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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Identification on Weedy Lindernia (Scrophulariaceae) in Korea Based on Morphological Characteristics During Early and Middle Growing Stage
Kim, Chang-Seok ; Oh, Young-Ju ; Cho, Jung-Lai ; Lee, Byung-Mo ; Lee, In-Yong ; Oh, Se-Mun ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Chung, Young-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 269~273
Seven taxa of the genus Lindernia in Scrophulariaceae (L. crustacea, L. procumbens, L. micrantha, L. verbenaefolia, L. dubia var. dubia, L. dubia var. major, and L. dubia var. anagallidea) based on morphological characters appeared in leaf blade, petiole, and transversal section of stem during early and middle growing stages were investigated. The shape, base, margin and vein of leaf blade were useful characters for identification. Especially, venation was very important character. L. procumbens and L. dubia var. anagallidea was palmately veined, while the rest five taxa were pinnately veined. The leaf base of L. dubia var. anagallidea was uniquely reniform and the leaf margin of L. procumbens was only entire. All taxa were showed aerenchyma in stem except L. crustacea and arranged radiately, while L. verbenaefolia had scattered type. In conclusion, leaf morphology and aerenchyma character come to identification key.
Weed Species and Distribution in the Basin of the Geum and Sabgyo Rivers in Korea
Choi, Bong-Su ; Song, Duk-Young ; Roh, Jae-Hwan ; Lee, Chul-Won ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 274~287
The weed survey was conducted in the basin of the Geum and Sabgyo Rivers, Chungcheongnam-do. Weed species identified in the survey area were totally 205 species of 46 families, including Asteraceae of 35 species, Poaceae of 28 species, Polygonaceae of 17 species and Fabaceae of 14 species. The total annual growth weed were found 90 species while perennial and biennial weeds were 75 and 40 species, respectively in terms of life cycle of weeds. The weed species were found in 168, 128 and 150 species in the Geum and Sabgyo Rivers, and other streams, respectively. In the studied sites, 54 exotic weed species of 17 families were found including Asteraceae of 15 species, Fabaceae of 5 species, and Chenopodiaceae of 4 species. The exotic weed species were found in 44, 31 and 34 species in the Geum and Sabgyo Rivers, and other streams, respectively. The dominant weeds of occurrence frequency in the studied sites were Acalypha australis L., Artemisia princeps Pamp., Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel., Rumex crispus L. and Lactuca indica var. laciniata, while exotic weeds were Rumex crispus L., Trifolium repens L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Oenothera biennis L. and Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.
Comparison of Physiological and Ecological Characteristics for Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) Distributed in Korea
Park , Sang-Won ; Jin, Young-Joon ; Kwon, Young-Woong ; Moon, Beyung-Chul ; Kim, Chang-Seok ; Shin, Joung-Du ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 288~297
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the physiological and ecological characteristics such as germination rate, growth, host-preference and flowering periods, and histological structure of insertion for native species of dodder (Cuscuta spp.) as C. japonica, C. australis and C. chinensis and exotic species of C. pentagona distributed in Korea. Due to very low germination rate of dodder seeds, with seed-precipitated in the concentrated sulfuric acid, it could be raised over 80% for 30 min. with C. australis and C. chinensis and for 40 min. of immersion time with C. japonica. Especially for C. pentagona originated from America, it shown over 80% of germination rate after 10 min. of its immersion time. According to its probit analysis, it was observed that
(required time to be 50% of germination rate) values were following order as C. pentagona, 6.6 min. << C. australis, 14.8 min. < C. chinensis, 19.0 min. < C. japonica, 31.5 min. With inoculation of dodder to host plants artificially, 4 species of dodders could be easily attacked and inserted to Artemisia princeps and Persicaria blumei with being active growth. And it was also observed that the periods of stem growth after occurring its insertion is taken sort time, but its flowering periods is prolonged for C. japonica. Regarding to treatment of day length, it shown that C. japonica is only flowered at short day's condition (8 hour photoperiod) regardless of host plants, but C. chinensis is flowered in respect of response of host plant's flowering regardless of day length treatment. For their histological structure of insertion, it was observed that C. japonica is completely passed through xylem of host plant, but C. australis and C. pentagona are only penetrated into its xylem. And degradation status of cell wall and plasmodesmata connected with cell walls of host plant cell and the inserted tissue were not appeared.
Species Identification of Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) using DNA Fingerprinting
Jin, Young-Joon ; Park, Sang-Won ; Kwon, Young-Woong ; Lee, Sang-Jae ; Moon, Beyung-Chul ; Shin, Joung-Du ; Ko, Ki-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 298~309
Dodder (Cuscuta spp.) is a very important holoparasitic weed in plant quarantine and weed control. In Korea, C. japonica, C. australis and C. chinensis are spontaneous, but recently, C. pentagona, exotic species, was found. Correct identification of the dodder species by morphological characteristics of seed in quarantine is very difficult. Also, species identification of dodders growing in fields is delayed until dodder plants flower. Objective of this experiment was conducted to develop a reliable method of DNA fingerprinting for species identification with seeds and seedlings. The results are summarized as follows. Seeds of five dodders, i.e., C. australis, C. chinensis, C. japonica, C. pentagona and C. reflexa were used for species identification by DNA fingerprinting. Forty one Operon primers and TaKaRa Taq DNA polymerase (5U
) were used to be tested. Consequently 36 primer's showed polymorphism in dodder accessions and 18 primers generated the species-specific bands. For the individual variation within a species in dodder seeds the plant samples were collected from the same area was low except for C. pentagona. Thirteen primers among the 18 primers were used for analysis of inter-specific variation. Overall it was considered that the tested accessions were classified into 4 groups; group A of C. pentagona (Namwon, Daejeon, Jeonju) and C. australis (Hwasun), group B of C. pentagona (Damyang1, Damyang2, Chonan, Yangpyong, Chilgok, Suwon) and C. chinensis (Yeosu), group C of C. japonica (Yeosu, Yongju, China), and group D of C. reflexa (China). The C. japonica-specific 7 bands, the C. chinensis-specific 5 bands, the C. reflexa-specific 7 bands and the C. pentagona-specific 2 bands were identified. As a result, two Operon primers, OPS08 and OPS09, showed sufficient availability for species identification of different dodders.
Germination Characteristics of Photoblastic Weedy Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seed
Kim, Sang-Yeol ; Hwang, Sun-Joo ; Lee, In-Jung ; Shin, Dong-Hyun ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Yeo, Un-Sang ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 310~317
The effects of different light qualities on the germination characteristics of a newly-discovered black-hulled weedy rice line that shows photoblastism was evaluated. In addition, the effects of rice hull and dark imbibition duration on germination was also studied. The germination percentage under white light was greater than 98% and less than 6% in darkness, indicating that the black-hulled weedy rice seed as positively photoblastic. While red light (R) stimulated germination, the germination was lower than in the white light treatment and the germination percentage of the seeds exposed to far-red light (FR) was similar to those maintained in darkness. The exposure to R for 30 sec. increased germination and this effect was saturated at an exposure of 15 min. The R effect was reversed by subsequent exposure to FR. Phytochrome control of the photoblastic weedy rice seed germination was confirmed by R/FR reversibility. The removal of the hull restored seed germination completely even in dark condition. Non-dormant weedy rice seeds imbibed in the dark enter a deep secondary dormancy, the depth of which was positively related to the duration of imbibition period. These results show that the black-hulled weedy rice seeds exhibit phytochrome-meditated photoblasticity, hull-imposed dormancy and secondary dormancy.
Research Papers : Initial Growth Inhibitory Effects of Essential Oils on Direct Seeded Rice and Barnyardgrass
Choi, Sung-Hwan ; An, Jae-Young ; Park, Kee-Woong ; Lee, Jeung-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 318~322
This study was conducted to investigate the phytotoxic effect of 17 essential oils on initial growth of direct seeded rice and barnyardgrass. We found that five essential oils (anise, cinnamon, citronella, clove and pine oil) at 30 kg a.i.
inhibited more than 95% of the growth of barnyardgrass 10 days after application. These herbicidal effects lasted until 40 days after application. Because the phytotoxicity of the essential oils to the direct seeded rice was relatively high, they might be considered as a non-selective herbicide to control barnyardgrass in organic farming system.
The Growth and Yield of Soybean as Affected by Competitive Density of Digitaria sanguinalis
Song, Seok-Bo ; Lee, Jae-Saeng ; Kang, Jong-Rae ; Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Woo, Koa-Sik ; Oh, Byeong-Geun ; Nam, Min-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 323~327
This study was conducted to predict reduction of soybean yield as affected by different densities of Digitaria sanguinalis. All data were fitted to Cousens' rectangular hyperbola model to estimate parameters for predicting soybean yield loss. The yield of soybean in the various densities (4 to 192 plants
) of D. sanguinalis was reduced by 17 to 57%, respectively. Among yield components, number of pods was the most significantly influenced by weed interferences. The prediction model for soybean yield as affected by competitive density of D. sanguinalis was as follows：Y=204.462/(1+0.0069X),
=0.896. Economic threshold levels calculated using Cousens' equation was 3.4 plants
in D. sanguinalis.
Yield Losses and Economic Thresholds by Density of Bidens tripartita and Eclipta prostrata in Transplanted Rice Field
Won, Jong-Gun ; Ahn, Duok-Jong ; Kim, Se-Jong ; Kwon, Oh-Do ; Moon, Byeong-Chul ; Park, Jae-Eup ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 328~335
This study was conducted to predict the rice yield loss and to determine the economic weed thresholds levels for transplanted rice from competition between the most serious weeds, Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass), Eclipta prostrata (american false daisy) and Bidens tripartita (bur beggar ticks) in Daegu of Korea. To predict crop yield as a function of weed density used a rectangular hyperbola, and to determine their economic threshold levels used the equation developed by Cousens (1987). The rice yield loss models of weeds were predicted as y=4.96/(1+0.02433x),
=0.859 in E. crus-galli, y=5.18/(1+0.00188x),
=0.938 in E. prostrata and y=5.26/(1+0.00044x),
=0.835 in B. tripartita. Economic thresholds calculated using Cousens' equation was negatively related with the competitiveness of weed. So that the economic thresholds of each weed were 0.98 plant
in E. crus-galli, 12.0 plant
in B. tripartita and 56.1 plant
in E. prostrata.
Differential Photodynamic-induced Oxidative Stress Imposed by Aminolevulinic Acid and Oxyfluorfen
Jung, Sun-Yo ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 336~342
We compared the effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen on photodynamic-induced oxidative stress in rice plants. Leaf squares of rice plants incubated with various concentrations of ALA and oxyfluorfen under illumination were characterized by a timedependent increase in electro-conductivity. The ALA-treated leaf tissues showed much faster increase in conductivity than the oxyfluorfen-treated leaf tissues did. The production of malonyldialdehyde also drastically increased in response to foliar application of ALA and oxyfluorfen, with a greater increase in the ALA-treated plants. In response to foliar application of herbicides, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased in both ALA-treated and oxyfluorfen-treated plants, with sightly higher decline in the ALA-treated plants. The ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased in response to ALA and oxyfluorfen treatments, but did not show any noticeable difference between the two treatments. Overall, the ALA-treated rice plants suffered greater photodynamic stress, compared with the oxyfluorfen-treated plants.
Growth Inhibition Characteristics of Fresh-water Algae to Several Sesquiterpene Compounds Isolated from Medicinal Plants
Hwang, Hyun-Jin ; Seo, Bo-Ram ; Kim, Jae-Deog ; Jang, Hyun-Woo ; Choi, Jung-Sup ; Kim, Jin-Seog ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 343~352
The inhibition of algae growth to n-hexane fractions of methanol extracts of Atractylodes chinensis, Piper nigrum, and Curcuma aromatica and sesquiterpenes compounds isolated from medicinal plants, were investigated with 5 species of green algae (Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572, B. braunii UTEX 2441, Chlamydomonas spp., Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265, Scenedesmus spp.) and 4 species of blue-green algae (Anabaena affinis Lem, Microcystis aeruginosa UTEX 2388, Oscillatoria tenuis UTEX1566, Spirulina platensis) in the laboratory. n-Hexane fractions of methanol extracts inhibited more than 90% the M. aeruginosa in a range of 2.5 to 10
and the C. vulgaris in a range of 50
. The isolated compounds, furanodiene and
-bisabolene also showed a same tendency with more higher control to M. aeruginosa. The trans-caryophyllene isolated from P. nigrum showed higher activity in the control of three harmful algae A. affinis, M. aeruginosa, and O. tenuis. However, S. platensis and 5 species of green algae were fairly tolerant to trans-caryophyllene. Caryophyllene oxide showed a similar algicidal activity without a significant selectivity between green algae and bule-green algae and had an activity at higher application rate than one of trans-caryophyllene. On the other hand,
-curcumene isolated from C. aromatica, was able to control three harmful algae A. affinis, M. aeruginosa, and O. tenuis without interrupting the growth of S. platensis and 5 species of green algae in a range of 2.5 to 10
. These results show that the responses of algae growth inhibition to compounds is likely different in every species, and sesquiterpene compounds prepared from this study seemed to have a potential as natural algicide for the control of harmful algae and to solve partly a contamination problem in industrial cultivation of a certain algae.
Herbicidal Response and Rapid Diagnosis of ACCase-resistant Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli to Cyhalofop-butyl
Moon, Byeong-Chul ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Lee, In-Yong ; Park, Tae-Seon ; Park, Jong-Min ; Kim, Do-Soon ; Jin, Yong-Duk ; Kwon, Hye-Yong ; Im, Geon-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 353~358
Two biotypes of E crus-galli var crus-galli were collected from Seosan Hyundai farm, Seosan (resistant biotype) and Suwon (susceptible biotype) in 2007 and tested with cyhalofopbutyl, to establish method diagnosing rapidly if E. crus-galli seeds corrected were resistant to cyhalofop-butyl EC. The results are summarized as follows. Germination of new shoot in the a part cut 24 hours after treatment with cyhalofop-butyl EC was responded differently by biotypes of E. crus-galli collected. In case of Suwon biotypes, the shoot in the cutting parts was not almost germinated in the treatment above standard amount whereas it was germinated from 3 days after cutting in most treatment of Seosan biotypes (R). R/S ratios by dose-responses of Seosan (R) and Suwon biotypes (S) in the lower cutting parts after treatment with cyhalofop-butyl EC showed values of 3.4 and 5.7 at 4 and 5 leaf stage, respectively. Accordingly, judgement by response of shoot in the parts cutting 24 hours after treatment was considered to be effective as method to diagnose rapidly if E. crus-galli were resistant to cyhalofop-butyl.
Differences in Growth and Susceptibility to Bensulfuron-methyl by Dwarf Arrowhead(Sagittaria pygmaea) Tuber Sizes
Cho, Kwang-Min ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Chun, Jae-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2009, Pages 359~366
Relationships between tuber size and seedling vigor and susceptibility to bensulfuronmethyl were investigated in dwarf arrowhead (Sagittaria pygmaea). Tuber size as determined by fresh weight ranged from 10 to 200 mg. Differences in the tuber size did not affect tuber sprouting, but resulted in differences in seedling vigor. Development of leaves and roots was faster and greater in seedlings grown from large tubers (95 to 105 mg tuber
) than in those grown from small tubers (35 to 45 mg tuber
). When bensulfuron-methyl was applied as pre-emergence, reduction in the number of roots produced was greater in dwarf arrowhead grown from small tubers than those grown from large tubers. Recovery from the inhibition caused by bensulfuron-methyl occurred earlier in large tubers than in small tubers. Differences in susceptibility to bensulfuron-methyl of dwarf arrowhead plants grown from different tuber sizes were also found when the herbicide was applied as post-emergence.