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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - 00 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3 - 00 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2 - 00 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1 - 00 2006
Selecting the target year
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Autotoxicity-Replant Problems
Cheon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 211~224
Alternatives to synthetic chemical herbicides need to be developed, especially for eco- friendly weed management where public policies mandate reduced herbicide use. Autotoxicity, as in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), is a specialized form of allelopathy, in which involves one or more chemical compounds affect their own seedlings, especially when grown in succession. Autotoxic chemical (s) are moved from the plant, mainly the leaves, to the soil by transfer mechanisms, and their subsequent dissipation occurs in the soil. There are two major practical considerations regarding alfalfa autotoxicity：the needed delay of up to 2 years for replanting alfalfa after destroying an old alfalfa stand; and inability to overseed directly to thicken established alfalfa stands. Autotoxic chemicals are extractable from fresh alfalfa herbage, water-soluble, and more concentrated in alfalfa herbage than roots. The chemicals delay germination and reduce alfalfa root growth more than it reduces hypocotyl growth or seed germination. The autotoxic zone of influence appears to prevent the thickening of old stands. Further works for developing new alfalfa varieties resistant to autotoxicity may allow alfalfa to be interseeded.
Search for Korean Native Plants with Herbicidal Composition
Kim, Seong-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 225~245
Several hundred herbicides have been developed which inhibit nineteen target sites. However, pressure on the development of environmentally-friendly herbicides has been increased by GOs and NGOs due to mammalian toxicity and environmental contamination by few herbicides. Researchers in author's laboratory conducted experiments to find herbicidal plants and environmentally- friendly herbicidal compounds from them for more than five years. In this review, herbicidal activity of 533 plants from 491 species in 105 families was introduced and characteristics of herbicidal plants was described with special emphasis. In addition, novel herbicidal compounds such as anemonine, chrysophanic acid and elemicine from herbicidal plants were described. Herbicidal plants and herbicidal compounds from such plants are going to be used as herbicidal materials in environmentally- friendly agriculture and be used as in development of living-modified organism with herbicidal activity like allelopathic plants.
Weed Control by Herbicide Mixtures of Penoxsulam SC in Transplanted Rice Paddy Fields
Lee, In-Yong ; Kim, Yeong-Min ; Min, Lee-Gi ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Park, Nam-Il ; Ji, Seung-Han ; Cheon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 246~253
This study was conducted to control troublesome weeds effectively by post-emergence foliar application when efficacy of weed control by soil applied herbicide treatment was not good in rice paddy field. In treatment of penoxsulam 3% SC and tank mixing with propanil 35% EC, triclopyr-TEA 30% SL and bentazon 40% SL at 30 and 45 days after transplanting (DAT), rice growth, plant height and No. of tillers were similar to those of the untreated control plot and these herbicides provided practical control to Echinochloa crus-galli, Monochoria vaginalis, Scirpus juncoides, Lindernia dubia, Ludwigia prostrata, Rotala indica var. uliginosa which were about 10 to 30cm tall at applications times. However, weeds more than 30cm were not controled effectively and resulted in color change of leaf parts contacted with herbicides. So, it is possible to control Echinochloa crus-galli and sulfonylurea-herbicides resistant weeds in treatment of penoxsulam 3% SC and tank mixed herbicides at 30 DAT when the growth of weeds are lower than 30cm. Transient discolored spots/lesions in around ligute and yellowing of rice leaf were appeared at 5 to 20 days after treating with at all herbicides.
Herbicidal Effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid, a Biodegradable Natural Substance, on Barley and Water Foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis)
Kim, Hong-Gi ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 254~261
Biological activity of -aminolevulinic acid (ALA), an eco-friendly biodegradable substance, was examined against barley and water foxtail. No significant differences in biological activity between bio-ALA and synthetic-ALA against barley and water foxtail were observed. With post-emergence application, ALA at 20 mM reduced significantly plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight of barley by 72, 83, and 84%, respectively. At lower concentrations of ALA at 2-4 mM, however, the barley growth was stimulated up to 10 - 13% over the control. Water foxtail seedlings were more sensitive to 8-20 mM ALA than barley seedlings, and barley seedlings with 2-leaf stage than with 4-leaf stage. Chlorophyll content of water foxtail was more reduced than those of barley with 2- and 4-leaf stage. The results in the present research indicate that ALA would be developed as a promising natural growth inhibitor to control water foxtail in barley field for an environment- friendly weed management.
Competition Effects of Echinochloa crus-galli and Monochoria vaginalis on Rice Growth and Yield
Lee, Sun-Gye ; Im, Il-Bin ; Byeon, Jong-Yeong ; Kim, Do-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 262~269
This field study was conducted to examine competition effects of Echinochloa crus- galli and Monochoria vaginalis on the growth and yield of rice transplanted at different timings, and to predict rice yield by using a rectangular hyperbolic model. Among growth and yield components, number of tillers and panicles and percent ripened grain were the most significantly influenced by weed interferences. The rectangular hyperbola well described the relationships between rice yield and weed density. The prediction models for rice yield as affected by weed interferences were Y= 558.7/ (1＋0.040X) for E. crus-galli, and Y= 576.7/ (1＋0.0018X) for M. vaginalis. The value indicates that E. crus-galli was about 20 times more competitive than M. vaginalis. The weed densities to cause a 10% yield loss of rice were estimated to be 3 and 62 plants/m2 for E. crus-galli and M. vaginalis, respectively.
Shade Effect on Growth and Allelopathic Potential of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Cultivars
Cheon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 270~278
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is known to contain water soluble substances that are allelopathic. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine shading effect on growth, allelopathic potential, and chlorogenic acid level of lettuce cultivars during the spring growing season. Shade significantly reduced shoot weight, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of lettuce plants, while it increased their plant height. Aqueous leaf extracts from three lettuce cultivars grown under different shading levels reduced seedling growth of alfalfa, and the extent of reduction increased with increasing of shading levels. Leaf extracts above 30 g L-1 from all the cultivars grown under shading conditions were completely inhibitory on root growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), while the leaf extracts from lettuce without shading treatment were less inhibitory at the same concentration. Chlorogenic acid as a major abundant phenolic substance, was detected as the highest amount in butanol fraction of cultivar "Hwahyang" grown under 70% shading condition. These results suggest that allelopathic potential of lettuce cultivars increases with shading level during its growth, resulting from increased allelopathic chemicals under greater shading condition.
A Taxonomic Study in Early Stage on the Genus Cyperus (Cyperaceae) Weed of Korea
Kim, Chang-Seok ; O, Se-Mun ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Jeong, Myeong-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 279~286
To identify nine species of Cyperus in Korea at an early growing stage, their characters of leaf, stem, and root were used. Following characters were found to be useful：transverse section of leaf and stem, plant form, number of scaly leaf, and smell. C. serotinus was the tallest in plant height among nine species investigated. Most of them were erect, but C. nipponicus was creeping. Stem transverse section shaped triangular for all species in an early stage, but some of them changed their shape into ovate as leaf stage is progressed. C. flaccidus and C. difformis could be distinguished by color of root and stem margin in an early growing stage. Number of scaly leaf was three in C. serotinus, one in C. microiria and C. orthostachyus, and two in the rest of six species. C. microiria and C. amuricus was hard to distinguished by exo-morphology but easily distinguished by number of scaly leaf. The result of smell study revealed that C. sanguinolentus and C. orthostachyus of paddy weeds, and C. amuricus and C. microria of upland weeds had unique smell. Especially C. microria had smell in roots only. In general, Cyprus had no node in stem, but C. sanguinolentus has 2∼3 nodes at the lower parts of the stem. The color of the roots were white generally except C. difformis which showed white and pink color. Perennial weed, C. serotinus had tendency of developing rhizomes instead of fibrous roots. Using these characters mentioned above, the identification key at an early stages (1-7 leaf stage) of nine species in genus Cyprus was made.
Growth Prediction of Major Weeds as Affected by Seeding Dates in Dry Direct Seeding Cultureon Rice Paddy
Jo, Seung-Hyeon ; Jeon, Jae-Cheol ; Gwon, Yeong-Rip ; Choe, Dong-Chil ; Song, Yeong-Ju ; Mun, Byeong-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 287~294
This study was conducted to obtain basic information for effective weed control by investigating the changes in growth patterns of major weeds in relation to seeding dates(April 4, April 22 and May 6) in dry direct seeding culture on rice paddy.The order of weed occurrence according to the seeding date was Aneilema keisak > Echinochlor crus-galli > Cyperus serotinus > Eleocharis kuroguwai. In E. crus-galli, days required to emergence were 14 days after seeding(DAS) when seeding was done on April 4, and 9 DAS on April 22, 6 DAS on May 6, respectively. According to the three seeding dates 13, 8, and 6 DAS in A. keisak, 20, 12 and 8 DAS in C. serotinus, 46, 33 and 29 DAS in E. kuroguwai were required to emerge, respectively. Through linear regression equation, effective accumulated temperature required to reach third leaf stage of weed species were 137.7 in E. crus-galli, 114.9 in A. keisak and 170.2 in C. serotinus when seeded on April 4. When seeding were done on April 22 and May 6, 135.6 and 120.7 in E. crus-galli, 113.1 and 93.7 in A. keisak, and 176.0 and 147.9 in C. serotinus were required, respectively, for effective accumulated temperature.
Yield Loss by Weed Competition in Dry Direct Seeding Culture on Rice Paddy
Jo, Seung-Hyeon ; Gwon, Yeong-Rip ; Jeon, Jae-Cheol ; Choe, Jeong-Sik ; Mun, Byeong-Cheol ; Choe, Dong-Chil ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 295~302
This study was conducted to make the rice yield prediction model system according to the weed species and densities and to determine its economic threshold levels in dry direct seeding culture on rice paddy. When the density of Echinochlor crus-galli was 5 plants per m2, the yield of rice reduced to 15% and as the density increased up to 100 plants per m2, the reduced rate of rice yield was reached to 94% and in Aneilema keisak, the reduced rate of rice yield were 5 and 68%, respectively. Head rice was obviously reduced by increasing densities of E. crus-galli and A. keisak, and immature rice and damaged kernel were increased by increasing densities of E. crus-galli and A. keisak. The prediction models for rice yield according to the weed-rice competition as follows：In E. crus-galli Y=567.30/1+0.868X(R2=0.916**) and in A. keisak Y=544.41/1+0.01681X(R2=0.950**). Economic threshold levels calculated using cousens' equation were 0.47 plants per m2 in E. crus-galli and 2.36 plants per m2 in A. keisak.
Effect of Cultivating Weeder on Tuber Formation and Shoot Growth of Eleocharis kuroguwai inRice Paddy Field
Kim, Seon ; Im, Il-Bin ; Kim, Jae-Deok ; Gang, Jong-Guk ; Lee, Gong-In ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 303~308
This experiment was conducted to investigate the formation of tubers of Eleocharis kuroguwai according to the different cultivating weeder methods; one time weeder at 10th after transplanting, two times weeder at 10th and 20th after transplanting, three times weeder at 10th, 20th, 30th after transplanting. The weeding efficacy was higher on shoot more than tuber. At three times weeding the weeding efficacy for shoot was 79.5%-85.7%, and weeding efficacy for tuber was 62.3-71.4%. Also, The efficacy ratio were gradually decreased to 56.0%-58.9% at two times and 36.5%-48.6% one time compared with no weeding. The rice yield continuously increased 29.6% at three times weeding compared with no weeding. Thus, The cultivating weeding was very effective control for Eleocharis kuroguwai in rice paddy field.
Herbicidal Activity of Ethvlacetate Extracts from Epimedium koreanum
Lim, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Yu-Sun ; Kim, Song-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 309~315
Herbicidal Action Mechanism of Flucetosulfuron
Kim, Do-Soon ; Hwang, Ki-Hwan ; Lee, Jong-Nam ; Koo, Suk-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 316~322
Difference in Anaerobic and Low-temperature Tolerance Between Direct-seeded Rice and Grass Weeds
Kim, Sung-Eun ; Cho, Kwang-Min ; Kim, Yong-Doo ; Ko, Jong-Cheol ; Kim, Bo-Kyeong ; Kim, Jeong-Gon ; Chun, Jae-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2006, Pages 323~329