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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Weed Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Occurrence of Exotic Weeds in Several Islands in Korea
Kim, Chang-Suk ; Lee, In-Yong ; Oh, Yeong-Ju ; Oh, Se-Mun ; Kim, Suk-Chul ; Park, Jae-Eup ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.059
The distribution of exotic weeds in 4 island area such as Baengnyeong-do, Heuksan-do, Chuja-do, and Geomun-do in Korea was investigated. Baengnyeong-do, Heuksan-do, Chuja-do, and Geomun-do have different weed flora, 41 species included 13 families, 32 species included 11 families, 23 species included 9 families and 30 species included 12 families were observed in the 4 islands, respectively. 18 families 70 species were occurred in 4 island. Most troublesome exotic weeds were Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior, Solanum carolinense, Cuscuta pentagona. Occurrence frequency of Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Dactylis glomerata, Bromus catharticus and Lolium multiflorum were the highest in each island, respectively. Also, result of divided life cycle, annual weeds were 28 species occupied 40% in total, biennial weeds were 21 species (30%) and perennial weeds were 21 species (30%).
Spatio-temporal Distribution Pattern of New Biotypes of Weedy Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Selangor North-West Project, Malaysia
Baki, B.B. ; M.M., Shakirin ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 68~83
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.068
Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) occurred sympatrically with other weeds and the rice crop in Malaysian rice granaries. We conducted field surveys in 2006-2008 seasons in 7 farm blocks of Selangor's North West Project, Malaysia to enlist the new biotypes of weedy rice (NBWR) and assess their spatio-temporal pattern of distribution based on quantitative and dispersion indices. No less than 16 accessions of NBWR were identified based on their special traits, viz. panicle type, pericarp colour, presence or absence of awn, seed type and degree of grain shattering. The NBWR accessions exhibited a combination of morphological traits from open panicle, grain with awns, red pericarp, short grain type, and degrees of grain shattering. Others mimic commercial rices with close panicle, awnless grains, white pericarp, long or short grain-type. Invariably, the NBWRs mimic and stand as tall as cultivated rice namely MR219, MR220, or MR235 and these NBWR accessions stand among equals morphologically vis-a-vis the commercial rice varieties. Most accessions displayed varying degrees of grain shattering in excess of 50%, except Acc9 and Acc12. The seasonal dynamics of on the prevalence of dominant NBWR accessions were also displaying significant differences among farm blocks. While Bagan Terap farm block, for example, did not record any measurable changes in the dominant NBWR accessions over seasons, the Sungai Leman farm block recorded measurable season-mediated changes in the dominant NBWR accessions. Sungai Leman started with NBWR Acc3, Acc4, Acc5, Acc7, Acc8, and Acc12 in season 1 of 2006/2007, but no measurable records of Acc3 and Acc5 were shown in season 2 of 2007. In season 3 of 2007/2008, only Acc8 and Acc12 prevailed in the farm block. In Sawah Sempadan farm block, season 3 of 2007/2008 showed much reduced prevalence of NBWRs leaving only Acc8 and Acc12. Most accessions registered clump or under-dispersed spatial distribution pattern based on quantitative indices: variance-to-mean ratio (VMR) and Lloyd's patchiness values. The dynamics on the extent of infestation and prevalence of dominant NBWR accessions registered both season- and farm-block mediated differences. Most accessions showed VMR >1 thus indicative of having a clump or clustered spatial distribution, as exemplified by Acc3, Acc4, Acc7, Acc8 and Acc12 in all farm blocks throughout three seasons. Some accessions have either random or uniform distribution in a few farm blocks. The Acc8 has the highest population counts based on important value index, followed by Acc12, and both were the most dominant accession while Sawah Sempadan was the worst farm block infested by NBWR compared to other farm blocks. These results were discussed in relation with the current agronomic and weed management practices, water availability and extension services in the granary.
Germination and Seedling Emergence of Ammannia coccinea as Influenced by Environmental Factors
Shen, Xiangri ; Pyon, Jong-Yeong ; Kim, Do-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 84~93
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.084
Petri dish and pot experiments were conducted to investigate germination and seedling emergence of Ammannia coccinea as influenced by environmental factors. The best germination of A. coccinea was obtained at
of temperature and 0 bar of osmotic potential, while no germination at temperatures of
, osmotic potentials of
-2.0 bar, or dark condition. The best seedling emergence was observed at
, at which the first emergence of A. coccinea was observed at 7 days after sowing (DAS) with its maximum emergence reached at 10 DAS. No seedling emergence was observed at
with significant reduction at
. Seedling emergence decreased with increasing soil depth, resulting in no seedling emergence at
3 cm. The Gompertz model well described the cumulative germination and seedling emergence of A. coccinea with time. Germination influenced by osmotic potential and seedling emergence influenced by soil burial depth were well described by the logistic model. Overall results indicate that A. coccinea is photoblastic and requires temperatures greater than
, osmotic potential greater than -2.0 bar, and soil burial depth shallower than 3 cm for its germination and seedling emergence, which were faster than M. vaginalis but slower than E. crus-galli.
Prediction of Seedling Emergence and Early Growth of Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi under Evaluated Temperature
Kim, Jin-Won ; Moon, Byeong-Chul ; Lim, Soo-Hyun ; Chung, Ji-Hoon ; Kim, Do-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 94~102
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.094
Field and pot experiments were conducted to investigate seedling emergence and early growth of Eleocharis kuroguwai panted on different dates. Non-linear regression analyses of observed data against effective accumulated temperature (EAT) with the Gompertz model showed that the Gompertz model works well in describing seedling emergence and early growth of E. kuroguwai regardless of planting date and soil burial depth. EATs required for 50% of the maximum seedling emergence of E. kuroguwai planted at 1, 3 and 5 cm soil burial depth in the pot experiment were estimated to be 54.5, 84.0 and
, respectively, and
when planted at 1 cm in the field experiment. EATs required for 50% of the maximum leaf number of E. kuroguwai planted at 1, 3 and 5 cm soil burial depth in the pot experiment were estimated to be 213.3, 249.0 and
, respectively, and
when planted at 1 cm in the field experiment. Therefore, models developed in this study thus predicted that if rotary tillage with water is made on 27 May under
elevated temperature condition, dates for 50% of the maximum seedling emergence, 5 leaf stage and 5 cm plant height of E. kuroguwai buried at 3 cm soil depth were predicted to be 2 June, 10 June and 12 June. These dates are 1 day earlier for the seedling emergence and 3 days earlier for the early growth as compared with current temperature condition, suggesting that earlier application of herbicides is required for effective control of E. kuroguwai.
Prediction of Seedling Emergence and Early Growth of Monochoria vaginalis and Scirpus juncoides under Elevated Temperature
Park, Min-Won ; Kim, Jin-Won ; Lim, Soo-Hyun ; Lee, In-Yong ; Kim, Do-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 103~110
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.103
This experiment was conducted to investigate seedling emergence and early growth of Monochoria vaginalis and Scirpus juncoides in the controlled-environment chamber maintained at different temperatures. Non-linear regression analyses of observed data against effective accumulated temperature (EAT) with the Gompertz and logistic models showed that the Gompertz and logistic models worked well in describing seedling emergence and early growth of both weed species, respectively, regardless of temperature. EATs required for 50% of the maximum seedling emergence and the maximum leaf number of M. vaginalis were estimated to be 69.3 and
, respectively, while those of S. juncoides were 94.8 and
, respectively. Models developed in this study thus were used to predict seedling emergence and early growth under elevated temperature condition. If rotary tillage with water is made on 27 May under
elevated temperature condition, dates for 50% of the maximum seedling emergence and 4 leaf stage were predicted to be 1 June and 15 June for M. vaginalis and 3 June and 14 June for S. juncoides, respectively. As compared with current temperature, these dates are 1-2 days earlier for the seedling emergence and 3 days earlier for the early growth, suggesting that earlier application of herbicides is required for effective control of M. vaginalis and S. juncoides under elevated temperature condition in the future.
Mechanism of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-inhibiting Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen Tolerance in Squash leaves of Various Ages
Kuk, Yong-In ; Yun, Young-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 111~121
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.111
Differential tolerance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox)-inhibiting herbicides, oxyfluorfen was observed between leaf ages in squash. Physiological responses to oxyfluorfen, including leaf injury, cellular leakage, accumulation of tetrapyrroles, and antioxidative enzymes activity, were investigated in leaf age classes of squash to identify mechanisms of oxyfluorfen tolerance. Leaf 1, 2, and 3 injuries for Joongangaehobak were >10,000, 1,286, and 1.6-fold higher than that of leaf 4, after treatment of oxyfluorfen. On the other hand, leaf 1, 2, and 3 injuries for Sintowjahobak were 725, 366, and >0.6-fold higher than that of leaf 4, after treatment of oxyfluorfen. However, in contrast to oxyfluorfen treatment results, leaf injury of squash leaf 4 treated with paraquat was much smaller than in leaves 1, 2 and 3. Electrolyte leakage from the tissues treated with oxyfluorfen was higher in the youngest leaf (Leaf 4) than in the older leaves 1, 2, and 3. Differential leaf response to oxyfluorfen of squash appears to be due in large part to differences in protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX), Mg-Proto IX, and Mg-Proto IX monomethyl ester accumulation in treated leaves. In contrast, leaf 4 had higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase than leaf 1 after treatment with oxyfluorfen. However, the induction in antioxidant activity in leaf 4 was not enough to overcome the toxic effects of a Protox inhibitor, oxyfluorfen, so the leaf eventually died.
Mechanism of Growth Inhibition in Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Rice Overexpressing Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (Protox) Gene
Kuk, Yong-In ; Shin, Ji-San ; Yun, Young-Beom ; Kwon, Oh-Do ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 122~134
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.122
We investigated the levels of resistance and accumulation of terapyrroles, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidative enzymes for reasons of growth reduction in herbicide-transgenic rice overexpressing Myxococcus xanthus, Arabidopsis thaliana, and human protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) genes. The transgenic rice overexpressing M. xanthus (MX, MX1, PX), A. thaliana (AP31, AP36, AP37), and human (H45, H48, H49) Protox genes showed 43~65, 41~72 and 17~70-fold more resistance to oxyfluorfen, respectively, than the wild type. Among transgenic rice lines overexpressing Protox genes, several lines showed normal growth compared with the wild type, but several lines showed in reduction of plant height and shoot fresh weight under different light conditions. However, reduction of plant height of AP37 was much higher than other lines for the experimental period. On the other hand, the reduction of plant height and shoot fresh weight in the transgenic rice was higher in high light condition than in low light condition. Enhanced levels of Proto IX were observed in transgenic lines AP31, AP37, and H48 at 7 days after seeding (DAS) and transgenic lines PX, AP37, and H48 at 14 DAS relative to wild type. There were no differences in Mg-Proto IX of transgenic lines except for H41 and H48 and Mg-Proto IX monomethyl ester of transgenic lines except for MX, MX1, and PX. Although accumulation of tetrapyrrole intermediates was observed in transgenic lines, their tetrapyrrole accumulation levels were not enough to inhibit growth of transgenic rice. There were no differences in reactive oxygen species, MDA, ALA synthesizing capacity, and chlorophyll between transgenic lines and wild type indicating that accumulated tetrapyrrole intermediate were apparently not high enough to inhibit growth of transgenic rice. Therefore, the growth reduction in certain transgenic lines may not be caused by a single factor such as Proto IX, but by interaction of many other factors.
Effect of Ultraviolet (UV-B) on Antioxidants and Antioxidative Enzymes in Garden Balsam(Impatiens balsamina L.)
Kim, Hak-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 135~142
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.135
To investigate the effects of ultraviolet(UV-B) on growth and biochemical defense responses of plant, garden balsam (Impatiens balsamina L.) was subjected to enhanced UV-B irradiation [daily dose: 0.02 (No UV-B) and 11.34 (enhanced UV-B) kJ
] for 3 weeks. Enhanced UV-B drastically inhibited leaf area as well as dry weight of garden balsam. The content of malondialdehyde was significantly increased by about 50% after 3 weeks of UV-B irradiation. The ratios of dehydroascorbate/ascorbate and oxidized glutathione/reduced glutathione were also considerably increased by UV-B irradiation. Three major polyamines of garden balsam leaves: putrescine, spermidine and spermine were observed. All polyamine contents were increased with UV-B irradiation. The enzyme (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase etc.) activities of garden balsam were increased by the UV-B enhancement. Based on the results, enhanced UV-B caused oxidative stress in garden balsam and biochemical protection responses might be activated to prevent from damaging effects of oxidative stress generated by UV-B irradiation.
Herbicidal Activity of Natural Product Chrysophanic Acid
Jang, Hyun-Woo ; Seo, Bo-Ram ; Hwang, Hyun-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Deog ; Kim, Jin-Seog ; Kim, Song-Mun ; Chun, Jae-Chul ; Choi, Jung-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 143~152
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.143
Herbicidal characterisitcs of natural product chrysophanic acid were investigated in a greenhouse condition. At early- and middle-stage post-emergence treatments, several grasses and broadleaf weeds appeared to be very susceptible to chrysophanic acid. However, any significant herbicidal activity treated by pre-emergence did not occur at concentration ranges from 31.3 to 1,000 ug
. Herbicidal activity of chrysophanic acid estimated by visual injury for large crabgrass was much higher when applied at 7 to 14 days after seeding than at 21 and 28 days after seeding. By post-emergence treatment, chrysophanic acid caused very considerable phytotoxicity on several grasses and broadleaf crops. In herbicidal interaction experiments determined by Colby's method, the effect of chrysophanic acid and caryophyllene oxide tank-mixture showed very high synergistic activity. Although chrysophanic acid did not give any pre-emergence effect, herbicidal spectrum tended to be very wide and strong when treated by post-emergence. These results suggest that chrysophanic acid possesses a possible potential to develop as a natural herbicide.
Establishment of Foliar Application Assays for Developing Natural Herbicides
Kim, Jae-Deog ; Jang, Hyun-Woo ; Seo, Bo-Ram ; Hwang, Hyun-Jin ; Choi, Jung-Sup ; Kim, Jin-Seog ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 153~163
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.153
This study was carried out to establish an improved bioassay system, whole-plant bioassay which is more effective in developing natural herbicides for foliar treatment such as herbicidal essential oils. Two bioassay systems using four weed species (Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Aeschynomene indica, and Abutilon theophrasti), spraying method and spotting method, were established. Spraying method is applicable if the amount of test compounds is enough, while spotting method is useful for the small amount of test compounds. The initial application rate was desirable at
. Herbicidal activities were higher in the NOP treatment when compared to the Tween 20 treatment. To efficiently evaluate volatile compounds such as essential oils, if the compound-treated pots were incubated in dew chamber for about 10hrs, better results were obtained in the degree and stability of herbicidal responses. When the efficiency of bioassay systems established in this study was compared, the spraying method was minimized four times to the conventional method that has beed used for screening of synthetic compounds in KRICT. On the other hand, in the spotting method, screening for development of a natural herbicides was possible even in level of 1/100 test volume and 1/200 amounts of test compound compared to the spraying method.
Weed Occurrence as Influenced by Living Mulch, Soil Incorporation and Cutting Treatment of Rye in Organic Soybean Field
Lee, Byung-Mo ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Oh, Young-Ju ; Lee, Sang-Bum ; Kang, Chung-Kil ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Lee, Jong-Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 164~170
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.164
In organic agriculture, cover crops are used for weed control. Cover crops inhibited weed germination or growth by allelopathy or shading effects. In this study, we used rye as cover crop to control weed in organic soybean field. The main treatment was rye using method such as living mulch, incorporating and mowing. Sub-treatment was rye planting density and soybean planting density. One month after soybean sowing, weed emergency and growth had been highly suppressed by rye in all treatments. Living mulch treatment was the best effective way to control the weed about 92%, and mowing treatment was the second about 75% compare to control. The weed control efficiency between rye planting densities was similar during one month. Soybean planting density treatment was same result as rye planting density. As a result of this experiment, we recommend rye as living mulch in one row planting.
Evaluation of Winter Annual Weed Vicia angustifolia as Green Manure
Seong, Ki-Yeong ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Cho, Hyun-Suk ; Kim, Chung-Guk ; Jeong, Kwang-Ho ; Song, Duk-Young ; Choi, Bong-Su ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 171~176
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.171
Vicia angustifolia L. is native plant of winter annual leguminous weed in Korea. Objective of this research was to investigate the effects of V. angustifolia as green manure for rice production in sustainable agriculture. Seed size of V. angustifolia was smaller than that hairy vetch as control plant, while seed number in same amount was approximately 1.4-fold higher. V. angustifolia started stem elongation in early April. In addition, flowering and dead-ripe stages of the plant reached at May
, respectively. Growth of V. angustifolia-barley mixed cropping system in upland was promoted up to 101 cm of plant length compared to 46.6 to 60.9 cm that grown in paddy. Biomass yield of V. angustifolia was 14.5 kg
in single cropping system of paddy soil, and the amount of nitrogen was 65 kg
. Moreover, self-reseedling of fallen seed from V. angustifolia grown in previous year in paddy soil was significantly higher than that hairy vetch plant. These results suggested that V. angustifolia can be uses as green manure in addition to reducing the mineral fertilizer application in rice production for sustainable agriculture.
Weed Control by Suppression Ability of Barley as Cover Crop in Dry Direct Seeded Rice Fields
Hwang, Jae-Bok ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Song, Seok-Bo ; Jung, Ki-Yeoul ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Nam, Min-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 30, issue 2, 2010, Pages 177~182
DOI : 10.5660/KJWS.2010.30.2.177
This environment-friendly study was conducted to investigate the effects of winter barley as cover crop on the suppression of weeds and on the growth of dry direct seeded rice. The present study clarified the effects of winter barley as a cover crop on the weed vegetation, expressed as a multiplied ratio. In cultivation quality of rice, seedling stand was ranged from 104~112
. And, seeding stand of barley was the highest seedling stand 634 unit per
in April 10 as compared to the other seeding dates. Furthermore, the dry weight of barley seeded in April 10 was heaviest at 146g
. Rice yield was in 401kg
in the April 10, and 517kg
in the April 30, because of increased weeds caused by a low weed control. Effects of barley cover crop at same seeding with rice was ranged from 77~87% of control. The economic effect of barley as cover crop was analyzed to be increased by low herbicide using, despite of the slight decrease in rice yield during the period.