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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Dec 1985
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jun 1985
Selecting the target year
On the Plant Growth Regulators
Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 91~95
Competition - Ecological Classification of the Prominent Paddy Weed Species around Bulrush(Scirpus juncoides)
Guh, J.O. ; Heo, S.M. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 96~102
A study on the competition-ecological classification of the 10 prominent paddy weed species around bulrush (Scirpus juneoides) to simplify the weed problem concept for the rice production. A serial assessments on the competition ability in space and dry matter production(nutrient depletion) of respective weed species and paddy rice, and the data were used to compute the phenotypic similarity by Single Link Clustering method. Both growth response of weed species in mono- and under the paddy rice standing was very similar (r = 0.969), but the reduction rate as affected by paddy rice standing was negatively correlated with the ability in space-competition(r=-0.513). Dendrogram of 10 weed species based on the phenotypic similarity computed in 4 characters in mono- and under the paddy rice standing was also similar, as Echinochloa c., Ludwigia p., Cyperus s., and Scirpus m. in I-group, Eleocharis k., Scirpus j, in II-group, and Juncus e., Potamogeton d. in III-group, respectively. Also, that of paddy rice to 10 weed species showed Fimbristylis m., Scirpus j., Eleocharis k., Scirpus m., Juncus e. in I-group, and Ludwigia p., Potamogeton d., Monochoria v. in II-group, respectively. The integrated dendrogram by the above two data indicate the I-group with Fimbristylis m., Scirpus j., Eleocharis k. and Juncus e., as higher growth response with relatively lower competition ability to paddy rice, II-group with Cyperus s., Echinochloa c., Potamogeton d., and Ludwigia p., as higher both in growth and competition, and the last, III-group with Monochoria v., and Scirpus m., as lower growth but higher competition, respectively.
Some Factors Affecting Germination and Growth of Echinochloa colona
Chun, J.C. ; Moody, K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 103~108
A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pH, salinity, seeding depth, and moisture stress on the germination and growth of Echinochloa colons (L.) Link. Germination significantly decreased at pH 10, but shoot lengths were not affected by the pH tested. Germination was not affected by salt concentrations of up to 0.1%, but was significantly reduced at 0.5%. A 1.0% salt concentration did not significantly reduce shoot length. Increase in seeding depth significantly reduced emergence. Irrespective of seeding depth, the coleoptilar node was always just below the soil surface. Delayed and decreased germination was obtained at -4.6 bars of simulated water potential, while no germination occurred at -9.8 bars. Soil moisture stress significantly reduced plant height, delayed panicle initiation, and reduced seed production.
Emergence and Ecology of the Scirpus hotarui and Aneilema japonica on Paddy - Field
Kim, S.Y. ; Song, S.G. ; Kim, B.G. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 109~113
Experiments were conducted to know the ecology of injurious paddy field weeds, Scirpus hotarui and aneilema japonica in 1982-1983. Almost all emergences of the both species were on the soil surface in emergence depth. The vigorous growth stage was before Aug. 18, and the plant height and branch numbers were decreased and the days to flower were diminished by the shortday length treatment. A. japonica was not renewed by once cutting, but cutting S. hotarui on vigourous tillering stage was the most effective renew the growth and all of overwintered plants were renewed in emergence. The more these weeds emergence, the less rice yields.
Competitive Ability of the Major Weeds Occurred in Onion and Garlic Crops in the Double Cropping Paddy Fields
Kim, Kil-Ung ; Shi, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Dong-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 114~120
This study was conducted to investigate the important weeds occurring in onion and garlic planted in paddy field as the succeeding crop of rice and to evaluate the effect of competition between these crops and weeds on the yield of onion and garlic. In terms of quantity occurred, Persicaria hydropiper, Chenopodium ficifolium, Alopecurus aequalis, Poligonum aviculare, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Bothrisospermum tenellum appeared to be the major weeds in onion and garlic fields. Annual broadleaves were composed of 90.0 and 94.3% of total weed dry weight in onion and in garlic fields, respectively. Among these weeds, P. hydropiper was the most dominant species in onion and C. ficifolium in garlic fields. The higher Simpson's index such as 0.67 in garlic as compared to 0.40 in onion can be attributed to the presence of a C. ficifolium, which is existed in a single dominant species. The full season competition between the crops and these weeds resulted in yield reduction of onion by 23.9% and garlic by 31.9%, showing weed dry weight, 448.18 and 418.40 g/
in onion and garlic fields, respectively. The maintenance of weed free condition for about 4 weeks after weed emergence could be the prerequisite to obtain the maximum yield of these two crops.
Effect of Phenolic Compounds Identified from Crop Residues (Wheat.Rye) on the Germination and Growth of Various Weeds
Kwon, Soon-Tae ; Kim, Kil-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 121~130
The phenolic compounds identified from rye and wheat residues seemed to be p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, ferulic, salicylic and syringic acids. Total phenol content of rye and wheat straw determined at heading stage was 0.1803% and 0.1702%, respectively. Total phenol content in straw was higher than that of root at all growth stages. The germination and growth of plants, such as Oryza sativa, Echinochloa creugalli, Cyperus serotinus, Portulaca oleacea, Amaranthus retroflexus, Digitaria saguinalis, and C. album were inhibited by treatments of authentic phenolic compounds as the concentrations increased. However, at the early stage, the germination and shoot growth of P. distinctus were markedly stimulated by them, and then the further growth of shoot and root was markedly inhibited by the prolonged treatment of phenolic compounds. The aqueous extracts from rye and wheat straw completely inhibited the germination of A. retroflexus and C. album at a high concentrations. The content of starch and protein in bulbs of P. distinctus was lower in the p-hydroxybenzoic acid treated plot, at
, than the untreated control.
Competitive Ability of Paddy Rice Against Monochoria vaginalis Presl
Park, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Kil-Ung ; Kim, Soon-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 131~136
This experiment was conducted to identify the competitive ability of rice against Monochoria vaginalis Presl. and to determine effect of various herbicides on it. Photosynthetic efficiency of rice markedly increased as the density of M. vaginalis increased from 1 to 3 plants per hill. Competition index increased in propotional to an increase of M. vaginalis density while total dry matter of rice decreased in reverse. Significant yield reduction of rice, was observed at the density of M. vaginalis, 2 plants per hill and 37% at 3 plants per hill. Such a yield reduction can be mainly attributed to the decrease of panicle and spikelet number of rice which were greatly affected by competition with M. vaginalis. Regardless of herbicides tested, % inhibition increased remarkably as the concentration of herbicides increased from 1 to 20 ppm. No plant growth was observed in all the herbicides treated with 20 ppm except for butachlor, thiobencarb and bifenox, showing existence of the new promising herbicides to control M. vaginalis among the herbicides tested.
Difference in Weed Population as Affected by a Cropping Pattern in Paddy Field
Ku, Y.C. ; Yun, S.H. ; Park, S.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 137~142
This experiment was conducted to know the difference in weed population in the five cropping patterns kept same for six years from 1976 such as ricebarley, potato-rice, pea-rice, rice-rye, and rice-fallow. More and many weeds were growing in single cropping field than double cropping field. Dominant weed species in pea-rice and potato-rice cropping patterns were M. vaginalis and S. hotarui, M. vaginalis and P. distinctus. Coefficient of similarity of the cropping patterns between pea-rice and potato-rice appeared higher than single cropping system. However, pea-rice and rice-fallow cropping patterns showed low coefficient of similarity.
Studies on Removal of Water Pollutants by Aquatic Plants - I. Removal of Organic Matter by Water Hyacinth and Factors Affecting It's Growth
Pyon, Jong-Yeong ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ; Lee, Jong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 143~148
Water hyacinth, unused and tropical plant was examined in order to know the feasibility of application for purification of municipal drainage and industrial wastewater. This plant was effective to remove the COD from wastewater, although its removal ability was dependent on the organic sources. The effects of pH, NaCl concentration, water temperature and shading condition on the growth of water hyacinth were investigated. The optimum ranges of pH were weak acid- neutral, of water temperature were 17-
, and unshading condition was better. The rapid propagation of this plant was also observed during hot summer season.
Studies on Removal of Water Pollutants by Aquatic Plants II. Removal of Water Polluted Nutrients and Heavy Metals by Water Hyacinth
Lee, Kyu-Seung ; Kim, Moon-Kyu ; Pyon, Jong-Yeong ; Lee, Jong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 149~154
Removal of water pollutants by water hyacinth was examined with two nutrients,
-P and four heavy metals, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr under laboratory conditions.
-N was reduced to 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 ppm, and 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 ppm in
-P from 10, 25 and 50 ppm 3 days after treatment, respectively. Among heavy metals Cu and Pb were removed faster and higher than Cd and Cr and also amount of heavy metals absorbed by water hyacinth was higher in the order of Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd. Distribution of heavy metals in this plant was higher in roots than in leaves and amount absorbed in roots was related to the treated concentrations. The harmful effect on growth of water hyacinth was observed in Cu and Cd.
Interaction of Pyrazole - and Chloroacetamide Herbicide Combinations in Control of Echinochloa crusgalli
Kwon, Y.W. ; Seong, K.Y. ; Soh, C.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 155~163
Three pyrazole-herbicides, pyrazolate, pyrazoxyfene and benzophenap, were evaluated for their interaction in controlling barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) with two chloroacetamide-herbicides, butachlor and pretilachlor. Percent inhibition of barnyardgrass growth by pyrazolate, pyrazoxyfene, and benzophenap was 44%, 64%, and 0%, respectively, when each was applied at the 1.5 leaf-stage of barnyardgrass at a rate of 3㎏ ai per ㏊ as single treatment, and the benzophenap showed 60% inhibition when it was applied at the coleoptile stage. While the lowest rate controlling the 1.5 leaf-stage barnyardgrasses by 98 to 100% of the butachlor and pretilachlor was 1.5㎏ and 200g per ㏊, respectively. All of the combinations of pyrazolate with butachlor, pyrazoxyfene with pretilachlor, and benzophenap with butachlor have shown synergistic interaction in controlling barnyardgrass on the Chisaka's isobole of 90% growth inhibition as well as on the Colby`s interaction efficacy data; synergism indices were 2.44, 1.62 and 1.52 in order. The dose combinations shown the maximal synergism were 1870g of pyrazolate with 140g of butachlor (1:0.075), 33008 of pyrazoxyfene with 338 of pretilachlor (1:0.01), and 3350g of benzophenap with 520g of butachlor (1:0.15) on the ai/㏊ basis.
Interaction of Pretilachlor / Pyrazoxyfene and Butachlor / Pyrazolate Combinations in Control of Cyperus serotinus
Guh, J.O. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 164~168
In order to enhance herbicidal efficacy of amide and diazine herbicides, synergistic effects of pretilachlor and pyrazoxyfene or butachlor and pyrazolate on control of Cyperus serotinus were determined by isobole method. Interaction indices(I) between pretilachlor and pyrazoxyfene treated at 0 and 3rd leaf stage were 2.64 and 2.07 and hence showed synergistic effect for control of Cyperus serotinus. The points indicated Imax between pretilachlor and pyrazoxyfene were 0.7:1.3 g ai/a and 9.0:20.5 g ai/a at 0 and 3rd leaf stage, respectively. Combination of butachlor and pyrazolate showed synergistic effect(1=1.57) on control of Cyperus serorinus and point indicated Imax was 48.0:20.9 g ai/a.
Antidoting Effect of 1,8-Naphthalic Anhydride on Butachlor Phytotoxicity in Rice
Chun, J.C. ; Hwang, I.T. ; Han, M.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 169~174
Antidoting effect of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) on butachlor [2-chloro-2', 6'-diethyl-N-(butoxyethyl) acetanilide] phytotoxicity in rice was determined at different seeding depths and application rates of butachlor. The most sensitive response to NA was found in mesocotyl of rice (Oryza saliva L.). The mesocotyl length decreased with use of NA when seeded 2 to 4 cm deep, whereas no effect was obtained in plant height, root length and coleoptile length. Phytotoxic effect of butachlor to rice sown in vermiculite saturated with butachlor solutions decreased with use of NA at all seeding depths employed. However, depth protection was not observed when planted 3 to 4 cm deep without use of NA. Use of NA resulted in reduction in the phytotoxicity at concentrations of butachlor lower than 40 ppmw. The results indicated that the antidoting effect of NA was not due to reduction of mesocotyl elongation which would result in decrease in butachlor uptake through the mesocotyl.
Status of RDA Researches on Weed Control for Rice Nurserybed
Kim, S.C. ; Chung, G.S. ; Kim, D.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 175~186
Research situation and recent research activities of the RDA of Korea were reviewed and summarized for rice nurserybed. Sixty five percent of total 784 weed research items were carried out as rice research while only 6 percent was belonged to nurserybed within rice research. The floristic composition based on the degree of dominance significantly affected by herbicide properties, type of nurserybed and seeding itself. Herbicidal phytotoxicity of currently used several herbicides was greatly dependent upon the covering, absorption, germination, and irrigation regimes. The new safening agent "CGA 123 407" (4,6-dichloro-2-phenyl-pyrimidine) permited the safe application of pretilachlor (2-chloro-2',6-diethyl-N-(2-propoxyethyl) acetanilide) as a pre-emergence herbicide without reducing herbicidal efficacy. Several new herbicides, pyrazolate (4-(2,4-dichlorobenzoyl)-1,3-dimethylpyrazol-5-yl-p-toluenesulphonate), SL-49 (1,3-dimethyl-4-(2,4-dichlorobenzoyl)-5-phenacyloxy-pyrazole) MY-93 (S(1-methyl-1-phenethyl)-piperidine-1-carbathioate) and DPX-84 ((methyl 2- ((4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl) amino-carbonyl) aminosulfonylmethyl)) benzolate)) performed satisfactorily in terms of safety and herbicidal efficacy for both surface covered and surface pressed nurserybed after herbicide application and thus expected very significant contributions not only for all kind of nurserybeds but also for direct seeding.
Effect of Perfluidone - Bifenox Mixture I. Interaction of Perfluidone and Bifenox Mixture
Ryang, H.S. ; Jang, I.S. ; Ma, S.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 187~193
The experiment was carried out to evaluated the interaction between perfluidone(2-methyl-4-phenylsulphonyltrifluoromethylsulphoanilide) and bifenox(2,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methoxycarbonyl-4-nitrophenylether). A synergistic effect was found between perfluidone and bifenox. The highest synergistic effect on Echinochloa crus-galli (L.). Beauv. was obtained when 10 g a.i./10a of perfluidone was combined with 24.9 g a.i./10a of bifenox. However, bifenox should be increased to 33.3, g a.i./10a to obtain the highest synergistic effect when applied to Cyperus serotinus Rottb. at 1.0-1.5 leaf stage. Sagittaria pygmaea Miq. at 0.5-1.0sleaf stage was completely controlled by the lowest combination rate employed.
Effect of Perfluidone - Bifenox Mixture II. Effect of Perfluidone - Bifenox Mixture on Weed Control, Plant Growth and Yield in Transplanted Rice
Ryang, H.S. ; Jang, I.S. ; Ma, S.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 194~201
Effect of perfluidone(2-methyl-4-phenylsulphonyltrifluoromethylsulphoanilide) and bifenox(2,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methoxycarbonyl-4-nitrophenylether) mixture on weed control and plant growth and yield of transplanted rice was determined. Perfluidone-bifenox mixture applied at 75-105 g a.i./10a controlled effectively perennial weeds such as Sagittaria pygmaea Miq., Potamogeton dtstinctus A. Benn., Cyperus serotinus Rottb, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, including most annual weeds, but did not control Sagittaria trifolia L.. There was no phytotoxicity caused by perfluidone-bifenox mixture when applied at 100-140 g a.i./10a. The mixture at 150-210 g a.i./10a caused crop injury, but did not affect the yield. Phytotoxicity due to the mixture decreased as the application time was delayed.
Effect of Several Herbicides in the Polyethylene - film Mulched Young Mulberry Field
Kim, Ho-Rak ; Kwon, Yong-Woong ; Cho, Yong-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 202~210
Requirements in weed control in a mulberry field are much similar to those in orchards, but also feature a longer period of weed control of various kinds of persistent weeds, i.e., spring, summer, and winter annuals as well as perennials. In addition the mulberry tree is relatively more sensitive to herbicide injury. Hence, very few herbicides have been used in mulberry field. The present study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of oxyfluorfen in comparison with alachlor and simazine, which are registered for ordinary mulberry field in Korea, for weed control efficacy in the new, rapidly increasing practice of transparent polyethylene-film mulched and densely planted younger mulberry culture. Dominant spring weeds were Galium spp., Erigeron spp., Polygonum senticosum, and Chenopodium spp. in the non-mulched interbed area in contrast to the Digitaria spp. and Potulaca spp, under mulch. Dominant summer weeds were Digitaria spp., Portulaca spp., Erigeron spp., Artemisia spp. and Calystegia japonica in the non-mulched interbed area while weeds did not occur significantly during summer under mulch which were shaded by vigorously growing mulberry trees. The weeds occurred under mulch in spring reduced shoot growth of young mulberry tree resulting in the reduced yield of mulberry leaves for silkworms. The weeds occurred in the interbed area did not affect until May, but interfered later summer- and fall-growth of mulberry tree. Early single spring application of alachlor(EC), simazine(WP) or oxyfluorfen(EC) at a rate of 650 g, 750 g or 350 g ai per ha, respectively, controlled most annuals satisfactorily to fall in the mulched bed area. In the nonmulched interbed area, however, thrice does of alchlor or simazine was necessary for satisfactory control of spring weeds, followed by summer application of alachlor or simazine at twice dose level as tank mixture with paraquat at 490 g ai per ha for satisfactory control of summer to fall weeds. Single spring application of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 1400 g ai per ha was persistently effective to control satisfactorily even summer and fall weeds. However, heavy rainfall splashed soil borne oxyfluorfen to the lower branch leaves causing some leaf burns. Spring application of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 350 g ai per ha followed by summer application of oxyfluorfen and paraquat tank mixture (350 g ai + 490 g ai) was the best choice for the non-mulched interbed area weed control among the treatments.
Studies on Weed Control in Transplanted Bed of Pinus koraiensis S. et. Z and Larix leptolepis Gordon
Ahn, Y.H. ; Chung, J.C. ; Han, S.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 5, issue 2, 1985, Pages 211~218
To establish the weed control in transplanted bed of Pinus koraiensis and Larix leptolepis, alachlor, simazine, terbutryn, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and amitrol/2,4-D/methabenthiazuron (ustinex) were used by soil treatment and foliage application at 7days after transplantion of seedling. From the of soil treatment, grasses such as Dimeria ornithopoda, Alopecurus aequalis, Agropyron tsukushiense and Setaria verticillata were effectively controVed by 85 to 90% at the respective recommended rate of oxyfluorfen, alachlor and terbutryn. At the application rate of recommentation simazine, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin and terbutryn respectively controlled 70 to 80% of broad-leaved weeds such as Erigeron annuus, Portulaca olearcea, Cerastium arvense, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Commelina commuis, Chenopodium hybridum and Stellaria alsine. Ustinex and oxyfluorfen were very effective for the control of perennials such as Artemisia princeps and Calystegia japonica. Initial sympton of phytotoxicity and decrease of growth in P. koreaiensis and L. leptolepis were not found by soil treatment and those in P. koraiensis was not shown by foliage application of all tested herbicides. But L. leptolepis foliage-applied with ustinex, oxyfluorfen, terbutryn and pendimethalin was great in early phytotoxicity and severe in growth inhibition.