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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
Weeding Effect of Troublesome Exotic Weeds, Sicyos angulatus and Amaranthus spinosus, by Several Herbicides
Lee, In-Yong ; Oh, Se-Mun ; Moon, Byung-Chul ; Kim, Chang-Seog ; So, Jae-Sung ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Park, Nam-Il ; Oh, Jin-Bo ; Kwon, Oh-Seok ; Lee, Yong-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 195~201
This study was conducted to elucidate response of troublesome exotic weeds like as Amaranthus spinosus L. and Sicyos angulatus L. to several herbicides. S. angulatus mainly occurred in waterway sides, nearby barn and non-cultivated land. These weeds were controlled effectively by linuron WP and simazine WP in arable land and controlled by diclobenilimazaquin GR, dicamba SL, mecoprop SL, glyphosate SL and glufosinate ammonium SL in non-cultivated land. A. spinosus is aggressively colonizing in grassland of Jeju island. S. angulatus was more effectively controlled by dicamba SL, mecoprop SL, and the combination of pendimethalin EC and mecoprop SL and their optimum application time was from late June to middle July.
Distribution, Growth and Control of Marchantia polymorpha L. in Ginseng Gardens
Jin, Chang-Hao ; Pyon, Jong-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 202~208
Marchantia polymorpha was occurred in 49 locations among 180 gensing gardens in 5 provinces of Korea. Dry weight of M. polymorpha was highest at 5 year-old ginseng gardens followed by 4 year-old ginseng gardens, but it was not occurred at 2~3 year-old ginseng gardens. Growth of M. polymorpha was the most vigorous at 20/15℃ followed by 25/20℃. The growth was the fastest at 55% shading followed by natural light. Growth of M. polymorpha was the most vigorous at compositon of 75:25 and 50:50 of organic matter and sandy loam soil. Quinoclamine at 1,800g ai ha-1, prometryne at 1,500g ai ha-1, and simetryne at 450g ai ha-1 were effctive to control M. polymorpha.
Differential Growth and Herbicide Tolerance in Awned and Awnless Red Rice Accessions
Kuk, Yong-In ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 209~218
Red rice is one of the most troublesome weeds in rice cultivation. Ten awned and ten awnless red rice accessions were tested to compare germination rate, growth, and sensitivity to imazethapyr, glufosinate, and glyphosate. The red rice accessions were compared with a conventional rice cultivar (Dongjin). Although the germination rates and shoot and root lengths of seedlings differed among red rice accessions under 15℃ or 20℃ conditions, the awned and awnless red rice accession groups had similar germination rates and shoot and root lengths of seedlings. However, the shoot dry weight in awned red rice accession group was higher than that in awnless red rice accession group at 30 days after seeding under 30℃ condition. There was no difference in the reduction of shoot dry weight of red rice caused by high temperature stress (40℃) between the red rice accession groups. The red rice accessions had different levels of background tolerance to imazethapyr, glufosinate, and glyphosate. Generally, the levels of tolerance to the herbicides were higher in the awned red rice accession group than in awnless red rice accession group. Awned red rice accessions, Awn-5, Awn-7, and Awn-4, had the highest tolerance to imazethapyr, glufosinate, and glyphosate, respectively. The highest tolerant accessions, Awn-5, Awn-7, and Awn-4, were 2.5, 6, and 6 times more tolerant to imazethapyr, glufosinate, and glyphosate, respectively, than each most susceptible accession. However, imazethapyrtolerant accessions were not cross-tolerant to glufosinate and glyphosate.
Promotive Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) on Crops under Different Environmental Conditions and Herbicidal Effects of ALA under Field Conditions
Kuk, Yong-In ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 219~227
The objectives of this study were to determine the promotive effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on barley and radish under different temperatures, light intensities, and water levels and investigate the herbicidal effect of ALA on weeds in the fields. ALA at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mM concentrations was applied to 1.5-leaf stage of the barley and 3-leaf stage of radish and then were determined plant height and shoot fresh weight at 10 days after treatment. The promotive effects of ALA on growth of barley and radish was higher under 20℃ and 30℃ conditions, respectively, than 10℃. The promotive effects of ALA on growth of barley and radish were increased under 200 and 400 μmol m-2 s-1 conditions except for 20 μmol m-2 s-1 condition. However, the promotive effects on the two crops did not differ between the 200 and 400 μmol m-2 s-1. The promotive effects of ALA on growth of barley and radish were shown under saturated water condition, but not under flooded water condition. Although the promotive effects of ALA on growth of barley and radish were appeared under saturated water condition, the level of promotive effect under saturated water condition was lower than the well-watered condition. Promotive effects of ALA under temperatures, light intensities, and water conditions were higher in radish than in barely, and higher in shoot fresh weight than in plant height. Thus, the effects of ALA were dependant on crops, ALA concentrations, organs of plants, and environmental conditions after ALA treatments. Bidens tripartita L., Chenopodium album L., Eclipta prostrata (L.), Oxalis corniculata L., and Solanum nigrum L. were controlled over 90 % by ALA treatment (30 mM) in the fields, wheres the controlling effects of Commelina commuis L., Cyperus amuricus Maxim, and so on was lower. The herbicidal effects of ALA on weeds were higher in annual weeds than in perennial weeds.
Effects of Short-Term Rotation on Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Yield and Weed Occurrence
Nam, Sang-Young ; Kim, In-Jae ; Kim, Min-Ja ; Rho, Chang-Woo ; Min, Kyeong-Beom ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 228~234
To reduce the injury by continuous cropping system(CCS) and weed occurrence of sesame cultivation, such green manure crops as rye, hairy vetch and scotch oat were sowed in latter-September or mid-October and returned to soil in the next year of May. Weed occurrence was decreased in order of two cropping system(TCS)
Porulaca oleracea>Digitaria ciliaris. The growth and yields were increased as 33%(65.0 kg 1,000 m-2) in the RCS compared to continuous cropping system of 48.9 kg 1,000 m-2. In the CCS of sesame, it was increased as 10～15% in the TCS cultivation, and rye cultivation was the most effective crop to reduce the injury of continuous cropping in the TCS. The RCS displayed lower disease outbreak and Fussarium oxysporum density in the soil compared with the CCS, and the TCS showed good effect in the CCS of sesame. In the RCS, the porosity was most high in the RCS and CCS of rye cultivation, while rye and hairy vetch was effective way to reduce the injury of continuous cropping. The outbreaks of wilt disease and phytophthora blight were increased as the CCS years, however, displayed lowest outbreaks of disease and the yields showed highest in the rye cultivation.
Isolation of Herbicidal Compound Methyl-p-Hvdroxvbenzoate from Epimedium koreanum Nakai
Lim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Hee-Yun ; Heo, Su-Jeong ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Lim, Sun-Sung ; Kim, Song-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 235~240
The objective of this experiment was to isolate herbicidal compound(s) from Epimedium koreanum Nakai., a native Berberidaceae family plant in Korea and to identify its chemistry. The GR50 value of methanol extracts from dried plant which is determined by a seed bioassay using canola (Brassica napus L.) was 381 μg g-1. Activity-directed fractionation of the methanol extract led to the identification of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate as the herbicidal component. The chemical formula and molecular weight of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate were C8H8O3 and 152, respectively.
Distribution of Giant Ragweed(Ambrosia trifida L.) at Northwest of Gangwon, Korea
Choi, Hae-Jin ; Lim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Song-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 241~247
Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.), a native of North America, is rapidly spreading in northwest Gangwon-do, Korea. However, very limited data on habitat and population of giant ragweed are unveiled. Objective of this survey is to know where and how many giant ragweed are found at northwest Gangwon-do. The giant ragweed-infested sites along eight national and five district roads which pass through Cheorwon, Hwacheon, Chuncheon and Yanggu were surveyed between 2005 and 2006 and ragweed-infested sites are grouped from 1 to 5: group 1, < 1 m2 giant ragweed in 2 km of road; group 2, 1 - 9 m2 ; group 3, 10 - 99 m2 ; group 4, 100 - 990 m2 ; group 5, ≥ 1,000 m2. More giant ragweed were found in Hwacheon especially near riverside and lakeside along roads compared to those in other three surveyed area : 140 sites of grade 5, 24 sites of grade 4, 54 sites of grade 3, 46 sites of grade 2, and 35 sites of grade 1, respectivley, were found. In Chuncheon, thirty-six sites of grade 5, 34 sites of grade 4, 40 sites of grade 3, 34 sites of grade 2 and 43 sites of grade 1, respectivley, were found. More giant ragweed were found at upsteam of Chuncheon Lake compared to those at downstream, indicating Chuncheon dam could inhibit spreading of the weed. The sites and grades of giant ragweed in Cheorwon were similar to those in Chuncheon. One site of grade 3, 5 sites of grade 2 and 16 sites of grade 1 were found in Yanggu, respectively. Our results suggest that physical control methods could be effective to control giant ragweed in Cheorwon, Hwacheon and Chuncheon where large numbers of giant ragweed were found, while preventative methods could be effective in Yanggu where small numbers were found.
Herbicidal Activities of Agricultural By-products and Native Plants on the Growth of Rice and Paddy Weeds
An, Xue-Hua ; Lee, Sang-Bok ; Im, Il-Bin ; Kim, Sun ; Choi, Man-Young ; Kim, Jai-Duk ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 248~256
This study was conducted to investigate the herbicidal activities of 62 native plants and 11 agricultural by-products on transplanted rice, Scirpus juncoides and Echinochloa crus-galli. The result showed that 19 out of 73 experimental materials-Diospyros kaki, Citrus unshiu（pericarp), Phytolacca americana, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Astragalus sinicus, Trifolium repens, Vicia villosa, Solanum nigrum, Conyza canadensis, Galium spurium, Melia azedarach, Pinus densiflora, hot pepper meal, neem cake, soybean cake, rice bran, sesame meal, soybean meal and castor bean cake inhibited over 50% in the root growth of Echinochloa crus-galli. In the experiment under the condition of glasshouse, seven kinds of materials-s. nigrum，g. spurium, c. unshiu, c. obtusa, a. sinicus, v. villosa and soybean cake had strong herbicidal activities to several paddy weeds. These results suggest that the seven materials seems to contain an active ingredient that are effective in killing weeds. Strong herbicidal activities were observed even when the extract of c. unshiu（pericarp）was applied at low concentration. It has not been reported yet about the herbicidal effects or active ingredient of c. unshiu. Further research on the isolation and identifications of the ingredient in c. unshiu is required.
Growth, Yield, and Grain Quality in Transgenic Rice Overexpressing 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase
Kuk, Yong-In ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 257~267
Porphyrin compounds play an essential role in plant metabolism. The porphyrin ringsystem is derived from S-ammolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA acts as a growth regulator in plants atlow concentrations, whereas excess ALA acts as an herbicide in plants. Growth, rice yield, and yieldquality as well as ALA synthase (ALA-S) activity, ALA-synthesizing capacity, and chlorophyll contentswere compared between transgenic rice (Oryw saliva L.) expressing Bradyrhizobium japonicum ALA-Sgene and wild type plants. ALA-S activity was observed in transgenic lines but not in wild-typesplants. The introduction of ALA-S genes into transgenic plants led to increase in ALA-synthesizingcapacity of 1.6 to 1.8 times in transgenic lines, as compared to wild-type, Chlorophyll contents intransgenic lines P35-17 and P314-9 decreased 8% and 20% of the chlorophyll levels measured inwild-type plant, respectively. The transgenic rice plants were observed the reduction of growth dueto ALA overproduction, as compared to wild-type plants under greenhouse condition (500 UmolmV photosynthetically active radiation). Generally plant height and tiller number in the transgeniclines were lower than in the wild-type under field conditions. Yield difference in wild-type andtransgenic lines P35-17, and P314-9 were generally negligible. However, the yield oftransgenic linesP34-9 and P34-18 was 20% less than that of wild-type. The yield difference was due to reducedripened rate and 1000 grain weight. Although there were differences in qualities of milled rice suchas head rice yield, immature rice, unfilled grain, Protein, amylose, and whiteness in transgenic linesand wild-type, the difference was no consistent between transgenic lines and wild-type. However,the palatability in wild type was lower than in all transgenic lines. On the other hand, seed colour of transgenic lines P34-9 and P34-18 was black, but other transgenic lines P35-17 and P314-9 andwild type were white. These results suggest that the reduction of growth and yield in transgenicrice plants expressing B. japonicum ALA-S may be due to the photodynamic damage.
Volatile Components of Erigeron canadensis L. in Korea
Park, Yu-Hwa ; Choi, Hae-Jin ; Wang, Hai-Ying ; Kim, Hee-Yeon ; Heo, Su-Jung ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Young-Nam ; Kim, Song-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 268~274
The volatile composition of Korean horseweed (Erigeron canadensis L.) was studied. Samples were collected by headspace (HS) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatile compounds identified by HS were over 16 organic substances of different classes: ten hydrocarbons, five ketones, and one ether. Five major compounds identified by HS were DL-limonene (75.33%), cis-β-ocimene (8.72%), 2-β-pinene (3.58%), β-pyrcene (2.68%), and E,E-2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene (2.82%). Volatile components of horseweed by SPME were different from those by HS: eighteen hydrocarbons, two alcohols, one acetates, and one carbonic lactone. DL-limonene (60.13%), cis-β-ocimene (8.94%), germacrene-D (6.42%), E,E-2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene (6.37%) and β-myrcene (2.23%) were five major compounds. Results show that HS and SPME revealed different content of volatile compounds from horseweed.
Growth Inhibition of Fresh-water Algae and Duckweed by Falcarindiol Isolated from Flexuous Bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa With)
Min, Seok-Ki ; Son, Seung-Wan ; Seo, Bo-Ram ; Choi, Jung-Sup ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Kim, Jin-Seog ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 275~284
During the search for natural algicidal compound, we found that the methanol extract of flexuous bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa With) inhibited strongly the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. An algicidal compound (30 mg) was isolated from the methanol extract through ethylacetate partition, silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. It's chemical structure was determined to be falcarindiol (Z-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyne-3R,8S-diol) by mass and NMR spectral data. Falcarindiol showed a dose-dependent response to blue-green alga M. aeruginosa and green alga Chlorella vulgaris in a range of 0.25 to 10 μg mL-1. The IC50 of falcarinol to M. aeruginosa and C. vulgaris was 0.19 and 3.13 μg mL-1, respectively. It showed much lower algicidal activity to C. vulgaris compared with M. aeruginosa. On the other hand, the compound inhibited a growth of duckweed (Lemna pausicostata) with IC50 value of 6.17 μg mL-1. As a results, falcarindiol appears to have a strong potential for preventing the blooming of bule-green algae such as Microcystis spp. in pond or for the environmentally friendly control of microalgae and weeds that are harmful to water-logged rice.
Screening of Herbicidal and Fungicidal Activities from Resource Plants in Korea
Kim, Kun-Woo ; Lee, Dong-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 27, issue 3, 2007, Pages 285~295
This study was conducted to determine the herbicidal and fungicidal activities of allelochemicals present in Korean native plants. Methanol extracts from 64～66 samples of 50～52 plant species in 27 families were tested for the growth inhibition of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) seedlings and the fungicidal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. Extracts of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus branch and leaf, Hedera rhombea fruit and leaf, Chloranthus japonicus whole plant, Aster glehni stem and leaf, Erythronium japonicum stem and leaf, Pittosporum tobira fruit and leaf, Hepatica maxima stem and leaf, Clematis trichotoma stem and leaf, Anemone reflexa whole plant, Styrax japonica leaf, Bupleurum falcatum stem and leaf and Heracleum moellendorffii root showed strong herbicidal activities over 60% of growth inhibition on the root of barnyardgrass seedlings at 1,000㎍ mL-1. Above all extracts of H. rhombea fruit and leaf and A. glehni stem and leaf highly inhibited about 85.0% and 78.5% against the root growth of barnyardgrass seedlings at 1,000㎍ mL-1, respectively.Methanol extracts of Corydalis incisa and Isopyrum raddeanum whole plant showed strong fungicidal activity against Bipolaris sorokiniana at a concetration of 250㎍. Also, extracts of Trillium kamtschaticum whole plant showed strong fungicidal activity against Phyricularia grisea at a same concetration.