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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Effect of Recycled Paper Mulch on Weed Occurrence and Yield in Dry-seeding Rice Culture
Lee, Byun-Woo ; Cui, Ri Xian ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 281~285
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of recycled paper mulch on weed occurrence and the growth and yield of rice in dry-seeded paddy field. Mulch papers with basis weight of 105, 110, 115g/
were fabricated from recycled corrugate container. It took about 80 days after mulching for the mulch papers to reach 50% decomposition, showing no significant differences among types of mulch paper. Paper mulching was very effective in controlling the paddy weeds at early stage of rice growth, but the efficacy of weeds control decreased a little at late season. However the efficacy was still higher than the plot using herbicide. The paper mulch plot showed rice yield similar to the weed control plot using herbicide. It could be concluded that paper mulch can be used as an alternative for non-herbicidal weed control and ensure as high yield as the conventional weed control method using herbicide in dry-seeded rice field.
Effect of Combined Application of Molinate and Simetryn on Bioefficacy of Echinochloa crus-galli and Bidens tripartita
Choi, S.Y. ; Chung, B.J. ; Chae, J.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 286~294
This study was carried out to evaluate the interaction effect between molinate(S-ethyl N,N-hexamethylene-thiocarbamate) and simetryn(N,N'-diethyl-6-(methythio)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) on weed bioefficacy and rice phytotoxicity in green house and paddy field. Combined application of molinate and simetryn showed synergistic herbicidal effect to Echinochloa crus-galli and additive herbicidal effect to Bidens tripartita, However, it showed synergistic phytotoxicity to rice. Combined application of molinate and simetryn reduced the flooding period desirable for controlling Echinochloa crus-galli by about 2~4days as compared to single application of molinate. It was concluded that the optimum combination of molinate and simetryn was 150g and 9g to 18g a.i./10a, respectively in viewpoint of bioefficacy and phytotoxicity.
Effects of Several Chemicals and Burial of Seeds into the Soil on Dormancy-breaking of Weed Species
Shim, S.I. ; Lee, S.G. ; Kang, B.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 295~303
The seed dormancy is one of the peculiar characteristics of a number of weed species and it makes difficulties in weed control. To clarify the mechanism of seed dormancy, several chemicals such as
, KOH, thiourea, and
) were treated to dormant seeds. Among the species treated with several chemicals, the germination percentages of Setaria glauca, Ambrosia trifida and Ranunculus sceleratus were increased with
and those of S. glauca, R sceleratus were increased with thiourea. Hydrogen peroxide promoted the germination of Setaria viridis and S. glauca. Germination percentages of S. viridis, S. glauca and Cyperus saraguinolentus were increased with enzyme treatment using pectinase. GA treatment enhanced the geim.ination of Eleusine indica and R sceleratus but the other species were affected slightly. Especially. E. indica showed linearity in the relationship between germination percentage and GA concentration. So, It seemed that E. indica can be used as a bioassy material for GA. Considering the phenological habits of weed species, the seeds were buried under soil for long time(more than 1 month) over winter. When seeds were buried in soil, the degree of dormancy was drastically decreased. Especially, germination of seeds buried were increased under alternating temperature. The germination rates of Persicaria ssp. and Chenopodium ssp. were increased by 50% order alternating temperature after burial for seven weeks.
Foliar Retention of the Herbicide Pyribenzoxim(1% EC), and Its Effects on Herbicidal Activity and Rice Phytotoxicity
Koo, Suk-Jin ; Kim, Jeong-Su ; Lee, Jae-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 304~313
Foliar retention of pyribenzoxim (1% EC) was measured using the fluorescent dye rhodamine B, and related to efficacy and phytotoxicity to barnyardgarss (Echinochloa crusgalli) and rice (Oryza sativa cv. Chucheong), respectively. Effects of nozzle types (8002E flat-fan and disk-type), addition of adjuvant, variation of herbicide concentration or spray volume were compared. In barnyardgrass, foliar retention of pyribenzoxim at a recommended condition (application rate : 30g ai/ha, spray volume : 1000 L/ha) was 2.3 to 2.7 or 1.4 to
ai/g fresh foliage when sprayed using the disk-type nozzle with or without adjuvant, respectively, and 0.6 to 0.7 or 0.3 to
ai/g fresh foliage when sprayed using the flat-fan nozzle with or without adjuvant, respectively. The slope of increase in foliar retention was 1.0 to 1.8 when application rates increased from 10 to 60g ai/ha at 1000 L/ha, while that was 1.6 to 2.4 when spray volume increased from 330 to 2000 L/ha at
ai/L concentration. Foliar retention of pyribenzoxim had a close relationship with herbicidal activity; regardless of spray conditions, retention to provide 90% control was about
ai/g fresh foliage, and below this retention amount, efficacy decreased almost linearly. In rice, foliar retention at the recommended condition was 1.9 to 2.3 or 1.2 to
ai/g fresh foliage when sprayed using the disk-type nozzle with or without adjuvant, respectively, and 0.6 to 0.9 or
ai/g fresh foliage when sprayed using the flat-fan nozzle with or without adjuvant, respectively. The slope of increase in foliar retention was 1.0 to 2.8 when application rates increased from 30 to 120g ai/ha at 1000 L/ha, while that was 1.3 to 4.4 when spray volume increased from 1000 to 4000 L/ha at
ai/L concentration. Despite the great difference in retention, rice phytotoxicity was not observed in any of these spray conditions, suggesting retention differences within 4-fold increase of application rate or spray volume do not affect rice safety. When pyribenzoxim 1EC was sprayed in tank-mix with several other commercial pesticide formulations, its retention to rice foliage tended to increase by 30 to 50%.
Action Characteristics of EK3143 and EK3150, New Cyclohexanedione Herbicides, and Their Effects on Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Activity
Kim, J.S. ; Song, J.H. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 314~324
This study was carried out to investigate the herbicidal action characteristics of EK3143 and EK3150, newly synthesized cyclohexanedione analogues, and their inhibitory effects on the acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity isolated from various plants. Sethoxydim, a typical cyclohexanedione herbicide, had a high herbicidal activity against only grasses with growth inhibition, leaf chlorosis and necrosis. EK3143 and EK3150 had a lower effect against grasses but a higher effect against broadleaf plants such as black nightshade and velvetleaf than sethoxydim had. Low rate application of EK3143 induced leaf bleaching(whitening), while high rate application induced the same symptoms as those of sethoxydim. EK3150 induced more significant whitening, additionally accompanying a curling of meristem part in broadleaf plants. A consistant tendency was observed between the growth inhibition against grasses and the senstivity of grass ACCase to these compounds, but not between herbicidal activities against broadleaf plants and the senstivity of dicotyledonous ACCase; i.e. EK3150, which had higher herbicidal activity against black nightshade and velvetleaf than EK3143 had in greenhouse, rather showed lower ACCase inhibition. In EK3150-treated barnyardgrass, growth inhibition occurred prior to decrease of photosynthetic pigments, in contrast to that of norflurazon and EK3140. These results suggest that EK3143 and EK3150 may have two target sites, ACCase and an unknown site on fatty acid synthesis related to growth inhibition and bleaching respectively, and their symptoms would be appeared in different degree by a differential binding affinity between two action sites.
Adsorption and Movement of Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in Soils
Han, Soo-Gon ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Moon, Young-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 325~332
This study was carried out to investigate the adsorption and the movement of herbicide fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in the silty clay soil(SiC) and the sandy loam soil(SL). Fifteen percent of the added herbicide was adsorbed within 30 min after shaking, and a quasi-equilibrium was reached after 8 to 14 h. The time required for 50% adsorption was 15.8 h in the SiC and 19.3 h in the SL. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was followed by the Freundlich equation and the Kd was 3.86 in the SiC and 2.32 in the SL. The herbicide in the soil columns flooded with 3 cm water depth and eluted at 0.8 cm/day was leached to 6 cm and 8 cm depth at 7 and 21 days after the treatment, respectively. However, the movement was widened with increased amount of leaching water. The herbicide in the field soils was moved up to 6 cm and 8 cm depth at 14 and 56 days after the treatment, respectively. However, the large amount of the applied herbicide was distributed in 0~2 cm profile in all of the soils examined. Half-life of the chemical in soils was shorter than 7 days and the time to 90% degradation was about 4 weeks. The results indicate that the herbicide has relatively small mobility and short persistence.
Effects of Primisulfuron and Imazethapyr Treated with Piperonyl Butoxide on Growth and Acetolactate Synthase Activity in Several Corn Cultivars
Piao, R.Z. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 333~340
The combined effects of primisulfuron and imazethapyr treated with piperonyl butoxide(PBO) on growth inhibition and acetolactate synthase(ALS) activity in corn were studied to identify the tolerance mechanism among corn cultivars. Pioneer 3751 IR showed resistance to primisulfuron and imazethapyr, but Pioneer 3751 and Chalok 2 were susceptible to them. Pioneer 3751 IR was tolerant to primisulfuron regardless of PBO treatment, but Pioneer 3751, Suwon 118 and Chalok 2 were more greatly inhibited by combined treatment of primisulfuron with PBO. Synergistic effect on growth inhibition in Pioneer 3751 IR, Pioneer 3751, Suwon 118 and Chalok 2 was not occurred when imazethapyr was treated with PBO, but Pioneer 3751, Suwon 118 and Chalok 2 tended to inhibit by combined treatment of imazethapyr with PBO. Pioneer 3751 IR showed higher ALS activity than Pioneer 3751 when primisulfuron or imazethapyr was treated. ALS activity was inhibited by primisulfuron at
or above and imazethapyr at
or above, and inhibitory effect on ALS activity was observed by primisufuron and imazethapyr treatments with PBO.
Effect of Molinate, Simetryn and Imazosulfuron U-Granule Application on Bioefficacy and Phytotoxicity in Rice Paddy
Choi, S.Y. ; Chung, B.J. ; Chae, J.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 341~347
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of U-Granule formulation of molinate(S-ethylhexaphdro-1H-azepine-1-carbothioate) mixtures in green house and paddy field, Five minutes were taken for U-Granule to spread out 7m in irrigated water of direct seeded on flooded paddy surface. The concentration of active ingredient of molinate in molinate U-Granule application was similar to molinate+simetryn U-Granule application. But weeding effect of molinate+simetryn U-Granule on Echinochlor crus-galli was 23% higher Than single application of molinate at 7m from application point. Bioefficacy of molinate+simetryn+imazosulfuron U-Granule on control of Echinochloa crus-galli was higher than that of molinzte+imazosulfuton U-Granule, but those effect on Eleochairs kuroguwai was not significantly different. Only slight rice phytotoxicity was observed at 5m and 2m from application point of U-Granule molinate+simetryn+imazosulfuron and molinate+imazosulfuron, respectively. So it is concluded that there is little phytotoxicity problem in practical application of U-Granule of molinate mixtures.
Screening and Identification of Natural Herbicidal Active Substance in Rye and Oat Extracts
Yang, K.J. ; Kim, K.H. ; Chung, I.M. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 348~355
This study was conducted to identify allelopathic compounds in rye and oat straw extracts by HPLC analysis. These extracts were analyzed with 12 standard chemicals including salicylic acid. 11 chemicals in rye extract except for naringin and in oat extract except for catechin were identified. Salicylic acid(8.34mg/g) in rye straw extracts and naringin(7.50mg/g) in oat straw extracts among these standard chemicals were identified as the largest amount substance. The germination of Chenopodium ablum seeds was significantly inhibited by these chemicals at
concentrations as compared to control. Salicylic acid in rye and naringin in oat were considered as the major allelopathic substances although allelopathy may be caused by an interaction of many substances. Yet many unidentified chemical compounds are present in both extracts.
GIS Application in Weed Management System - 1. Regional and Yearly Shifts in Weed Population
Park, Kwang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 356~363
In general weed vegetation analysis has been applied to the study of weed population shift. However, it is a limited tool for understanding a problem region and a specific weed species in a certain area. Recently GIS may be used as an important tool to solve this target or to conduct specific field analysis which enables to introduce a reasonable management strategy. Thus, the GIS study was carried out to understand an integrated weed population changes between 1981 and 1992 in Korea. The nationwide weed survey was performed through the whole rice paddy fields in 1981 and 1992. Weed occurrence was totally different over whole country based on these data. In 1981 a region with high weed occurrence was at western and central areas of Korea in terms of weed population density but this was changed into western and southern area in 1992. In both years there were high weed population density at Taean, Seosan county of Chungnam province in Korea. Thus, this particular area may be needed to introduce a special strategy to reduce weed population density and/or to control problem weed species.
GIS Application in Weed Management System - 2. Difference between Ecological Analysis and GIS analysis of Weed Population
Park, Kwang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 364~370
A weed population has been mainly analyzed through vegetative analysis method in ecology. However, this method is difficult to understand a detailed feature of weed dominance in terms of region and a particular weed species. Since GIS(Geographic Information System) tool has been introduced, this constraint was able to be solved. GIS analysis for the nationwide weed survey data in 1981 revealed that most predominant weed was Monochoria vaginalis and this species predominated mostly in a western part of Chungnam, a part of Kyunggi, a northern and southern part of Kyungbuk province of Korea. Eleocharis kuroguwai which was the most predominant weed species in 1992 was occurred at southern part of Kyunggi, central and western parts of Chungnam, and southern western part of Chumnam at the GIS analysis. GIS analysis was proven to give much more detailed information than vegetative analysis of weed population and this means that a data analysis by GIS would be used for operating a high effective control strategy against target weed species and site.