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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Development of Bubbling Labor-saving Herbicide Formulation Jumbo, JuMerckTan, for Paddy Rice
Hwang, In-Cheon ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 193~201
The Jumbo Formulation is developed for farmer's labor-saving weed control in an effort to develop environmentally-friendly agriculture and labor-saving of agricultural practice. This paper summarizes the published literature and formulation information of diffusion, biological test, toxicology etc.
Biological Characteristic of Azimsulfuron
Park, Ung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 202~207
Azimsulfuron (DPX-A8947) is a new concept of herbicide to control the important grass, sedge, and broadleaf weeds of Japonica and Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) field around world. Azimsulfuron has been tested intensively in Japan, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Korea since 1988. When used according to label directions, it is safe to the rice ecosystem because of its low use rate (6～25g ai ha-1), low toxicity to mammals and aquatic species, and rapid dissipation from the environment. Like other sulfonylureas, azimsulfuron inhibits the enzyme of acetolactate syntheses (ALS) in weeds. This enzyme controls the biosynthesis of essential branced-chain amino acids in sensitive rice weeds. Shortly after applications there is a cessation of cell division, resulting in growth inhibition, stunting, chlorosis or necrosis and eventual death of the rice weeds within one to three weeks after application. Rice plant, however, metabolizes the compound rapidly and is not affected. Azimsulfuron has a very broad spectrum of activity and a flexible range of application. At rates of 15～25g ai ha-1 it controls most of the key weeds in the rice field.
Phytotoxic Effect of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Seedling Growth of Echinochloa crus-galli
Kim, Sung-Hyun ; Lim, Hye-Won ; Lee, In-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 208~213
This study was conducted to investigate the phytotoxic effect of extracts from 10 medicinal plants on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli. As a result of germination test and comparing seedling growth of E. crus-galli, Aster scaber extracts were highly herbicidal. Especially root exudates from A. scaber completely inhibited the germination of E. crus-galli. There are found that root> leaf> stem in the order of herbicidal exudate of A. scaber. From the result of total phenolic compounds from root exudates by phenolics analysis, A. scarber was found to be highest compound (1,040mg L-1). The amount of total phenolic compounds of root extracts from 10 medicinal plants was shown as follow：A. scaber > Saururus chinensis > Aster tataricu, Saxifraga stolonifera. Effective herbicidal plant on seedling E. crus-galli has greater amount of total phenolic compounds.
Effect of Rice Growth and Yield Affected by Different Densities of Ludwigia prostarata Roxb. in Machine Transplanted Rice Culltivation
Song, Seok-Bo ; Hwang, Jae-Bok ; Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 214~219
This study was conducted to predict reduction of rice yield as affected by different densities of Ludwigia prostrata Roxb. All data were fitted to Cousens' rectangular hyperbola model to estimate parameters for predicting rice yield loss. The yield of rice in the various densities (4 to 192 plants m-2) of L. prostrata. was reduced by 2 to 39%, respectively. Among yield components, panicles was the most significantly influenced by weed interferences. Head rice was obviously reduced by increased densities of L. prostrata. The prediction model for rice yield as affected by weed competition was as follows：Y=516.423/(1+0.0037x), R2=0.912 in L. prostrata. Economic threshold levels calculated using cousens' equation was 6.6 plants m-2 in L. prostrata.
Characteristics of Vegetational Distribution of Weeds in Petroleum-Contaminated Soil
Hong, Sun-Hee ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Na, Chae-Sun ; Kang, Byeung-Hoa ; Lee, Sang-Hwan ; Shim, Sang-In ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 220~228
Vegetational characteristics of weeds in petroleum contaminated soil were examined and compared with those of uncontaminated field. To know the intensity of oil pollution total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) concentrations were determined in the contaminated fields located in Pohang and Chuncheon city, Korea. In the experimental site located in Pohang, the concentrations of TPH ranged from 873 to 3819mg kg-1, while BTEX was not detected in the soil samples. In the experimental site located in Chuncheon city, TPH and BTEX concentrations ranged from 2920 to 7704mg kg-1 and from 220 to 1727mg kg-1, respectively. The levels of TPH were higher than the safe levels in both experimental sites. However BTEX levels in experimental sites were different in its hazardous level. BTEX concentration was hazardous in only the site located in Chuncheon. Weed flora in contaminated fields was different from the uncontaminated fields. Dominant weed species in petroleum contaminated soil of Pohang was Zoysia japonica, and those of the contaminated field in Chuncheon were Bidens frondosa and Microstegium vimineum. Compared with uncomtaminated site, vegetational characteristic of petroleum contaminated soil showed higher dominance index and lower diversity index than uncontaminated fields located nearby oil-contaminated sites. Distributions of weed species according to life cycle indicated that the proportions of annual plants were lowered in both contamination sites while those of perennials were increased. Proportion of annual plants in the flora of contaminated sites located in Pohang and Chuncheon were 16.7 and 38.5%, respectively, which were lower than those of uncontaminated sites (34.4 and 42.9%, respectively). The proportions of biennial in contaminated sites were slightly increased from 9.4 to 16.7 and 14.3 to 15.4 in Pohang and Chuncheon, respectively. Proportional similarity between vegetation of contaminated and uncontaminated site in Pohang and Chuncheon city was 24.3 and 4.4%, respectively.
Isolation of New Herbicidal Compound 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin from Pulsatilla koreana Nakai
Choi, Hae-Jin ; Jung, Mee-Jung ; Kim, Song-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 229~235
The objective of this study was to isolate a herbicidally active compound from Pulsatilla koreana, a native plant in Korea and to identify its chemistry. The herbicidal activity (GR50) of methanol extracts of dried plant which is determined by a seed bioassay using rapeseed (Brassica napus) seedlings was 6,776 μg g-1. Of re-extracted fractions of ethylacetate, butanol, dichloromethane, hexane and water from the methanol extract, GR50 value of dichloromethane fraction was lowest：1,562 μg g-1. Activity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of DCAG fraction with GR50 value 78 μg g-1. Based on data of EI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, the chemical structure of the herbicidal compound was determined as 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin.
Effects of Soybean Meal and Mixture of Soybean Meal and Rice Bran on Weed Control and Rice Growth in the Machine Transplanting Ride Paddy Fieldy
An, Xue-Hua ; Lee, Sang-Bok ; You, Chul-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 236~241
This study investigated the mixture ratio of rice bran and soybean meal, soybean meal to the restriction effect of weed in the machine transplanting rice paddy field. The effect on growth and output of rice, and soil environment by using soybean meal, mixed rice bran and soybean meal in the machine transplanting rice paddy field. When the rice bran mixed with above 25.3% (lest mixture ratio) soybean meal, the restriction effect to Echirochloa crus-galli and other weeds is higher than only rice bran. When the concentration of nitrogen was 0.09 ton ha-1 and mixing materials was 2.50 ton ha-1, rice bran to mixed with 46.7% soybean meal which was 25.3% higher of the lest mixture ratio. In field, no differences were showed between conventional chemical fertilizer and soybean meal and mixed rice bran, and soybean meal to the growth of rice. The weeds restriction effects were founded as follows：conventional > soybean meal > mixed rice bran and soybean meal > rice bran. The output of rice used with soybean meal was 5% higher than conventional in the output of rice. However, the rice used with rice bran, mixed rice bran and soybean meal were little less than conventional if in the output of rice.
Distribution of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) at Yanggu, Gangwon-do, Korea
kim, Song-mun ; Choi, Hae-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 242~247
The objective of this survey was to know the habitat and population of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) at Yanggu in Korea. The population of giant ragweed along two national, three district, and five county roads were grouped from 1 to 5：grade 1, < 1 m2 giant ragweed in 2 km of road; grade 2, 1 - 9 m2; grade 3, 10 - 99 m2; grade 4, 100 - 990 m2; grade 5, ≥ 1,000 m2. At Yanggu, giant ragweed was found at 23 sites along roadsides and riversides; two sites of grade 4, four sites of grade 3, nine sites of grade 2, and eight sites of grade 1 were found along national, district, and county roads. The population of giant ragweed along the national road 31 and the county road 6 was higher than that along any other roads, suggesting that the spreading route for giant ragweed was river. The population of giant ragweed at Yanggu was much lower than those at Chuncheon and Hwacheon, however, control methods including physical control should be operated against spreading of this weed.
Biology of Altica caerulescens (Baly), Agent for the Biological Control of Acalypha australis L.
Park, Jin-Young ; Kwon, Oh-Seok ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Lee, In-Yong ; Lee, Jong-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 248~254
Acalypha australis L. (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most problematic weeds in the bean farmland in Korea. Altica caerulescens (Baly) was selected as a potential biological control agent for A. australis. Continuous rearing of A. caerulescens was carried out from 2005 to 2006, and its morphological characteristics and ecological characteristics were investigated. This species has a single generation per year, over-wintering as an adult stage. The emergence of adults starts in early April and last until October. These observations indicate that A. caerulescens takes 25±0.9 days to develop from egg to adulthood. No-choice test showed that finally selected this species was suitable candidates for the biological control of A. australis since it showed negative host specificity against major 35 test crops and plants.
Economic Threshold Levels Based on Rice Yield and Rice Quality as Affected by Densities of Scirpus planiculmis in Transplanting Rice Cultivation
Kwon, Oh-Do ; Kuk, Yong-In ; Moon, Byeong-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 255~263
This study was conducted to develop predication model systems for reduction in rice yield and rice quality as affected by densities of Echinochloa crus-galli and Scirpus planiculmis in transplanted rice cultivation and to determine economic threshold levels of weeds. Plant height (cm) and number of branch at 15-18 days after transplanting of tuber of S. planiculmis were 38.8-44.1 and 2.7-3.2, respectively. In transplanted rice cultivation, yield of rice in densities of E. crus-galli (96 per m2) and S. planiculmis (96 per m2) was reduced by 35.7 and 28.6%, respectively. Head rice was obviously reduced by increasing occurrence densities of E. crus-galli and S. planiculmis, whereas cracked rice was increased with increasing occurrence densities of E. crus-galli and S. planiculmis. However, there were no significant differences in other rice quality such as protein and quality value as affected by densities of E. crus-galli and S. planiculmis. Regression equations for prediction models of rice yields loss on densities of E. crus-galli and S. planiculmis were Y=549.4/(1+0.006110x), r2=0.928 and Y=534.6/(1+0.004537x), r2=0.760, respectively. The competitiveness of E. crus-galli was 1.4-fold higher than that of S. planiculmis. Economic threshold densities of E. crus-galli and S. planiculmis were 3.4 and 4.6 per m2, respectively.
Characteristics of Shikimate Accumulation in Various Plants Treated with Glyphsate
Kim, Jin-Seog ; Choi, Jung-Sup ; Seo, Bo-Ram ; Hwang, Hyun-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 264~273
This study was conducted to know characteristics of shikimate accumulation in various plants treated with glyphosate and to investigate a possibility for broadening application of the shikimate accumulation assay. The accumulation manner of shikimate dependent on the leaf age was different among plant species. When the shikimate accumulation assay with excised leaf tissue taken from 21 species of field- or greenhouse-grown plants was conducted, one to eightfold differences in shikimate levels exhibited with lower values in grasses than in broadleaves plants. Especially, shikimate accumulation began to occur at lower dose of glyphosate in grass plants. Leaf tissues excised from CP4-EPSPS-introduced soybean or potato did not accumulate shikimate even when treated with 80 and 64 ㎍ mL-1 glyphosate, respectively. On the other hand, when shikimate was determined in the whole plant treated with glyphosate, shikimate level was increased in a linear manner until 3 day after herbicide application with a higher accumulation than in the excised leaf tissues floated on glyphosate solution. At this case of determinating the shikimate levels in glyphosate-treated whole plant, a significant difference of shikimate amount was not observed even using distilled water or 1.25 N HCl solution instead of the 10 mM ammonium phosphate buffer for shikimate extraction. Taken together, this assay would be highly useful to identify and control glyphosate-resistant weeds in field, to develop glyphosate-resistant crops, and to distinguish glyphosate-resistant mechanisms, especially through supplement of any other assay techniques.
Floral Volatile Composition of Daisy Fleabane (Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.)
Yu, Jeong-Mi ; Park, Yu-Hwa ; Kim, Song-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 274~278
The objective of this experiment is to understand the volatile composition of the essential oil from flower of daisy fleabane (Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.). The essential oil was extracted using a steam distillation apparatus, collected by solid-phase microextraction, and analyzed by GC-MS. The yield of the essential oil was 0.22% and the fragrance was herbal, minty, oily and fruity. Twenty-eight constituents were identified from the essential oil: 16 hydrocarbons, 5 alcohols, 5 ethers, 1 nitrogen-containing compound and 1 acid. Major volatile compounds were 1H-cyclopenta[1,3] cyclopropa[1,2]benzene (32.9%), methyl-(Z)-dec-2-en-4,6-diynoate (16.1%), 3,7-dimethyl-(Z)-1,3,6- octatriene (15.1%), 1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydronaphthalene (6.6%), and 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2,4-bis (1-methylethenyl)-[1S-(1a,2b,4b)]-cyclohexane (6.5%). The overall data showed that floral essential oil of daisy fleabane had unique chemicals with unique fragrance, suggesting the essential oil could be used as a raw material for the development of new fragrances.
Study on Population Dynamics of Ophraella communa LeSage and Epiblema sugii Kawabe, Biological Control Agents Against Ambrosia Species
Na , Seon-Hee ; Cho, Young-Ho ; Park, Young-Jun ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Han, Young-Gu ; Nam, Sang-Ho ; Kwon, Oh-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 28, issue 3, 2008, Pages 279~285