was more apparent under flooded than under dry conditions. Following the treatment of molinate, the leaf primordia of barnyardgrass were found to develop abnormally, resulting in a zigzag pattern. The effect of molinate on causing the symptom was more severe under flooded than under dry conditions.
Growth and Development of Commelina benghalensis L. from Four Seed Types
Kim, Sang-Yeol ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 42~47
The experiment was conducted to study the growth, developmental pattern, and seed production of Commelina benghalensis L. grown from four seed types; large and small aerial seeds, and large and small underground seeds. Plants from the four seed types differed in growth rate. Based on dry weight and leaf area, plants from large underground seeds emerged and grew faster in the first 2-4 weeks after seeding(WAS) but plants from small aerial seeds grew faster during the 4-6 WAS; thereafter, there was no significant difference in growth rate among plants from the four seed types. Based on seed production, plants from large aerial seed produced more seeds(1473) than those from small seeds(1006). Small aerial types represented 75-77% of the total seed production, large aerial seed 21-23%; only 2-4% were underground seeds. The results suggest that the plants from large underground seeds might have better competitive ability Than those of small aerial seeds during the early growth stage due to faster germination and higher dry matter production.
Influence of Rice Straw Extract on Growth of Barley and Water Foxtail(Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis(Kom.) Ohwi
Lee, Choon-Woo ; Kim, Yong-Wook ; Yoon, Eui-Byung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 48~53
When rice straw was mulched, the inhibition of weed growth was observed in the barley field. This study was carried to indentify the influence of rice straw extract on germination, shoot and root growth of barley and water foxtail, according to extraction rate, temperature, growth stage, variety and soaking time. The inhibition rate of germination, shoot and root length of barley and water foxtail was higest in rice straw extract of
, 5hours, 10%(w/v). Daerimbyeo's extract among 17 rice varieties inhibited growth of barley most, but Anjoongbyeo's was lowest. Among five growth stages, extract at seedling stages inhibited growth of barly and water foxtail most. Among 10 barley varieties, Seaolbori showed the greatest growth inhibition by rice straw extract.
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Minimizing Ozone Injury in Tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L.)
Park, K.S. ; Cho, J.H. ; Sohn, J.K. ; Lee, S.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 54~62
This experiment was conducted to find out the effects of ABA and IAA on activities of antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant content, and growth of tobacco under exposure to ozone. The exposure to ozone in tobacco plant significantly decreased plant height, but it did not show any difference in vegetative characteristics except plant height of IAA
M treated. Total chlorophyll content of NC 82 was dramatically decreased with increase in days after ozone treatment. However, reduction of chlorophyll was minimized when plant growth regulators were treated before ozone exposure. Three days treament of ozone in tobacco increased ascorbic acid of oxidised form, while slightly decreased `in reduced ascorbic acid by IAA treatment. But seven days of ozone treatment showed increase in ascorbic acid and decrease in dehydroascorbic acid. Ozone treatment did not show any difference in glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity when plant growth regulators were treated. Activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), ascorbate peroxidase(AP) and guaiacol peroxidase(GP) were increased by the exposure to ozone for three days. However, there were no difference in activities of SOD, AP and GP due to exposure to ozone for seven days. These reactions may be interpreted as protective responses to prevent or alleviate the damage of tobacco plant by ozone exposure.
Studies on Occurrence and Control of Weeds in Edible Wild Greens Field
Lee, In-Yong ; Park, J.E. ; Park, T.S. ; Ryu, G.H. ; Yu, B.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 63~68
This experiment was carried out to select some herbicides for edible wild greens, Album monanthum, Petasites japonicus, and Aster scaber. The herbicides tested were napropamide 21.8% EC, nitralin 50% WP, and pendimethalin 31.7% EC. Dorminant weeds in the field were Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Persicaria hydropiper, Chenopodium album, and Siegesbeckia pubescens. Simpson's index was calculated to 0.26~0.30, which showed that weed occurrence in the field was quite various. Control efficacy in the field treated with napropamide EC 872g(ai/ha)., nitralin WP 1,000g(ai/ha), and pendimethalin EC 634g(ai/ha) were 81.4%~85.6%, 79.4%~82.8%, and 86.8%~92.2%, respectively. The typical phytotoxic symptoms to herbicides were germination inhibition, growth retardation, and malformation.
Physiological Responses of Tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L.) Leaves of Different Age to Oxyfluorfen
Lee, H.J. ; Shin, C.S. ; Han, S.U. ; Guh, J.O. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 69~75
Responses of tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves of different age to diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen were evaluated with respect to cellular leakage, chlorophyll loss, and membrane lipid peroxidation. When tobacco leaves of different age were incubated under light condition at
following 12hr dark incubation. Significant electrolyte leakage from the treated tissues into the bathing medium occurred. The change of electrolyte leakage was proportional to the oxytluorfen concentration and the duration of light exposure to the tissues. Electrolyte leakage from the tissues treated with oxyfluorfen was highly dependent on the leaf age. From the tissues of younger age, more electrolyte leakage occurred and lag period was greatly reduced. Chlorophyll loss and membrane lipid peroxidation, as measured by malondialdehyde production, caused by oxyfluorfen treatment were also dependent an the age of treated leaf tissues. In conclusion, physiological responses of tobacco leaves to oxyfluorfen greatly varied with the age of treated tissues, and thus tobacco plants could be used as appropriate materials for studying the mechanisms of tolerance to diphenyl ether herbicides.
Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Echinochloa Species Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs(RAPDs) Markers
Kim, Kil-Ung ; Sohn, Jae-Keun ; Shin, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Kyung-Min ; Kim, Hak-Yoon ; Lee, In-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 76~83
Echinochloa species maintained by selling for more than 10 years were classified using random amplified polymorphic DNAs(RAPDs) analysis. Seventy-four decamer of randomly sequence markers were used to classify intraspecific variation irt Echinochloa species. The number of amplification products increased with increasing GC content of the primer in the range between 60% and 70% GC. Single-base substitutions of a primer altered amplification, providing new polymorphisms. The size of amplified DNA was mostly between 0.40kbp and 1.4kbp with the most common bands at 1.1kbp. Echinochloa species were detected with 6 primers which generated 26 polymorphic amplified DNAs. By hierarchical cluster analysis, Echinochloa species collected in Korea were divided into three groups. These results revealed that RAPD markers are useful tools for the determination of genetic variations in Echinochloa species.