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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Oct 1988
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 1988
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 1988
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Studies on Ecology and Control of Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola Vasing.) and Other Annual Weeds in Paddy Fields
Miyahara, Masuji ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 103~113
Biology and Control of Perennial Weeds in Paddy Fields
Kusanagi, Tokuichi ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 114~123
Herbicide Activities in Relation to Oxygenase and Active Oxygens
Matsunaka, Schooichi ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 124~132
Herbicides show many kinds of mode of action and are metabolized in many ways. These biochemical patterns are closely related to the efficacy or mammalian toxicity and also to the selectivity of environmental persistance of herbicides, respectively. In this short review, oxygenase will be discussed as to the metabolisms of monuron, EPTC and bensulfuron methyl, and active oxygens will be reviewed from the standpoint of the mode of action of paraquat and diphenylether herbicides.
The Occurrence of Kranz Type Species Among the Noxious Weeds on Cultivated Land of Taiwan and their Biochemical Subdivision
Lin, Chin Ho ; Yin, Shan Tai ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 133~140
One hundred and one noxious weeds on cultivated land of Taiwan were investigated for the occurrence of "Kranz" leaf anatomy and activities of PEP carboxylase and
acid decarboxylating enzymes : NADP-malic enzyme, NAD-malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase. Based on the leaf anatomy and a/b chlorophyll ratio, twenty-seven species exhibit "Kranz" type leaf anatomy, and seventy-four species were found without it. Among the species investigated, Digitaria radicosa (Presl) Miq., Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees, and Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) W. D. Clayton in the Gramineae were first recorded as
plants. Twenty-sven species of "Kranz" type leaf anatomy, include those of monocotyledon ; sixteen species in Gramineae, six species in Cyperaceae. Those of dicotyledon ; two species each in Euphorbiaceae and Amaranthaceae and one species in Portulacaceae. The subtype of fourteen previously uninvestigated species among twenty-seven species were further determined. The properties of the three decarboxylating enzyme from representative species were also characterized.
Status of Forest Weed Control in Japan -Mainly Herbicides Use Technique Including Tetrapion and Its Mixture-
Yamada, Takayasu ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 141~155
We have large areas of forests in our country where various types of trees can grow. Since Japan geographically locates on a wide region with the extention of 3,000 km south and north, the climate varies from subtropical to subarctical one. Many mountains additionally make the climatic condition more complicated. Thus, we are able to see many kinds of trees in our forest areas. We have also frequent rainfalls through whole season and the precipitation reaches approximately 1,500 mm per year in many forests areas. In some rainy regions, it sometimes account for more than 2,000 mm. The condition is so advantageous for the growth of weeds and shrubs that it makes them very strong competitors with plantation trees in our forestries. It, therefore, may be said that the most important problem in Japanese forestries is to combat with undesirable vegetations continuously and to keep trees from weeds.
Historical Aspect of the Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society and the 11th APWSS Conference Experience
Chen, Yuh Lin ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 156~157
Factors Affecting Emergence and Tuber Formation of Lowland Perennial Weeds
Choi, C.D. ; Kim, S.C. ; Lee, S.K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 158~163
Several factors affecting emergence and tuber formation of lowland perennial weeds were studied at the Yeongnam Crop Experiment Station in 1988. Period of tuber germination start to final tuber varied by species. Eleocharis kuroguwai and Sagittaria trifolia required longer than 10 days at
for this while Cyperus serotinus and S. pygmaea needed about 4 days. Application of gibberellic acid shortened this period while Uniconazole application delayed. E. kuroguwai and C. serotinus had ability to emerge under 20cm depth placement. However, S. trifolia could not emerge under 15cm depth. All species decreased their growth with increase in planting depth. E. kuroguwai had least correlated between dry matter production and tuber formation. Clipping of above ground part negatively related with tuber formation eventhough the effect of clipping time was differed by species. The most critical clipping time was 60 days after eremergence (DAE) for E. kuroguwai and 90 DAE for C. serotinus. Covering of colored polyethylene film was also related with tuber formation with varing effects. In general, the order of effectiveness for tuber formation were black. orange. blue and red. Application of Uniconazole and Pachlobutrazol effectively controlled the formation of tuber of E. kuroguwai and this effect enhanced by early application.
Characterization of Weed Occurrence in Apple Orchards
Woo, I.S. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 164~168
In order to get basic information for establishing weed control methods in apple orchards, weed distribution was surveyed at 2 locations in Chungnam Province at 15 days intervals. In apple orchard 48 weed species (18 families) were distributed and Chenopodium album and Polygonum hydropiper were dominated and Digitana sanguinalis, Portulaca oleracea, and Erigeron canadensis were also abundant among them. Highest number of weeds emerged in April and dry weight of weeds were heavy in June and October, especially in summer broadleaf weeds and winter broadleaf weeds, and winter grasses were abundant in spring. Seasonal Shannon's diversity index(H'), maximum diversity(H max'), eveness (J') for the Shannon diversity index, and Simpson index were high in apple orchards. Interspecific competition was more severe than intraspecific competition.
Identification of Physiologically Active Compounds from Purslane(Portulaca oleracea L.)
Park, J.S. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 169~175
This experiment was conducted to determine the presence of allelopathic substance in Portulaca oleracea L. Water and methanol extract from P. oleracea markedly inhibited the germination of lettuce, rice, raddish etc., indicating the presence of biological substances. The biochemical substances such as ferulic, p-coumaric, salicylic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid etc., belonging to phenolic compounds were detected in a large amount, which may be responsible for exhibiting inhibitory effects. Various phenolic compounds were detected from different samples such as freshly, dried plants, seeds and callus. The highest amount of tannic and gallic acids were detected in dried samples of P. oleracea, the highest grantity of salicylic and vanillic acids in fresh samples, the largest amount of ferulic acid in seed sample, the highest amount of p-hydroxybenzoic and p-chlorobenzoic acids in callus. Linolenic acid was presented in amount of 9.203 mg/g in dried plant of P. oleracea as one of the major fatty acids and oxalic acid presented 27.941 mg/g as one of the major organic acids. These compounds seemed to be related to inhibitory effect of P. oleracea which needs further study.
Effect of Plant Hormones on the Time-dependent Changes of Photosynthesis by Oxygen Electrode System and Cholorophyll Contents in Rice Leaf Discs
Kang, C.K. ; Lee, K.H. ; Saka, H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 176~181
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plant hormones on the time-dependent changes of photosynthesis by oxygen electrode system (Rank Brothers Inc. England) and chlorophyll contents in rice(Oryza sativa L. cv. Nihonbare) leaf discs. IAA showed no significant effect when treateds at lower concentration, however IAA 20ppm inhibited slightly the photosynthesis of leaf discs. BA increased strongly the photosynthesis with time. As the BA concentration increased, photosynthesis was significantly stimulated.
showed with little effect at lower concentration, however
20ppm inhibited the photosynthesis. ABA inhibited strongly the photosynthesis at all the treatments. IAA, BA, and
stimulated chlorophyll contents, but ABA inhibited the chlorophyll contents. It can be concluded that among the plant hormones tested, BA was the most effective in stimulating photosynthesis with time and maintaining the chlorophyll contents.
Development of Herbicide(BIALAPHOS) Tolerant Tobacco through Tissue Culture
Bae, Y.Z. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 182~186
This study was conducted to level up the tolerance of tobacco plant against bialaphos herbicide through tissue culture. The relatively good shoot regeneration from the subcultured calli treated with bialaphos at 0.5 ppm was observed in old the tobacco varieties tested such as NC 82, BY 4 and KA 101. However, at the treatment of bialaphos 1.0 ppm, shoot regeneration was only made in KA 101 variety, showing better regeneration than that of untreated one, When these shoots were transfered to the medium containing of bialaphos 10.0 ppm, the percentage of living shoots (i.e. tolerant plant) was very low, showing 2.43% in NC 82, 2.76% in KA 101 and 0.78% BY 4. Calli were induced and multiplied from leaf petiole of the above tolerant plants even under 2.5ppm of bialaphos, showing an average of 9% in NC 82 and 16% in KA 101 as compared with the untreated control. No calli were induced from tolerant plants as bialaphos concentration increased up to 5.0 ppm. Direct shooting from leaves of the above tolerant plants, that is selected at 10.0ppm of bialaphos treatment, was observed even under 10.0ppm of bialaphos treatment both in NC 82 and in KA 101 varieties, indicating that tolerance of tobacco plants against bialaphos can be greatly increased.
Anatomical Difference Between Two Rice Cultivars Selected to Oxyfluorfen
Cheon, S.U. ; Guh, J.O. ; Lee, Y.M. ; Lee, D.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 187~198
The second leaves from 30 days old seedlings of two rice cultivars which were selected as tolerant (cv. Chokoto) and susceptible (cv. Weld pally) cultivar were soaked in the concentration of
of oxyfluorfen for 10, 15 and 22hrs and anatomical characteristics were abserved. Dipping to the solutions were carried out either directly to the attached leaves or to the seperated leaves. Development of any symptoms in epidermis, bundle sheath, mesophyll cells and bulliform cells were microscopically inspected. Both cultivars showed reductionin leaf thickness, but the susceptible ones was more sensitive than the tolerant. The degradation and disappearance of epidermal cell layer, breakage of bundle sheath cells, shrinkage of mesophyll cells and disappearance of bulliform cells were general response as affected by oxyfluorfen treatment. The susceptible cultivars showed such responses at the concentration of
for 10 hrs while tolerant ones
, for 10 hrs. Those treatments were more effective in seperated leaves than in attached ones. The epicuticular wax layer of leaves treated as above for 20 hrs was inspected by SEM. Weld pally, the susceptible cultivar (Weld pally) showed rapid cleavage of wax layer under
concentration while the tolerant (Chokoto) showed only minor damage on wax layer at the concentration of
Difference in Electrophoretic Phenotypes of Rice Cultivars Selected to Oxyfluorfen
Kuk, Y.I ; Guh, J.O. ; Lee, D.J. ; Kim, Y.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 199~207
The study was intended to know any relations between the rice tolerance to oxyfluorfen and varietal speciation in seed protein composition or any enzymatical allelies with or without chemical treatment. Rice varieties used were Chokoto, Aichiasahi, Agabyeo, IR 3941 and Tablei as the tolerant group, and Mushakdanti, Weld Pally, HP 1033, HP 857, and HP 907 as the susceptible, respectively. Electrophoretic methods used were SDS-PAGE for seed protein, 7% PAGE for isozymes (acid phosphatase and peroxidase from rice seedling) and changes in isoenzyme activity (malate dehydrogenase, peroxidase and esterase) as affected by oxyfluorfen treatment (
) was also studied. The results are summarized as follows. -Among 19 bands separated in seed proteins, two different rice groups selected in terms of tolerance were clustered in dissimilarity. This was based on 2 facts in that G band was not present in susceptible varieties and that less activity of H, N, O, P, Q, Rand S band was shown. -Among 4 bands separated in acid phosphatase, the presence of (band and lower activity of B band was specific for tolerant varieties. For 4 minor bands separated in peroxidase, the tolerant varieties had no activity in B band and higher activity in A, C, D bands. -Time-course study of isozymes as affected by
oxyfluorfen showed that Chokoto, the tolerant varieties, had little activity in A band and consistently higher activities in Band C bands for malate dehydrogenase. For 5 bands separated in peroxidase, B band was not found in Chokoto while A, C, D, and E bands were consistently present. Esterase was separated into about 4 bands in which Chokoto had maintained higher activities in A, C and D bands.
Studies on Selective Herbicides to Cucurbitaceae Crop
Ryang, H.S. ; Moon, Y.H. ; Kim, N.E. ; Lee, J.H. ; Choi, Y.C. ; Park, H.K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 2, 1988, Pages 208~216
This study was conducted to select herbicides safe for cucurbitaceae crops under the polyethylene film mulching culture. No crop injury with ethalfluralin (N-ethyl-N-(2-methylally)-2, 6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) aniline) was found in gourd, water melon, cantaloup, cucumber and pumpkin of direct seeded culture. There was no significant reduction in fresh weight of gourd and pumpkin at the rate of 1080 g a.i./ha, that of water melon, cantaloup and cucumber at the rate of 720 g a.i./ha. Napropamide (N,N-diethyl-2-(
-naphthyloxy) propionamide) did not cause any crop injury at the rate of 1500 to 3000 g a.i./ha. There was no significant reduction in fresh weight of gourd, pumpkin and cucumber at the rate of 3000 g a.i./ha, and that of cantaloup and water melon at the rate of 1500 g a.i./ha. Trifluralin (
-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N, N-diprophlaniline) did not cause any crop injury in gourd. When ethalfluralin, napropamide and nitralin were applied to the transplanted seedlings of water melon and cantaloup, no significant reduction in the fresh weight were observed. The weeding effect greater than 90% was obtained with ethalfluralin at 720 to 1080 g a.i./ha and pendimethalin (N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine) at 1268 g a.i./ha. The rest treatment gave the weeding effect ranging from 81 to 90%.