Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - 00 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3 - 00 2003
Volume 23, Issue 2 - 00 2003
Volume 23, Issue 1 - 00 2003
Selecting the target year
Resistance in Korea：Where Are We Now? and Where Are We Going?
Park, Tae-Seon ; Lee, In-Yong ; Park, Jae-Eup ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~10
Heavy reliance on chemical weed control linked to practies such as continuous cropping has resulted in 272 resistant biotypes of 162 species in 210,000 fields throughout the world. These resistant weeds in the past were mainly dominated by triazine resistance, but now accelerates the development of resiatance by the continuous and extensive use of new chemical classes with very high activity at specific target site such as the sulfonylurea(SU) herbicides. Most of resistant weeds to SU herbicides were selected in monoculture wheat-growing areas by chlorsulfuron in the last many yeras. However, world-wide resistant species associated with rice have been increasing rapidly. The most widespread and diverse SU-resistance problem has found in Korea and Japan, where bensulfuron and pyrazosulfuron of the SU herbicides have been used continuously as so-called "one-shot" formulations since 1989. Six SU resistant biotypes of Monochoria korsakowii, Monochoria vaginalis, Lindernia dubia, Scirpus juncoides, Rotala indica and Cyperus difformis as of 2002 have confirmed in paddy fields in Korea. These SU-resistant weeds have been mainly identified in Jeonnam and Chungnam provinces practicing extensively wet-seeded culture in the rice. However, farmers complaint to control effect of SU have been provoking from the others. If the present trend continues, the number of herbicides effective on certain weed species may diminish rapidly. To counteract this trend, we must develop and perform the integrated herbicide resistant management programs depends on the interaction and cooperation of governments, agrochemical companies, academia and farmers. Each of these parties has a specific role to fill and each must take responsibility to fulfill that role. Especially, governmental policies have a major impact on the implementation of effective herbicide resistance management programs. Government must construc- tively inform the seriousness by occurrence of herbicide resistant weeds, and organize a number of working groups to manage resistance like HRAC(Herbicide Resistance Action Committe) estsablished under auspices of the International Group of National Associations of Agrochemical Manufacturers. In addition, the registration of herbicides should be conducted on a sound scientific basis. Agrochemical companies should develop and supervise the excellent herbicides on the resistance. Academia like universities and research institutions must establish and inform guidelines for managing resistance. And farmers must be able to follow the programs and guidelines presented by government, agrochemical companies and academia to manage resistance.
Resistance Mechanisms to the Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate Synthase
Hwang, In-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 11~27
Most cases of resistance to herbicides have occurred in fields in which these herbicides have been used continuously for 3 to 20 years with no use of other herbicides having a different mechanism of action. Recent phenomena of herbicide-resistance are target site cross-resistance, non-target site cross-resistance, multiple-resistance, and back cross-resistance. Also, herbicide resistance has been identified at least four different resistance mechanisms which were target-site mutation, target-site over-expression, metabolism-based resistance, and reduced activation of pro-herbicides. Biochemical and physiological effect of target site resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) have been studied in several field-evolved weed species and in a number of laboratory-derived mutants. In all of the populations where the mechanism of resistance has been determined, the resistance is due to the selection of an altered ALS enzyme that is no longer sensitive to the herbicides. The patterns of cross-resistance among the ALS inhibitors are variable. The considerable variation in the level of resistance across and within various ALS-inhibiting herbicide chemistries is likely to be due to different binding by particular herbicides on the ALS and different mutations of ALS. Research on the genetics of ALS resistance shows that there are at lease 10 different sites within conserved regions of the ALS gene where mutations result in a resistant enzyme. However, it appears that most of the mutations occur in one of four sites. Cross-resistance studies have shown that substitutions of Pro197 to one of amino acids among Ser, Gln, Ala, His, and Leu result primarily in resistance to sulfonylureas (SUs) and triazolopyrimidines (TPs). Secondly, substitution of Ala155 to Asp showed high resistant to SUs but have no cross-resistance to other ALS inhibitors. Thirdly, Substitution of Ser653 to Asn showed high resistant to imidazolinones (IMs) but susceptible to SUs and TPs. Lastly, substitution of Trp591 to Leu becomes a broad cross-resistance to all family of ALS inhibitors. In greenhouse studies, the SUs-resistant Monochoria vaginalis population occurred in Chonnam province of Korea showed index of 21.2 and 42.4 to pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (PYR) and bensulfuron-methyl (BEN), respectively. The resistant type of M. vaginalis showed high levels of cross-resistance to PYR, BEN, cyclosulfamuron (CYC), and flumetsulam (FLU), but not to imazaquin. The resistant type of M. vaginalis did not show multiple resistance to other herbicides having different modes of action. In vitro acetolactate synthase (ALS) assay showed that the pI50 values of BEN to the wild and resistant type of M. vaginalis were 9.3 and 7.1, respectively. Also, the pI50 values of FLU to the wild and resistant type of M. vaginalis were 7.7 and 6.0 but those of IMA were 8.3 and 8.2, respectively. Acetolactate accumulation in the resistant type of M. vaginalis plants treated with BEN or FLU followed by 1,1-cyclopropane dicarboxylic acid were significantly higher than that of wild type. However, the accumulation of acetolactate in the plants treated with IMA was not significantly different in the wild and the resistant type of M. vaginalis. In vitro and in vivo assay results showed that the resistance mechanism of M. vaginalis to ALS inhibitors might be due to the altered acetolactate synthase.
Perspectives of Paddy Herbicide Development against Sulfonylurea-Resistance
Koo, Suk-Jin ; Kim, Do-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 28~33
Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistance has become a serious issue in paddy weed management in Korea. This paper presents a view regarding the impact of ALS-resistance in terms of practical weed control, and perspectives of new herbicide development to manage resistance. Sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides have contributed greatly in establishing so-called 'one-shot' application concept. This concept has worked very effectively for over 15 years in Korea. However, several factors, such as prolonged intervals between cultivation and transplanting, and trends of rising temperature during the transplanting season and increasing ALS resistance, appear to dismantle reliability of 'one-shot' concept and the mixture products for one-shot purposes. Therefore, ALS resistance needs to be considered in these overall trends rather than focusing just on resistance itself. It is expected that the 'one-shot' concept and products will continue to survive but in a less dominant way, due to limitation in availability of new modes of action, technical difficulties in mixture formulation, and costs. Consequently, sequential application of PPI/PRE followed by POST herbicides is likely to become more important. For this purpose, new products need to be labor-saving for application and cost-effective. In the future, paddy herbicides need to be more diversified involving new types of one-shot mixture and sequential application of several key straight products. To be successful, a harmonized effort is required among government extension, academia, and industry.
Effects of Mulching Materials on Growth, Yield and Weed Occurrence of Polygonatum sibiricum REDOUT
Kim, In-Jae ; Kim, Min-Ja ; Nam, Sang-Yeong ; Lee, Cheol-Hui ; Kim, Hong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 34~39
We investigated the effects of four mulching materials on growth, yield and weed control in Polygonatum sibiricum to establish laborsaving and high yielding cultural practice. Weed species in mulching cultivation was dominated by broad-leaved>grass>sedgy weeds, weed amount in mulching with rice straw, rice hull, and fallen leaves was less than that in non-mulching. Emergence date was earlier in compost mulching than other treatments. Emergence number per unit area was greater in rice straw and compost mulching, showing 20.9～24.7. Plant height, stem diameter and node number were higher in compost mulching than others. However, the number of leaves and flowering date were not affected by mulching. Rhizome length was longer 2.1～2.3cm in mulching than non-mulching, but rhizome diameter was not affected by mulching materials. The number of rhizome was greater in rice straw and compost mulching than other treatments. Fresh rhizome yield was increased 5～23% in mulching and dry matter ratio was higher in mulching with rice straw, fallen leaves, and compost than other treatments.
Weed Occurrence at Several Arboreta of Korea and Their Vegetation Analysis
Hwang, J.B. ; Shim, K.K. ; Kwon, Y.W. ; Song, H.K. ; Song, S.B. ; Lee, D.C. ; Kim, S.C. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 40~47
The experiments were carried out to obtain basic information on occurrence pattern and shift of a weed flora, its ecology and ecological niches of weed community at the four arboreta. The obtained results could be summarized as follows. According to TWINSPAN(two-way indicator species analysis) method, weed community was able to be divided into 4 types such as Digitaria sanguinalis-Cyperus amuricus, Digitaria sanguinalis- Artemisia princeps, Digitaria sanguinalis-Setaria viridis, and Digitaria sanguinalis-Arthraxon hispidus communities. The results of the correlation between environmental characteristics and weed community by detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) ordination method are as follows. Digitaria sanguinalis-Cyperus amuricus community had high organic matter and available phosphorus concentration while Digitaria sanguinalis-Arthraxon hispidus community had high magnesium concentration and available phosphorus concentration. On the other hand, Digitaria sanguinalis-Artemisia princeps community had high magnesium concentration whereas Digitaria sanguinalis-Setaria viridis community had low magnesium concentration
Weedy Rice Control by Maleic Hydrazide(MH) Ⅱ. Effects of MH Application on Weedy Rice Control and Germination Frequency of Cultivated Rice in Direct-Seeded Dry Paddy Field
Chung, Nam-Jin ; Kim, Je-Hyun ; Kang, Yang-Soon ; Kim, Je-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 48~53
The effects of maleic hydrazide (MH) application to control weedy rice were evaluated in direct-seeded rice on dry paddy in the central region of Korea. Two early maturing varieties, Jinbuolbyeo and Gurubyeo, were cultivated to induce the differences of heading time with the weedy rice. We applied MH to rice field when the weedy rice was around heading stage. During this time, the growth stages of Jinbuolbyeo and Gurubyeo were at 20 days and 10 days after heading respectively. MH application controlled the heading and fertility of weedy rice resulting in more than 90% reduction in red rice. As a result of seed suppression of weedy rice, the occurrence of weedy rice in the following year decreased by about 90%. In cultivated rice, however, the percentage of Gurubyeo's fertility and ripening also decreased by about 10%, and the germination frequency of harvested rice was reduced by 14% in Jinbuolbyeo and 48% in Gurubyeo by MH application
Occurrence of Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistant-Monochoria vaginalis Presl and It's Effective Weed Control System in Chungnam Region
Lee, Sun-Gye ; Yang, Euy-Seog ; Lee, Jae-Choul ; Chung, Chong-Tae ; Shin, Choul-Woo ; Woo, In-Shik ; Pyon, Jong-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 54~62
Occurrence of a biotype of Monochoria vaginalis Presl resistant to sulfornylurea herbicides was confirmed in paddy fields of 15 cities and counties in Chungnam region. Efficacy of sulfonylurea herbicides such as azimsulfuron, imazosulfuron and cyclosulfamuron to resistant Monochoria vaginalis was generally poor. The resistant biotype of M. vaginalis to ALS inhibiting herbicides was controlled by oxadiazon, oxadiargyl, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl plus pyrazolate plus simetryn, and fentrazamide followed by MCPA plus bentazon. Oxadiazon or oxadiargyl fb any sulfonylurea herbicides controlled M. vaginalis and perennial paddy weeds. All sequential application treatments except pyriftalid plus cinosulfuron fb bentazon controlled M. vaginalis 60 days after treatments. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl plus pyrazolate plus simetryn fb cyclosulfamuron plus fentrazamide and oxadiazon fb pyrazosulfuron-ethyl plus fentrazamide were most effective to control annual weeds and perennial weed. Rice yield was 5.19～5.29 ton
in pyrazosulfuron- ethyl plus fentrazamide and 5.35～5.62 ton
in all sequential application treatments except pyriftalid plus cinosulfuron followed by bentazon
Weed Control of Small flatsedge (Cyperus difformis L.) with Resistant Response to Sulfonylurea Herbicides in the Paddy of Korea
Im, Il-Bin ; Kim, Sun ; Kim, Jong-Gook ; Na, Seung-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 63~70
This study was conducted to determine the effective herbicides and control methods of sulfonylurea resistant Cyperus difformis L. in the paddy. The resistant tests of sulfonylurea herbicides confirmed in greenhouse including azimsulfuron (15g a.i.
), bensulfuron-methyl (51g a.i.
), pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (21g a.i.
), imazosulfuron (75g a.i.
), cinosulfuron (24g a.i.
), ethoxysulfuron (21g a.i.
), halosulfuron-methyl (54g a.i.
), cyclosulfamuron (60g a.i.
) and LGC-42153 (21g a.i.
). All the sulfonylurea herbicides controlled completely from 1.5 leaves to 2.5 leaves of susceptible biotype of Cyperus difformis L. at the recommended dosage, but the resistant biotype survived at the same leaves stage. Non-sulfonylurea herbicides, such as oxadiazon (480g a.i.
), butachlor (1320g a.i.
), pretilachlor (560g a.i.
) and fentrazamide (950g a.i.
) applied at 1.5 leaves stage, butachlor, pretilachlor, thiobencarb, esprocarb, mefenacet, fentrazamide, indanofan, pyrazolate applied at 1.5 and 2.5 leaves stage and thiobencarb, esprocarb, mefenacet and pyrazolate applied at 4 leaves stage had excellent controlling effects on the resistant and susceptible biotype. But the application of the same times of molinate, dimepiperate, pyriminobac-methyl and cyhalofop-butyl had very low controlling effects on all two biotype. The foliar application of only bentazone (1600g a.i.
) or the mixtures of bentazone and 2, 4-D (1200+140 and 200g a.i.
) controlled effectively the resistant biotype of Cyperus difformis L. survived at 36 days growth stage.
Effect of Dymron on the Selectivity Between Rice and Barnyardgrass Treated with Herbicide Mixture Including Dymron
Hwang, I.T. ; Lee, K.H. ; Ko, Y.K. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 23, issue 1, 2003, Pages 71~79
The effect of dymron on the selectivity between rice and barnyardgrass treated with a herbicide mixture including dymron was evaluated under greenhouse condition. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, cinosulfuron, and KSC-13906 represented phytotoxicity on rice seedlings during 5 to 15 days after treatment (DAT), however, this phytotoxicity was recovered after 20 DAT. Addition of dymron decreased phytotoxicity of KSC-13906, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, and pretilachlor against rice seedlings, however, it showed even or incremental rice phytotoxicity against mefenacet and molinate. The descending order of safening effects of dymron toward several herbicides on the rice seedlings was that of pretilachlor, KSC-13906, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl. Also, herbicidal activities of KSC-13906, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, and pretilachlor to the barnyardgrass were diminished as combination with dymron. Among the stereoisomers of demethyldymron tested, R-form isomer showed superior safening activity to S-form compound. However, the mixture of R- and S-demethyldymron showed the highest safening activity against 10 g/ha of KSC-13906 to the rice seedlings. The safening mode of dymron action might be related to the acetolactate synthase because the inhibition rate of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and KSC-13906 was slightly reduced by addition of dymron and coincided with the patterns of in vivo results