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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Weed Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Oct 1988
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 1988
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 1988
Selecting the target year
Anatomical Difference Between Two Rice Cultivars Selected to Bensulfuron
Cheon, S.U. ; Guh, J.O. ; Lee, Y.M. ; Lee, D.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 219~236
Bensulfuron concentrations of
were applied to agar medium on susceptible (cv. KH 17854 and cv. IR 1846) and tolerant (cv. Chinsurah Boro II and IR 14252) rice cultivars were grown for microscopic inspection. Susceptible cultivars showed the decrease in shoot and root growth at the concentration of
while ones showed no difference. Such a tendency was also observed from microscopic inspection in the elongation zone of shoot meristematic tissue. Seedlings grown in soil for 10 days were transfered to distilled water containing only bensulfuron solutions. There were significant differences between cultivars in terms of supression of shoot meristematic activity and swelling of cell volume. Observations of those cells made it clear that especially susceptible cultivars showed the irregular cell layering, vacuolation, cell swelling and partial damage in membrane of shoot tissue. The major response of root tips of susceptible cultivars showed the disorganization of cortex, rupture and contraction of membrane, inhibition of cell division, swelling and emergence of lateral root while tolerant ones showed no such responses.
Effect of Fenelorim on Reducing Herbicide Injury of Rice Plaints in Vinyl-covered Subirrigated Seedbed
Lee, H.Y. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 237~243
Field study was conducted to evaluate safening effect of fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenyl pyrimidine) against benthiocarb, butachlor, and pretilachlor injury in rice plants under vinyl-covered subirrigated seedbed. Combinated application of benthiocarb 210, and 315 g ai/10a with fenclorim 10 g ai/10a or higher concentration, butachlor 180, and 270 g ai/10a with fenclorim 20 g ai/10a or higher concentration, and pretilachlor 60, and 90 g ai/10a with fenclorim 30 g ai/10a reduced herbicide injury of rice, and thus increased standing, plant height, tillers, and dry weight of rice plants compared to no combined application of fenclorim.
A Bioassay Method with Radish Seedlings for Bioactive Substances
Hong, K.S. ; Lim, H.K. ; Cho, K.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 244~249
Some experiments were conducted to utilize the raphanus test as a bioassay method for plant growth regulaters and hormonal herbicides. Among seven radish cultivars, the response of Jangbaegminong was the most sensitive and quantitative to
-NAA and its coefficient of variation value was the lowest. The optimum application time of test compounds was estimated seven to nine days after seeding. After
-NAA treatment the curvature angle of radish cotyledonary petiols was sharply increased to the maximum value at 24 hours after and was changed by light and temperature conditions. The curvature response was observed by application of
-NAA, phenoxy and indole compounds but often plant growth regulators,
benzyladenine, ABA and homobrassinolide was not detected by this method. So this bioassay was useful to evaluate the activity of a compound as an auxin or a hormonal herbicide.
Difference in Electrophoretic Phenotypes of rice Cultivars Selected to Bensulfuron
Kuk, Y.I. ; Guh, J.O. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Lee, D.J. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 250~257
The study was intended to know any relations between the rice tolerance to bensulfuron and varietal speciation in seed protein composition or any enzymatical allelies with or without chemical treatment. Rice varieties used were UCP-28, Chinsurah Boro II, Fukunohama, Fadehpur-2, IR 14252-13-2-2-5 as the tolerant group, and HP 93(3) FA, HP94(9) FA, Padilabou Alumbis, KH-17854, and IR 1846-2841-1 as the susceptible, respectively. Electrophoretic methods used were SDS-PAGE for seed protein, 7% PAGE for isozymes (acid phosphatase, peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase, and esterase from rice seedling) and variation in isoenzyme profiles (malate dehydrogenase, peroxidase, and esterase) as affected by different concentrations of bensulfuron(0,
) was also studied. The results are summarized as follows. -Among 16 bands separated in seed proteins, two different rice groups selected in terms of tolerance to bensulfuron were clustered in dissimilarity, which was based on relatively larger area in whole peaks and higher activities in N, O, P bands for the tolerant group. -Among isozymes obtained from rice seedlings without chemical treatments, the following specificities were obtained. The tolerant varieties had the relatively higher activity in D band out of 4 peroxidase bands. Malate dehydrogenase was separated into 3 bands and only tolerant varieties had A band and higher activities in Band C bands. Esterase was separated into 3-4 bands with higher activities in A and B bands for tolerant varieties. There were one major band accompanied by 2-3 minor bands for acid phosphatase in which only tolerant varieties had the B band. -The effect of Bensulfuron concentration on the isozyme activities showed that the activity of C band in peroxidase was not present in tolerant varieties which was contrary to the increased activities in susceptible varieties. However, D band was gradually disappeared only in susceptible varieties as the concentration of bensulfuron was increased. For malate dehydrogenase in the susceptible varieties, major bands D, E and F kept consistantly higher activities while minor bands A, B and C disappeared sensitively. Among 5 bands of esterase separated, D band was present only in the tolerant varieties while E band only in the susceptible. The activities in A, C, E bands were sharply decreased in the susceptible varieties as the concentration of bensulfuron was increased.
Determination of Phenolic Compounds Responsible for Allelopathy in Upland Weeds
Chon, J.C. ; Han, K.W. ; Jang, B.C. ; Shin, H.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 258~264
Phenolic compounds present in upland weeds (Artemisia asiatica Nakai, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik, Portulaca orleracea L. and Trifolium repens L.) which have shown allelopathic activity were determined using paper chromatography (PC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Effect of the determined phenolic compounds on germination and post-germination growth of test plants was also investigated. Kinds of phenolic compounds determined by PC in the four weed species were greater in the aqueous extract than in the methanol extract. Ferulic acid was found in both extracts of the weeds studied, whereas benzoic acid was that the weeds commonly contained hydroquinone, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and cinnamic acids. Out of the phenolic compounds determined by PC and HPLC p-hydroxybenzoic, cinnamic and ferulic acids inhibited germination and post-germination growth of radish and sesame. Inhibition of the phenolic compounds on the radicle growth was greater than on the germination of the test plants.
Studies on the Germination Characteristics in the Several Weeds of Compositae
Lee, B.M. ; Kang, B.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 265~272
This experiment was carried to investigate the germination pattern in relation to temperatures and lights, and the emergence pattern in relation to seeding depths, lights and the alpha amylase activity of Youngia sonchifolia, Lactuca indica var. laciniata, Ixeris dentata var. albiflora and Ixeris polycephala. In Y. sonchifolia, the optimum germination temperature was
, the optimum seeding depth to emerge was 0 mm and it could emerge in 0-5mm. In L. indica var. laciniata under cool storage, the optimum germination temperatures were
, the optimum seeding depth was 5mm and it could emerge in 0-20mm. In L. indica var. laciniata under room storage, the optimum germination temperature was
the optimum seeding depth was 5mm and it could emerge in 0-10mm. In I. dentata emerge was and 0mm and it could emerge in 0-5mm. In I. polycephla, the optimum temperatures were
, the optimum seeding depth to emerge was 0mm and it could emerge in 0-5mm. The alpha amylase activity was lower Y. sonchifolia, L. indica var. laciniata and I. dentata var. abiflora than barley cultivar Dongbor#1. And the increased pattern of alpha amylase activity was likely to it of germination rate.
Weed-Ecological Classification of the Collected Barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv]) in Korea - I. Variation of quantitative and attributable characters in collected barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.] accessions
Im, I.B. ; Guh, J.O. ; Lee, J.Y. ; Cho, Y.S. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 273~282
The seventeen barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.] accessions, which were collected national-widely in 1986 and selected two times through 1987, were experimented at 1988. To study the degree of ecological variations of the collected accessions of native barngardgrass species as a weed, the experiment was conducted with Wagner pots in size of 1/5000a and under P.E. film house. Among 57 characters, 100 grains weight, rate of tiller increase from transplanting to 30 days, the number of the maximum tillers and rate of dry weight increase from 15 DAS to 22 DAS were become intra-specific variarions as higher coefficient of varation than 30%, the size of the first leaf, fresh weight and dry 22 seedlings, rate of productive tiller, panicle number and tillering divergence made intra-specific variations as more and less C. V. than 25%, while the required days upto heading since seeding at June 6. rate of fresh/dry weight and plant height of 22 days old seedling made intra-specific variations as the coefficient of variation of about 50%. Among the attributes the color in leaf, leaf sheath, mid-ribs, node, spike, grain, and plant type, length of leaf marginal tooth, grain shape, purple bend on leaf were seemed useful to indentify the accessible specific.
Identification of Phytotoxic Compounds and Allelopathic Effects of Various Upland Weeds
Back, K.W. ; Kim, K.U. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 283~290
This study was conducted to clarify the identification of phytotoxic compounds from 5 upland weeds which had been collected at their maturity age in the field of Kyungpook province, Korea. 5 weed species including Stellaria aquatica strongly inhibited the lettuce seed germination. These 5 species were Amaranthus lividus, Stellaria aquatica, Achyranthes japonica, Polygonum perfoliata and Galinsoga ciliata. the degree of inhibitory effects according to various solvent extracts such as ethanol, aceton, chloroform and ether was different as species. In total phenol and diphenol content G. ciliata had largest amount of total phenol with 2.75mg/g, P. perfoliata 1.8mg/g, S. aquatica 1.7mg/g, A. lividus 1.28mg/g, A. japonica 1.27mg/g respectively. A. lividus had much amount of p-cresol, hydroquinone, ferulic, caffeic, p-cl-benzoic and p-coumaric in order. S. aquatica, A. japonica, P. perfoliata and G. ciliata had a large quantity of ferulic, caffeic, 7-OH-coumarin and protocatechuic acids in common. The amount of fatty acids was existed 8.49mg/g in S. aquatica, 7.14mg/g in A. japonica, 7.10mg/g in G. ciliata, 5.49mg/g in P. perfoliata and 4.2mg/g in A. lividus respectively. Most of 4 weeds except G. ciliata had much oxalic acid to the extent of 14-22mg/g. however it appeared that G. ciliata had much quantity of feruic and citric acids.
Weed Flora of Range Area in Cheju Island in Korea
Kim, K.U. ; Kim, S.H. ; Kim, C.G. ; Kim, J.H. ; Shin, D.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 291~294
About 136 weed species belonging to 44 families occurring in summer observed in Cheju island. The Compositae was the most widely occurring family covering 29 weed species, followed by 16 species in Graminae, 14 in Leguminosae, 13 in Rosaceae, 10 in Polygonaceae etc., The dominant weed species detected in range areas of Cheju island were Trifolium repens, Botrychium virginianum, Rosa multiflora, Miscanthus sinensis, Imperata cylindrica. The range areas of Cheju island consisted of the communities of Artemisia princeps-Botrychium virginianum, Artemisia princeps-Erigeron borariensis and Dianthus sinensis, and Artemisia-Lespedeza bicolor and Miscanthus sinensis and then the differential species of their communities were Botrychium virginianum, Erigeron boriensis, and Lespedeza bicolor and Miscanthus sinensis, respectively. The species of the high frequencies occurring in investigated sites were Artemisia princeps, Cirsium rhinoceros, Hydrocotyle ramijlora, Rosa multiflora, Sanguisorba officinalis, Rubus crataegifolius, Potentilla fragariodes, Erigeron annus, Plantago asiatica, Oxalis corniculata, Mosla dianthera in order.
Germination and Emergence of Eclipta prostrata(L.) L.
Lee, H.K. ; Moody, K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 299~307
Several experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of external factors on germination and emergence of Eclipta prostrata (L.)L. The weight of viable achenes doubled as a result of 90 minutes soaking in water. The germination of E. prostrata was significantly improved by alternating temperatures. At a constant temperature of
, only 78% of the achenes germination, whereas at alternating temperatures of 35/
, 96.5% of the achenes germinated. E. prostrata was more sensitive than rice to moisture stress. No germination of E. prostrata achenes occurred in the absence of oxygen. No germination of E. prostrata achenes occurred in the dark or when they were exposed to green, blue, and far-red light. Germination of E. prostrata achenes was influenced by the duration of illumination after absorption of water. Ten hours of illumination was needed for maximum germination and 2 hours for 50% germination. No significant changes in germination of E. prostrata achenes were observed between pH 3 and 10. A high tolerance of E. prostrata achenes to salt was observed. Emergence of E. prostrata achenes was greatly affected by planting depth. In the upland soil, 74.0% of the achenes planted on the soil surface germinated, and no emergence was at planting depths of 0.5 cm or greater.
Seed Viability and Growth Characteristics of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.
Lee, H.K. ; Moody, K. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 309~316
Several experiments were conducted to investigate the achene viability and growth characteristics of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. No dormancy and no after-ripening requirement were found for E. prostrata achenes. When achenes were stored at room temperature, germination did not decrease with up to 5 months storage. Large differences in loss of viability of E. prostrata achenes occurred when different dehydration methods were used. Immediate dehydration resulted in high viability, but slow dehydration resulted in severe loss of viability. Achene viability at shallow burial depths (5 and 10 cm deep) was lower under upland soil conditions than under lowland soil conditions. Seedling growth was greatly reduced when flooding to a depth of 10 cm occurred at or before the 4-leaf stage. Flooding after the 4-leaf stage stimulated stem elongation. Branching started from the second week and usually terminated at the tenth week. Leaf size was determined by the branch which are related to the assimilate supply. Flowering of E. prostrata started during the fifth week after emergence, and mature achenes were produced from the sixth week. Ten to 14 days were needed for the achenes to mature. About 14,000 achenes were produced on each plant. Achene production per week increased from the sixth week to the tenth week and thereafter it declined. The average number of achenes per inflorescence decreased with delay in flowering.
Characterization of Weed Occurrence in Protected Culture(P.E. house, P.E. tunnel, P.E. mulching)
Woo, I.S. ; Pyon, J.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 317~323
This survey was conducted to know characterization of weed occurrence under protected culture conditions at Yousong in 1985. Chenopodium album, Polygonum hydropiper, Portulaca oleracea and Digitaria sanguinalis were dominated in outdoor, whereas Capsella bursa-pastoris, C. album, D. sanguinalis and P. oleracea were dominant in polyethylene house. More weeds emerged in mulching plots and dry weight of weeds was greater in non-mulching plots. Summer broadleaf weeds and summer grasses were abundant in outdoor, whereas non-mulching plots in polyethylene house was dominated by winter broadleaf weeds, and mulching plots in polyethylene house were dominated by winter grasses and winter broadleaf weeds in early stage and summer grasses and summer broadleaf weeds in late stage. Simpson index was high in polyethylene house and Shannon's diversity index, maximum diversity for the Shannon diversity index were lower than eveness using the Shannon diversity index and this trend was more remarkable in mulching and mulching in tunnel than in non-mulching under polyethylene house condition. Shannon diversity index, maximum diversity for the Shannon diversity index were high in mulching or tunnel, and Simpson index was high in non-mulching in outdoor condition. Interspecific competition was more severe than intraspecific competition in both conditions.
Effect of Paclobutrazol Application on the Growth and Characters Related with Lodging of Paddy Rice Plant
Im, I.B. ; Lee, S.Y. ; Kim, J.H. ;
Korean Journal of Weed Science, volume 8, issue 3, 1988, Pages 324~329
This experiment was conducted to find the effect of paclobutrazol application of 12, 18, 24g/10a at 35, 25 and 15 days before heading on the characters related with lodging, growth and yield of paddy rice plants in 1985. Culm lengths were reduced from 7% to 12% by paclobtrazol application of 35, 25 and 15 days before heading. The paclobutrazol caused more short internode, thick well of internode and wide section area of internode than the untreated control. The lodging index were remarkably decreased by paclobutrazol application and also the field lodging of rice plant was not observed. The number of spikelet per panicle was decreased by paclobutrazol application at 35 days before heading and 25, but ripened grain ratio and 1000 grain weight were higher than the untreated control. Paclobutrazol applications increased more from 5% to 8% than untreated control on the grain yield.