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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Oct 1987
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 1987
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 1987
Selecting the target year
Differential Competitiveness of Echinochloa colona Ecotypes
Chun, J.C. ; Moody, K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 247~256
The ability of three Echinochloa colona (L.) Link ecotypes to compete with rice (Oryza sativa L.) was evaluated. For all the ecotypes, E. colona was shorter and produced less leaf area and dry matter than rice at 15 days after seeding (DAS), whereas the reverse was observed from 30 to 60 DAS. Neither E. colona nor rice tillered during the first 15 DAS, but E. colona had greater accumulative tiller length than rice from 15 DAS. Rice absorbed more nitrogen than E. colona at 15 DAS. E. colona absorbed greater amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium than did rice between 30 and 60 DAS and increase in its density decreased the nutrients uptake of rice. Differences in the competitive ability of the ecotypes were related to the growth characteristics of the ecotypes and the period of competition between the two species. At the early growth stages the Pangasinan ecotype, which increased plant size rapidly and had a shorter life cycle, was more competitive against rice than the Leyte and South Cotabato ecotypes, which had a longer vegetative growth period. However, the reverse was observed at the later growth stages of the ecotypes.
Factors Affecting Dark Germination of Oenothera lamarckiana Seeds
Kim, J.S. ; Hwang, I.T. ; Hong, K.S. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 257~264
Effect of various physical and chemical treatments on dark germination of Oenothera lamarckiana seeds were primarily investigated to find out factors affecting germination. Germination of seeds which did not germinate in the constant temperature and darkness was induced by several physical treatments such as sonification, wetting and drying, freezing and thawing, and removal of seed coat. Pretreatment of chilling (
), freezing (
) and incubation at high temperature (
) induced dark germination of seeds which did not germinate in the constant temperature ranges of 15 to
under darkness. Alternating temperature also had a stimulatory effect on dark germination of Oenothera lamarckiana seeds. Sensing of seeds to alternating temperature appeared to be completed during the first two days after imbibition. The minimum difference of temperature required for dark germination was
in the range of
. A thiourea (1.0%) treatment induced dark germination, but GA, IAA, BA and Ethrel failed to do so.
Weed Flora of Ulreung Island in Korea
Kim, K.U. ; Kwon, S.T. ; Lee, I.J. ; Kim, S.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 265~279
About 140 weed species belonging to 42 families occurring in summer were observed in Ulreung island. The Compositae was the most wildely occurring family covering 27 weed species, followed by 21 species in Graminae, 9 in Polygonaceae, 7 in Leguminosae, and 7 in Labiatae etc. In terms of the lands classified, about 60 species in 26 families were observed in the cultivated and the medical crops grown areas, respectively, and 116 species in 40 families occurred in the non-cultivated land like the vicinity of the cultivated area and 94 species in 34 families in the valley. No. of species and families were much greater in the non-cutivated land than those of the cultivated one. The most dominant weed species in both the cultivated and its vicinity in Ulreung island were Digitaria sanguinalis, followed by Portulaca oleracea, Polygonum hydropiper, Equisetum arvensis, Artemisia princeps, Commetina communis, Setaria viridis in order. Community analysis was done by the method of Toyohara in two cultivated lands such as the general crop land and the medical herb crop grown land, and two non-cultivated areas such as the vicinity of the cultivated land and valley. The cultivated land consisted of the communites of P. hydropiper and Cyperus amuricus, including Bidens tripartita in P. hydropiper community. The medical crop grown land composed of three major communities like P. hydropiper, Amaranthus mangostanus and Sonchus asper in which A. mangostanus and S. media were presented in the ecoton, indicating community being transiting. In the non-cultivated areas like the vicinity of crop land, the communities of Erigeron annuus, P. oleracea, and Oxalis corniculata were dominant, and Dystaenia takeshimana was included in the community of E. annuus and Stellan'a aquatica in P. oleracea community. In the valley, Ranunculus quelpaertensis community was existed in between the communities of Sonchus asper and Plantago asiatica.
Effect of Planting Density of Sagittaria pygmaea tubers on the Root Competition with Rice Varieties
Chae, J.C. ; Shin, J.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 280~288
The experiment was carried out to clarify the root competition between rice and paddy weed. Sagittaria pygmaea, under field condition. Rice variety Joongwonbyeo(Tongil type) and Sangpoongbyeo(Japonica type) were transplanted and Sagittaria tuber was planted artificially at planting density of untreated control, 4, 8 and 16 tubers/
, respectively. The number of roots, root fresh weight and root activity of rice and Sagittaria were measured at 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after transplanting. The results obtained were as follows. The root growth of Joongwonbyeo was decreased greatly according to the increase of Sagittaria tuber density compared with Sangpoongbyeo. On the other hand, the root growth of Sagittaria competed with Joongwonbyeo was depressed at 45 days after transplanting, and the one competed with Sangpoongbyeo was depressed at 60 days after transplanting. It was concluded that the competition ability of Sangpoongbyeo against Sagittaria was greater than Joongwonbyeo mainly due to the tall height and large tillers. And also the root growth of Sagittaria competed with Joongwonbyeo was more depressed than that of Sangpoongbyeo.
Identification of Biologically Active Substances from Medicinal Plants
Lee, I.J. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 289~298
This study was conducted to investigate the presence of biologically active substances such as phenolic acids, fatty acids and organic acids in the medical plants like Kalopanax pictum and Acanthopanacis cortex. Alcohol extracts of K. pictum and A. cortex showed complete inhibition of lettuce seed germination, indicating that these plants contained the biologically active substances. Eleven phenolic acids including protocatechuic acid were identified from K. pictum and A. cortex by GLC, and the contents of total phenolic acid were 1.7917mg/g in K. pictum, and 0.9567mg/g in A. cortex. Polyphenols such as neochlorogenic acid, chi orogenic acid, scopoletin, rutin and kaempferolglycoside which were not detected by GLC were anayzed by HPLC, and among phenolic acids indentified chi orogenic acid seemed to be the major acid in both K. pictum and A. cortex presented in amount of 23.7 and 13.0ppm, respectively. K. pictum contained 5.26mg/g of fatty acids and 27.69mg/g of organic acids, and A. cortex possessed 3.22mg/g of fatty acids and 9.80mg/g of organic acids, linoleic and oxalic acid appeared to be the major fatty and organic acids, representing more than 50% of total fatty acids and 80% of total organic acids.
Studies on Persistence of Pesticides in Soils and Crops under Polyethylene Film Mulching Culture - I. Effect of Polyethylene Film mulching on Change of Soil Environment
Ryang, H.S. ; Moon, Y.H. ; Kim, N.E. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 299~305
In the polythylene film mulching(P.E. mulching) culture, soil temperature ranked in the order of clear P.E.-, black P.E.-, and non-mulching. The difference in temperature between P.E mulching and non-mulching conditions was greatest in maximum temperature in fine day. Under the dry season, soil water content ranked in the order of black P.E.-, clear P.E.- and non-mulched soil. Under the rainy season, however, the content in non-mulched soil was higher than in the mulched soils, while there was little difference between the two colored films. In three phases of soil, liquid phase ratio was higher and gaseous phase ratio was lower in mulched soil than in non-mulched soil under the dry season. However, the opposite result was observed under the rainy season. The content of soil organic matter in red pepper field applied with the compost and mixed-fertilizer ranked in the order of black P.E.-, clear P.E.- and non-mulching conditions. However, the content between mulching and non-mulching differed little in peanut field applied with mixed-fertilizer. In red pepper field, soil nitrogen content in mulching conditions slightly differed from that in non-mulching conditions during the dry season. The soil nitrogen content decreased rapidly 86 days after fertilizer application during the rainy season. In peanut field, there was little difference in the content between the two conditions. The nitrogen content in the leaves of red pepper and peanut was much higher in P.E mulching than in non-mulching.
Studies on Persistence of Pesticides in Soils and Crops under Polyethylene Film Mulching Culture II. Effect of Polyethylene Film mulching on Weed Emergence, Growth and Yield of Red pepper, Peanut and Sesame
Ryang, H.S. ; Moon, Y.H. ; Kim, N.E. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 306~315
In the red pepper field under polythylene film mulching(P.E.-mulching) culture, the weed emergence was completely inhibited by black P.E.-mulching. The emergence in clear P.E.-mulching decreased 90% compared to that in non-mulching. Weeding effect was high in the order of pendimethalin, diphenamid, alachlor and napropamide. The effect of herbicides was higher in clear P.E.-mulching than in non-mulching. Plant height and number of branches increased in the order of clear P.E.-, black P.E.-mulching, while the yield between black P.E.- and clear P.E.-mulching was not different. The herbicides had no effect on the growth and yield. In the peanut field, weed emergence was 80% lower in clear P.E.-mulching than in non-mulching. Weeding effect was excellent in the plot applied with alachlor, napropamide and diphenamid. The total number of branches, main stem height and shoot weight were 2.0, 1.7 and 2.4 times greater in clear P.E.-mulching than in non-mulching, respectively. Peanut yield was about 38% higher under clear P.E.-mulching than under non-mulching. The herbicides had no effect on the growth and yield. In the sesame field, rate of weed emergence was 10 times lower in clear P.E.-mulching than in non-mulching. Weeding effect of alachlor, napropamide and diphenamid was higher under clear P.E.-mulching than under non-mulching. Germination percentage of sesame greatly decreased in non-mulching compared with in clear P.E.-mulching. The germination was inhibited by the treatment of herbicides. The inhibition effect was increased in the order of alachlor, napropamide, and diphenamid. The initial crop injury in treatment of herbicides was greater in non-mulching than in clear P.E.-mulching. The crop recovered from the injury and exhibited regrowth in clear P.E.-mulching except the alachlor treatment, but there was no recovery in non-mulching. There was no significant difference yield between herbicide treatment and hand weeding in non-mulching. Also, no significant difference was obseorbed between napropamide and diphenamid treatment and hand weeding in clear P.E.-mulching.
Effect of Molinate Granular Formulations on Weed Control Efficacy and Growth of Rice Plants
Pyon, J.Y. ; Kim, M.H. ; Oak, H.S. ; Park, S.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 316~320
In order to determine effects of molinate mixture granular formulations on release rate and weed control efficacy of herbicides and growth of rice plants, zeolite impregnation, slurry, and sand-coating granules were tested in laboratory and greenhouse. Release rate of molinate and simetryn was faster in sand-coating granule than in zeolite impregnation and slurry type granules. Mixture granular formulations of molinate/simetryn or molinate/simetryn/MCPB showed good weed control efficacy and this trend was more remarkably shown in sand-coating granule. Sand-coating granule more inhibited growth of rice plants compared to zeolite impregnation and slurry type granules.
Determination of Factors Affecting Injury of Pepper Cultivars to Napropamide and Pendimethalin
Kim, M.H. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 321~328
In order to examine the factors affecting herbicidal injury of pepper, crop injury and growth response of 2 red pepper cultivars and 2 sweet pepper cultivars to napropamide and pendimethalin were evaluated under defferent conditions of soil texture, organic matter, soil temperature and seeding depth in the greenhouse. Growth response of 4 pepper cultivars was also examined by roos dipping to napropamide and pendimethalin. More inhibition of top leaf growth by root dipping to napropamide was occurred in red pepper cultivars than in sweet pepper cultivars. However, sweet pepper cultivars showed more severe inhibition of top leaf growth by root dipping to pendimethalin compared to red pepper cultivars. Crop injury due to napropamide and pendimethalin was more severe in sandy soil than in loam soil and this trend was more remarkably shown in sweet pepper cultivars. Crop injury due to napropamide and pendimethalin was reduced with the increase in organic matter especially in cv. Walgeykwan and cv. Orient al Pimento. As seeding depth of pepper cultivars became deeper, crop injury due to napropamide and pendimethalin was reduced in cv. Walgyekwan and cv. Oriental Pimento.
Interaction Effects between Glyphosate and Some Other Herbicides on Cutgrass, Leersia oryzoides SW
Yim, I.B. ; Guh, J.O. ; Lee, K.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 329~336
Antagonistic interaction between glyphosate and some herbicides in effects of post-emergence application on cut grass and of pre-emergence application on some weed species including barnyardgrass was evaluated with pots in plastic house. By addition of oxyfluorfen to glyphosate, the weeding efficacy on cutgrass was visually evaluated as promotive in both weeding rate and efficacy. However, by alachlor, simazine, gluphosinate or quizalofop-ethyl showed delayed weeding rate, and by paraquat, the promotive in rate but lower in efficacy, respectively. Fresh weights of cutgrass at 30 days after the lower-rate application has generally indicated the lower weeding efficacy than that from glyphosate alone. Even at higher rate application, the addition of alachlor or simazine to glyphosate has still indicated the lower efficacies. As a result of interaction analysis by Colby method, no synergism was detected from any treatments, and the combinations of simazine or paraquat to glyphosate in lower mixing rate showed significant antagonism at 5% probability level of DMRT. On the annual weed species including barnyardgrass, the significant soil-residual weeding efficacies were recognized by addition of any rate of oxyfluorfen, alachlor, simazine and higher rate of quizalofop-ethyl to glyphosate, respectively.
Phytotoxic Response of Some Fruit Trees to Oxyfluorfen
Cho, Y.W. ; Pyon, J.K. ; Guh, J.O. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 7, issue 3, 1987, Pages 337~347
Spary and vapor drift injuries of apple, pear, and peach seedling caused by soil-applied oxyfluorfen were studied in a greenhouse. Bud bursting rate of all fruit trees was reduced by both spray and vapor drifts of oxyfluorfen, but reduction in bud bursting rate of pear and peach was greater than that of apple trees. Reduction in the number of leaves per shoot of apple and peach was greater than that of pear trees. Leaf injury of pear was most severe and occurred earliest, but leaves of peach were least injured, Leaf injuries of pear and apple were caused by both spray and vapor drifts, but leaves of peach was injured largely by vapor drift. Reduction in shoot growth of and pear was greater than that of peach trees. Shoot growth of pear was more rapidly retared compared with apple trees. In the field, oxyfluorfen delayed the time of bud bursting in young apple trees. Oxyfluorfen applied between initiation and completion of bud bursting delayed bud bursting more than earlier application although ultimate number of bursted buds was similar to control. The number of leaves per shoot and total length of shoots were lower than control until 40 days after application of oxyfluorfen, and then were similar to control because of vigorous growth after May.