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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Dec 1984
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jun 1984
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Studies on the Phytotoxicity of Butachlor in Rice Plants
Oh, Byung-Youl ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 1~3
Change in Weed Flora with Season and Cultivated Crop and Land
Ryang, H.S. ; Chun, J.C. ; Hwang, I.T. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 4~10
This experiment was conducted to determine the change in weed flora with season and cultivated crop and land. There are 44 species in 38 genera and 18 families, consisting of 22 annual, 11 biennial and 9 perennial weeds in uplands in Jeonbug Province. Digitaria sanguinalis Scopol. occurred with the highest frequency of 67.2% and in decreasing order Portulaca oleracea L., Chenopodium album L. and Erigeron canadensis L. followed. About 60% of total sites studied indicated Simpson`s index ranging from 0.20 to 0.50. The Simpson`s index decreased from 0.65 on June 8 to 0.15 on November 10. Dominant weed species were Alopecurus aequalis Sosbol, and Polygonum hydropiper Spach in double cropping paddy field, but D. sanguinalis and P. oleracea were the dominant species in uplands. In reclaimed uplands various weed species including, 4rtemisia asiatica Nakai occurred almost equally. Average Simpson`s index for six crops studied was 0.40 and irrespective of the crops being cultivated P. oleracea and D. sanguinalis were dominant weed species and Y. hydropiper, C. album, Exolus blitum Grenier and E. canadensis were sub-dominant.
Weed Dynamics in Hand - and Machine - Transplanted Lowland Rice
Kim, S.C. ; Choi, C.D. ; Lee, S.K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 11~18
The effect of transplanting method of rice seedlings on weed occurrence was investigated at the Yeongnam Crop Experiment Station in 1983. Rice was transplanted by hand and machine and eleven common herbicides were applied. The greatest weeds were harvested from the plot that rice was not transplanted and more weeds encountered at machine transplanted plot than hand transplanted plot. The degree of weed suppression by rice plant itself was 50% for machine transplatning and 55% for hand transplanting, respectively. Simpson index and community dominance of weed species were the highest in hand transplanting and followed by machine transplanting and no rice plot in order. Rice grain yield was exponentially correlated with the amounts of weed occurrence and more yield loss exhibited at machine transplanting than hand transplanting in the same amount of weeds. In the herbicidal activity, most of herbicides performed better at hand transplanting than machine transplanting while the degree of difference between transplanting methods varied depend on herbicide used.
Emergence, Growth of Weeds and Growth, Yields of Rice as Affected by Rice Transplanting Time and Nitrogen Levels
Pyon, J.Y. ; Shim, I.S. ; Ahn, S.B. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 19~25
Emergence, growth of weeds and growth, yields of rice (cv. Sam Seung Byeo) were determined at different transplanting times and nitrogen levels. Dominant weed species were Cyperus difformis, Rotala indica, Monochoria vaginalis, Cyperus serotinus, Sagiitaria pygmaea, Scirpus hotarui, and Fimbristylis miliacea. Number of weeds was increased in earlier transplanting time and but decreased in high nitrogen level. Dry weight of weeds was decreased with increase of nitrogen level at early transplanting time (May 26) but increased at nitrogen 8 or 16㎏/10a, Plant height, dry weight, leaf area index, and yield of rice were decreased as transplanting time was delayed but increased as nitrogen level increased. Yield reduction of rice due to weed competition was increased in earlier transplanting time and decreased in high nitrogen level.
Determination of Critical Duration of Weed Competition of Two Rice Cultivars under Different Seeding Methods
Guh, Ja-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 26~38
To investigate the varietal differences of weed competitive functions under the four different seeding and transplanting methods, rice cultivars, Milyang 23 and Sadominori, were used with the seven weeding methods, namely, weedy check, weed-free, once weeding at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks and two times weeding at 3 and 9 weeks after seeding/transplanting, respectively. As a result, the proper and reasonable weeding stages and times by total and respective weed group were estimated. Also the constructive characteristics for yield formations were evaluated under the different competitive conditions as affected by various cropping patterns.
Effects of Major Phenolic Acids Identified from Barley Residues on the Germination of Paddy Weeds
Kwak, S.S. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 39~51
Effects of major phenolic acids identified from barley residues (straw, root) on the germination of rice and 3 paddy weeds such as Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus serotinus, and Potamogeton distintus were evaluated to obtain the basic informations on the development of naturally occurring herbicides. The predominant phenolic compounds extracted from barley residues in both straw and root were identified as p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, vanillic, and salicylic acids by means of paper chromatography. Total phenol content of barley straw and root at the harvesting stage was 0.169% and 0.127% per dry weight, respectively. During the decomposing process, total phenol content slightly increased and then decreased. The germination of test plants was inhibited by treatments of 4 major authentic phenolic acids identified, most significantly on rice, and less on E. crusgalli, and C. serotinus. P. distintus, however, was markedly stimulated by them as the concentration increased, and then sprouted buds of pondweeds were changed to dark brownish color, resulting in the death as the treatment prolonged. The greater inhibitory effect appeared on shoot growth rather than germination. The aqueous extracts of barley residues showed the similar inhibitory effect on the germination and shoot growth of rice and three paddy weeds as the treatments of 4 authentic phenolic acids.
Butachlor and Silicate Fertilizer Interaction to Rice
Oh, B.Y. ; Ryang, H.S. ; Shin, Y.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 52~61
Pot and laboratory tests were undertaken to investigate the influence of silicate fertilization on butachlor phytotoxicity to rice. Growth of rice seedlings at 150 ppm of
was stimulated, while adverse effect was observed over 300 ppm of
and growth reduction was enhanced with combination of butachlor and
Rice growth in pot trial at 150kg/10a of silicate fertilization was not influenced by recommended amounts of butachlor and nitrofen, however, the growth of Seokwang byeo at 300kg/10a of silicate was markedly retarded by butachlor in the initial stage of growth. Growth reduction of Seokwang byeo caused by combined application of silicate and butachlor was recovered 50 days after herbicide application. Growth reduction from butachlor was not influenced by pH level and also degradation behaviors of butachlor in submerged soil was not altered by silicate fertilization. Adsorbed amount of butachlor on rice root was increased with addition of
and its amount in Seokwang byeo was higher than that of Jinju byeo. Butachlor absorption by Seokwang byeo was accelerated by 150 ppm of
applied simultaneously, but those effect was not encountered in Jinju byeo. Butachlor absorption of rice seedlings was also increased by 150 ppm of
, while CaO hindered the absorption and
had no effect on the absorption. Residual level of butachlor in Seokwang byeo treated with combined solution of butachlor and
was continued higher than that with butachlor alone during 10 days after transplantation to culture solution.
An Approach for Increasing Herbicidal Efficacy by Adding Plant Growth Regulator "Chlorflurenol"
Kim, D.S. ; Kim, S.C. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 62~68
This experiment was conducted to find out the possibility for reducing herbicidal dose of the recommended herbicides in combining with the plant growth regulator "chlorflurenol" at the Yeongnam Crop Experiment Station, from 1981 to 1982. Chlorflurenol itself exhibited weed suppression effect against Monochoria raginalis Presl., Rotala indica Koehne, Cyperus difformis L., Lindernia procrembens Philcox, etc. and its effect increased as the concentrations of chlorflurenol increased from 100 to 1,000 ㎖/㏊. Combination of chlorflurenol with butachlor or thiobencarb, showing synergistic effect, reduced their recommended herbicidal rates by 50 to 75%, showing 90% of weed control rate, stic but combined treatment between chlorflurenol and bentazon showed an antagonistic effect since bentazon had poor control ability to Echinochloa crusgalli Beauv. An application of chlorflurenol showed no significant effect on rice growth, in terms of dry weight, but it resulted in the decrease in the ratio of leaf blade to other non-photosynthetic organ.
Phytotoxic Effect of Herbicides on Upland Crops and Weeds
Ryang, H.S. ; Chun, J.C. ; Yim, J.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 69~78
This study was conducted to select herbicides effective for upland crops and to investigate the cause of crop injury in peanut cultivated with mulching. Crop such as radish (Raphanus acanthiformis Moor.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica raps L.), soybean (Glycine max Merr.), Peanut (Archis hypogaea L.), and marsh mallow (Malva olitoria Nakai) were tolerant to napropamide [2-(
-naphthoxy)-N, N-diethylpropionamide], alachlor [2-chloro-2', 6'-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide], trifluralin (
-trifluoro-2, 6-dinitro-N, N-dipropylp-toluidine) and nitrofen (2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenylether). Napropamide, diphenamide (N, N-dimethyl-2, 2-diphenylacetamide) and alachlor were safe for red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L. and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), while trifluralin, nitrofen and chlonitrofen (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl-4-nitrophenyl ether) could be used for water melon (Citrullus battich Forsk.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca scariola L.) without crop injury. Out of nine major weed species studied, Capsella bursa-pastoris Medicus was the most resistant species to the herbicides tested. Napropamide and alachlor could not control P. hydropiper, while P. oleracea and C. album were tolerant to diphenamide :and alachlor, respectively. Urea herbicides such as methabenzthiazuron [3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,3-dimethylurea], linuron [3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl~l-methoxy-i-methyl urea], and isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl) -1, 1-dimethylurea]gave a great injury to the crops studied. The weeding effect was greater for broadleaf weeds than for grasses. Isoproturon and linuron provided good selectivity for marsh mallow and carrot, respectively. In peanut, the crop injury caused by Four herbicides studied was greater when cultivated with mulching than when cultivated without mulching. With dinitroaniline herbicides the crop injury decreased as the gaseous herbicide was removed out of mulching. Alachlor gave little phytotoxicity to peanut grown under mulching condition and nitralin [4-(methylsuphonyl)-2, 6-dinitro-N, N-dipropylaniline] showed less toxicity to the peanut than pendimenthalin (3,4-dimethyl-2, 6-dinitro-N-1-ethyl propylaniline) and trifluralin.
Effect of Alachlor Herbicide and Transparent Polyethylene Film Mulching on Growth and Yield of Peanuts
Lee, S.S. ; Kang, K.H. ; Back, J.H. ; Lee, K.H. ; Jung, S.H. ; Choi, D.W. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 79~87
Herbicidal effects of alachlor to peanuts were observed under different formulations (granule containing 5.0% a.i. and emulsifiable concentrate containing 43.7% a.i.) and levels (granule with 3 and 6kg/l0a and emulsion with 300㏄/l0a) with the transparent polyethylene (P.E.) film mulching. Formulations and levels of alachlor did not affect emergence ratio, time of emergence and flowering, and early growth of peanuts such as the number of leaves and branches, length of branches; and shoot dry weight at 20 and 40 days after planting, but early growth was enhanced by P.E. film mulching. At harvest, weed dry weight was positively correlated with length of branches, but negatively correlated with the number of branches and shoot dry weight. Acalyphu australis and Chenopodium album were not effectively controlled by the application of alachlor and growth of C. album was retarded under P.E. film mulching. Portulaca oleracea and Digitaria sanguinalis were effectively controlled by alachlor, but they were not affected by P.E. film mulching. At harvest, D. sanguinalis, A. australis, and Echinochloa crus galli were predominant weeds in all treatments; persistence of alachlor may not be long enough to control even sensitive weeds to alachlor such as D, sanguinalis in the field of peanuts of which canopy development was relatively slow. Weed dry weight at harvest was negatively correlated with the number of pods and grain yield of peanuts. Among the yield components only the number of nods per plant was positively correlated with grain yield. Hana weeding after July 1 increased grain yield of Peanuts even in alchlor applied plots.
Interaction in Model of Herbicide Combination Using Oxyfluorfen to Control Orchard Weeds
Guh, J.O. ; Cho, Y.W. ; Kwon, S.L. ; Lee, W.Z. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 88~95
The study was intended to analyze the interaction effects of paraquat and oxytluorfen as an orchard herbicide-mixture. Data were prepared from the former report of authors. The algebraic expression for the actions of paraquat and oxyfluorfen on the control percentages of peach orchard weeds, and their interactions were determined from the multiple regression polynomial and plotted in three-dimensional graphs. As a result of treatments by combination of paraquat and oxyfluorfen on the field which was dominated by perennial weeds, the most effective interactions were detected at combination rates of
oxyfluorfen. However, to develope the long-term weeding-efficacies, the combination rates of paraquat are expected to raise up to
, and oxyfluorfen to fit at lower limits of rates, respectively.
Resistance of Plants to Herbicide
Kim, Kil-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1984, Pages 96~106
Changes in weed floras and development of plant resistance to herbicides seemed to be closely related with increased and repeated use of herbicides. Herbicide use increased from 5% of the total consumption of pesticide in 1950 to 45% in 1976 in world basis. About 200 herbicides have been introduced to agriculture so as to control about 206 weed species which have been recorded important to human beings. In Korea, there was about 351 times in increased use of herbicides from 1966 to 1982. Interspecific selection by herbicide is mainly responsible for changes in weed floras and resulted in varying tolerance or susceptibility to herbicides, together with the changes of agricultural practices. The present trend toward continuous cereal cultivation throughout world will lead to type of changes in weed floras favorable to therophyte which can survive under unfavorable conditions as seeds rather than the types of geophyte which can survive unfavorable seasons as buds placed below soil surface. However, geophyte such as Sagitaria pygmaea, and Scirpus jurtcoides, and Cyperus rotundus and Cynodon dactylon in temperate warm climate become severe paddy weeds, presumably because of the removal of annual weeds by herbicides. Since differential tolerance to 2,4-D was firstly reported in Agrostis stolofera, about 30 species of weeds in 18 genera are presently known to have developed resistance to triazine herbicides. Resistance of weed biotypes to triazine herbicide is not mainly due to limited absorption and translocation or to the difference in metabolism, but is the result of biochemical changes at the site of metabolic activity, such as a loss of herbicide affinity for triazine binding site in the photosystem II complex of the chloroplast membrane. Genetical study showed that plastid resistance to triazine was wholly inherited through cytoplasmic DNA in the case of Brassica campestris. Plant tissue culture method can be utilized as an alternate mean of herbicide screening and development of resistance variants to herbicides as suggested by Chaleff and Parsons. In this purpose, one should be certain that the primary target process is operational in cell culture. Further, there are a variety of obstacles in doing this type of research, particularly development of resistance source and it's regeneration because cultured cells and whole plants represent different developmental state.