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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Nov 2003
Volume 11, Issue 5 - Sep 2003
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Jul 2003
Volume 11, Issue 3 - May 2003
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Indicated and Load Torque Estimation of SI-Engine using Cylinder Pressure Sensor
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 1~6
The torque is an important measure that represents the performance of a particular engine. Furthermore the information of engine torque can be used as a primary feedback parameter in modem engine management system. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for torque estimation of SI-engine. Since the proposed method uses cylinder pressure sensor, the torque can be estimated in a simple manner. The indicated torque is estimated from the peak pressure and its location, and the load torque is observed by the state observer based on the estimated indicated torque. The proposed method is accurate and robust against the variations that affect the torque production such as spark timing, mass air flow and others. This torque estimation method may be an alternative solution to the use of engine torque maps in a modem torque-based engine management system.
Performance and Emission Characteristics of Liquid-Phase LPG Injection Engine with Different EGR Rate
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 7~14
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is used to reduce NOx emission, to improve fuel economy, and to suppress knock since it offers the benefits of the inlet charge dilution. The effects of EGR was investigated on the performance and emission to reduce exhaust thermal load with a single cylinder liquid-phase LPG injection engine, in a wide range of EGR rate, engine conditions and LPG proportions. As EGR rate was increased, NOx was reduced while HC was increased. Pumping loss reduction by EGR improved bsfc and increased EGR lowered exhaust gas temperature. And, LPG proportions were made a difference on the performance and emission characteristics.
Injector Control Logic for a Liquid Phase LPG Injection Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 15~21
The liquid phase LPG injection engine is a new technology to make good use of LPG as a clean energy. However, it is difficult to precisely control air/fuel ratio in the system because of variation of fuel composition, change of temperature and flash boiling injection mechanism. This study newly suggests an injector control logic for liquid phase LPG injection systems. This logic compensates a number of effects such as variations of density, stoichiometric air/fuel ratio, injection delay time, injection pressure, release pressure which is formed by flash boiling of fuel at nozzle exit. This logic can precisely control air/fuel ratio with only two parameters of intake air flow rate and injection pressure without considering fuel composition, fuel temperature.
Development of Flow Rate Model of a Liquid Phase LPG Injector
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 22~28
Flash boiling mechanism in the injector interferes with fine fuel metering in a liquid phase LPG injection engine. This study presents a mathematical model to precisely predict an injection quantity. A calibration procedure of injection quantity, which is very prompt and precise in measuring, is developed using a gas analyzer. According to this procedure, injection quantity can be obtained under various fuel compositions, temperatures and injection pressures. The release pressure of liquid phase LPG is estimated based on these experimental data. Although the release pressure is much lower than the saturation pressure, it is linearly proportional to the saturation pressure.
A Study on the Prediction of Temperature Change during the Thermal Fatigue Test of Exhaust Manifolds
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 29~36
Exhaust manifolds suffer from serious temperature variation during the thermal fatigue test. The spatial distribution of temperature changes at each moment. Because transient flow can not be simulated during the long period of temperature change, the simulation can not be performed by conjugate heat transfer analysis. In this study, a new procedure for transient thermal analysis is established by decoupling fluid-solid analysis. The procedure consists of (1) transient CFD calculation (2 cycles), (2) mapping heat transfer coefficient to the inner surface of solid mesh as a boundary condition of heat conduction analysis and (3) transient heat conduction analysis in the long period (30 min). The realistic temperature change can be predicted by this procedure.
An Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Performance and Exhaust Gas Emission with Charging Diesel Engine on Oxygen-enrich and High Pressure Route Cooled-EGR
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 37~42
This research was carried on an 8100cc turbo-charged heavy duty diesel in the application of a cooled-EGR. Exhaust and intake manifold were modified and an electronically controlled EGR was installed in order to investigate engine performance and exhausted emission characteristics. High pressure route was designed in the compact form on the purpose of practicability in this cooled-EGR system, which constitutes a venturi tube to maintain pressure difference between exhaust manifold and compressor, an EGR cooler, an EGR valve and a solenoid valve.
Dynamic Model of an HSDI Common-rail Injector and Injection Rate Estimation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 43~49
The common-rail fuel injection system is becoming a common technology for High Speed Direct Injection(HSDI) diesel engines. The injection timing and rate are important factors for combustion control and pollutants formation mechanisms during engine operation. This paper introduces an estimation methodology of the injection timing and rate of a common-rail injector for HSDI diesel engines. A sliding mode observer that is based on the nonlinear mathematical model of the common-rail injector is designed to overcome the model uncertainties. The injector model and the estimator we verified by relevant injection experiments in an injector test bench. The simulation and the experimental results show that the proposed sliding mode observer can effectively estimate the injection rate of the common-rail injector.
A Developement of Ultra High Pressure Injection Equipment for Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics with Ultra High Pressure
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 50~59
It was known that high pressure injection is an effective method to enhance thermal efficiency and decrease exhaust emissions in diesel engines. If injection pressure becomes ultra high, it is predicted that there may be a suitable injection pressure which the enhancement rate of spray characteristics is moderate. Also, there may be a limit injection pressure which spray characteristics is reversed and get worse. But these are unknown. To investigate a suitable injection pressure and a limit injection pressure, ultra high pressure injection equipment(UHPIE), which can realize the injection pressure of 3,200bar, was developed. UHPIE is a basic apparatus of single shot injection, and ultra high pressure was achieved by second stage rapid compression in short time. From the evaluation of UHPIE, a injection curve like a conventional diesel engine(jerk type) was realized. Also, it was proved that repetition of experiment was excellent. Therefore it was found that there was no problem to perform the study on the ultra high pressure injection with UHPIE. Consequently, the foundation of the study on ultra high pressure injection could be established.
An Estimation of the Temperature Distribution and the Soot Density in Diesel Flame with the Two-Color Method using Image Analysis System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 60~69
The simplified two-color method is proposed which can estimate the temperature distribution and the soot density of the whole flame with the image analysis of the high-speed photographs. The factors influenced on its processing were examined, for example, the selection of the wave length, the kind of films, the preparation of the calibration curve between the radiance of flame and the luminance temperature. The simplified two-color method reported in this paper can be used as a tool for the improvement of the combustion process in direct injection diesel engine.
Development on the Sub-Cooled Hybrid Condenser in Automotive Air-Conditioning System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 70~76
An experimental study was performed to understand the heat transfer and fluid dynamic characteristics of Sub-Cooled Hybrid Condenser (SCHC), which conventional condenser and receiver dryer are integrated into. SCHC also employs a sub-cooled refrigerant passages at the end of the condenser in order to supply perfect liquid refrigerant to the expansion unit. Throughout the present study, it was found that the developed SCHC increases in the degree of sub-cooling by 10~100% compared to conventional condenser. The excessive sub-cooling has improved the cooling performance by 10%, and that leads reduction in evaporator outlet air temperature by
. Also found through the study is that the refrigerant pressure drop across SCHC is fairly increased due to insertion of the desiccant cartridge in the receiver tank which is composed of zeolite, filter and supporter plate.
Parameter Study of Exhaust Pressure in Catalytic Converter
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 77~82
A parametric study was conducted on pressure drop in a catalytic converter for automobile. In this work, we proposed a new pressure drop relation which contains the various parameters needed to calculate and got a few results. In a monolith of catalyst, the flow originally turbulent flow changes to laminar flow and thus the pressure drop through the monolith is linearly proportional to the velocity. The exhaust pressure is doubly affected by the increase of mean velocity and length when we decrease the diameter of monolith while the volume keeps constant. Theoretical parameters such as
are suggested to use as a reference value when there is no a experimental data. Especially in the part load test, these values should be modified to consider the property change of exhaust gas.
Constant Volume Premixed Combustion Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether and LPG Fuel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 83~88
Measurements on the combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether(DME:
) as compared with LPC in constant volume combustion chamber have been conducted. The DME is a good alternative fuel having oxygen component in fuel. To elucidate the combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether as a fuel, the combustion pressures, combustion durations, and pollutants(NOx,
, CO) are measured with equivalence ratios(Ø), and initial Pressures of fuel-air mixture. In the case of DME, the NOx concentration peaks in leu flame Ø = 0.85~0.9, and
concentration peaks at Ø=1.1, while the CO concentration abruptly rises at the condition of fuel-rich mixtures.
Probabilistic Fatigue Life Evaluation of Rolling Stock Structures
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 89~94
Rolling stock structures such as bogie frame and car body play an important role for the support of vehicle leading. In general, more than 25 years' durability is needed for them. A lot of study has been carried out for the prediction of the fatigue life of the bogie frame and car body in experimental and theoretical domains. One of the new methods is a probabilistic fatigue lift evaluation. The objective of this paper is to estimate the fatigue lift of the bogie frame of an electric car, which was developed by the Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI). We used two approaches. In the first approach probabilistic distribution of S-N curve and limit state function of the equivalent stress of the measured stress spectra are used. In the second approach, limit state function is also used. And load spectra measured by strain gauges are approximated by the two-parameter Weibull distribution. Other probabilistic variables are represented by log-normal and normal distributions. Finally, reliability index and structural integrity of the bogie frame are estimated.
A Study on the Equi-biaxial Tension Test of Rubber Material
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 95~104
The material properties of rubber was determined by the experiments of uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, planer tension, equi-biaxial tension and volumetric compression. In compression test, it is difficult to obtain the pure state of compression stress and strain due to friction force between the specimen and compression platen. In this study, the stress and strain data from the equi-biaxial tension test were converted to compression stress and strain and compared to a pure state of simple compression data when friction was zero. The compression test device with the tapered platen was proposed to overcome the effect of friction. It was fumed out that the relationship of the stress and strain using the tapered platen was in close agreement with the pure compressive state.
Structural and Dynamic Analysis of Three-Axis Road Simulator
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 105~111
The three-axis road simulator is the test equipment which can simulate the standardized road conditions for the durability evaluation of automotive components such as suspensions. The road load data are collected and acquired from a vehicle test, and then these data are used to simulate road load conditions by the road simulator which consists of hydraulic actuators, link mechanism and servo controller. The link mechanism must be designed in consideration of the dynamic effect and interference during three axes motions in order to generate accurate motions. In this paper, the structural and kinematic analysis of the link mechanism is performed, and these results can be used for developing the three-axis road simulator. The three-axis road simulator provides considerable savings in cost, development time, and testing risk during developing automotive components.
An Experimental Study on The Friction Coefficient of Rubbers for Clutch Master Cylinder Cup-Seals
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 112~118
The friction coefficients of the rubber for clutch master cylinder were experimentally measured in this study. The cylindrical rubber samples for primary cup-seal and secondary cup-seal were tested against the aluminum or the steel plates of master cylinder housing under the various conditions of brake oil temperatures and normal loads. Dry sliding friction coefficients were also measured under various load conditions. The test revealed following results. First, the friction coefficient under fluid lubrication condition in general decreases, as the oil temperature or normal load increases. Second, the steel plate of low surface roughness yielded comparatively low friction coefficient on the range of 0.30∼0.67. On the other hand, the aluminum plate of high surface roughness yielded high friction coefficient on the range of 0.31∼1.15. Third, the friction coefficient of dry surface contact decreases as the normal load increases. This is contrary to the general principle of friction coefficient between metal plates.
Development of a Simulator of Vehicle Equipped with Hydrostatic Transmission and Hydraulic Accumulator Type-Braking Energy Regeneration System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 119~126
The simulator of a vehicle equipped with hydrostatic transmission and hydraulic accumulator type-braking energy regeneration system is developed using a PC. The simulator receives the accelerator pedal angle and the brake pedal angle generated by the operator using the keyboard, updates the state variables of the energy regeneration system responding to the input signals, and draws the moving pictures of the accumulator piston, pump plate angle and pump/motor plate angle every drawing time on the PC monitor. Also, the operator can observe the accel pedal angle, brake pedal angle, pressures of accumulators, vehicle speed, hydraulic torque, engine torque and air brake torque representing the operation of braking energy regeneration system through the PC monitor every drawing time. The simulator can be a very useful tool to design and improve the braking energy regeneration system.
Damageability, Repairability of Frame Type Passenger Vehicles at Low Speed 40% Offset Crash Test
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 127~133
For the purpose of evaluation the damage repairability of a Frame Type Passenger vehicle which experienced a Low Speed 40% Offset front and rear Crash Test. tests were made according to the RCAR testing procedures. Test results concluded ; (1) The deceleration at C.G(center of gravity) off 6.9∼11.39 was similar to that for the vehicle. The airbag system was found to affect neither the passenger's safety nor the savings of the repairing costs. (2) In order to improve the repairability of the Frame Type Passenger vehicle after collision should be a higher crash performance of the bumper on the RCAR standards.
A Study on the Damageability and Repairability of the Car Bumper Systems with Gas Tube
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 134~139
The car crash accidents in low speed occurs most frequently. Damage on a conventional bumper after the car accident causes the bumper to get fixed most of time. This study shows how a gas tube bumper reduces a damageability and increase repairability after the car accidents. The 15 km/h 40% offset front and rear crash test recommended by RCAR (Research council for automobile repairs) standard was performed and evaluated damages on the gas tube bumper by the pendulum impact tester. In this study, the gas tube bumper reduces damageability and increases repairability after car crash accidents. In addition, car frame design to apply the gas tube bumper may consider to be changed.
A Study on Fatigue Crack Behavior of Metal Matrix Composites for Automobile Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 140~146
Metal matrix composites had generated a lot of interest in recent time because of their high specific strength and stiffness in specific properties. It was also highlighted as the material of frontier industry because strength, heat-resistance, corrosion-resistance and wear-resistance were superiored. In this study, the strength properties of
/AC4CH composites were represented mixing the binder of
. It was also fabricated by squeeze casting.
/AC4CH was fabricated at the melt temperature of
, the perform temperature of
and mold temperature of
under the pressure of 83.4MPa. Consequently, fatigue life was observed roughly in the order of AC4CH> nobiner>
, independently on crack propagation direction and stress ratio.
Development of the Object-oriented Powertrains Dynamic Simulation Program
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 147~155
The application of object-oriented modeling to develop a powertrain performance simulation program, called O-DYN, is introduced. Powertrain components, such as the engine, transmission, shaft, clutch are modeled as classes which have data and method by using object-oriented modeling methodology. O-DYN, a performance simulation program, based on the object-oriented modeling is made in C++. One powertrain simulation using O-DYN is proposed, and it is expected that the simulation program or individual class constructed in this paper would be useful for automotive engineers to predict the performance of powertrains and to develop a simulation program.
Dynamic Modeling of Automotive Shock Absorbers Using Simple Nonlinear Models
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 156~162
The shock absorber is a part having a direct influence on the ride comfort, stability and dynamic load prediction of a vehicle. Thus, a rationally modeled shock absorber should be required in the dynamic analysis of vehicles. This thesis presents a modified model, based on Worden's hyperbolic tangent function, in order to fit experimental data on the velocity-damping force of a shock absorber. The hyperbolic tangent function correctly indicates the characteristics of a shock absorber, and has the advantage of containing physical causality. To evaluate the method, comparative evaluations of the linear model, the 5th polynomial model and Worden's model were carried out. The function presented in this paper is not only simple but also makes it possible to estimate the function coefficients easily and visually. In addition, it has the advantage of containing physical causality. Lastly, it effectively models the damping force of a shock absorber.
An Experimental Study upon Modeling and Control of Coupled Engine and Generator System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 163~169
Modeling of engine-generator system and its control responses are investigated using high performance generator controller. The nonlinear engine is modeled using mean torque production model based on experimental engine map. In case of diesel engine. the amount of injected fief is decided by engine controller depending on the APS(Acceleration Position Sensor) value. An electromechanical generator model contains electrical circuits and moment of inertia. The generator controller maximizes the performance of generator using decoupling and linearized current feedback control. The generator control system consists of 3-phase IGBT inverter and controller board based on 32 bit floating point DSP. Field oriented control algorithm with digital current feedback control at 10kHz sampling enabled high performance torque and speed control of induction machine. Not only the steady state but also the transient state responses can be evaluated through a batch test of the engine generator system. Developed engine and generator modeling and control can be utilized in various applications such as Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SHEV), engine-generator for emergency, and other hybrid generation systems.
A Control Algorithm for Highly Efficient Operation of Auxiliary Power Unit in a Series Hybrid Electric Bus
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 170~175
A control algorithm is developed for highly efficient operation of auxiliary power unit (APU) that consists of a diesel engine and a directly coupled induction generator in series hybrid electric Bus (SHEB). In a series hybrid configuration the APU supplies the electric power needed for maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the battery unit in various conditions of vehicle operation. As the rotational speed of generator does not depend on the vehicle speed, an optimized operation of engine-generator unit based on the efficiency map of each component can be achieved. The output torque of diesel engine can be controlled by the amount of fuel injection, and the power converted from mechanical to electrical energy can be adjusted by generate control unit (GCU) using the decoupling vector control of torque and flux. As for the given reference of the generating power, the multiply of speed and torque, many combinations of operating speed and torque are possible. The algorithm decides the new operating point based on the engine efficiency map and generator characteristic curve. During the transition of operating points, the speed controller saturation is avoided using variable limit and filtering of generator torque reference. A test rig and SHEB consist of a 1.5L diesel engine and a 30kw induction generator are constructed by Hyundai Motor Company.
Development of Control System for Autonomous Parallel Parking
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 176~182
The researches for autonomous vehicle have been implemented in many studies, but most studies were confined to the lane fol1owing and changing. This paper addresses a problem of autonomous lane following parking a nonholonomic vehicle. The algorithm for image processing by the hough transform and controlling a steering angle and speed to park a nonholonomic vehicle is developed. The developed system which integrated the control algorithm for parking and vision algorithm for line traction tested with RC car and verified by the performance of the detection of parking area and the reactive parking without collisions.
Research of the Unmanned Vehicle Control and Modeling for Obstacle Detection and Avoidance
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 183~192
Obstacle detection and avoidance are considered as one of the key technologies on an unmanned vehicle system. In this paper, we propose a method of obstacle detection and avoidance and it is composed of vehicle control, modeling, and sensor experiments. Obstacle detection and avoidance consist of two parts: one is longitudinal control system for acceleration and deceleration and the other is lateral control system for steering control. Each system is used for unmanned vehicle control, which notes its location, recognizes obstacles surrounding it, and makes a decision how fast to proceed according to circumstances. During the operation, the control system of the vehicle can detect obstacles and perform obstacle avoidance on the road, which involves vehicle velocity. In this paper, we propose a method for vehicle control, modeling, and obstacle avoidance, which are evaluated through road tests.
An Object-Oriented Railway Model for Multi-Train Operation Simulation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 193~200
A computer simulation program to evaluate the performance of railway systems and train operation plans and the effects of new technologies is provided. The program has the functions of tracing the movements of trains on railway network following the indication of railway signalling system and obeying all kinds of operation rules. An object-oriented technique is applied to model railway system effectively, and it is expected that the program code can be reused easily for other railway simulation programs. Dedicated graphic user interface displaying the simulation outputs by animation during simulation process makes the program convenient to use. Simulation results on the train operations on Kyung-bu line show the proposed program is promising.
Motion Visualization of a Vehicle Driver Based on Virtual Reality
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 201~209
Virtual human models are widely used to save time and expense in vehicle safety studies. A human model is an essential tool to visualize and simulate a vehicle driver in virtual environments. This research is focused on creation and application of a human model fer virtual reality. The Korean anthropometric data published are selected to determine basic human model dimensions. These data are applied to GEBOD, a human body data generation program, which computes the body segment geometry, mass properties, joints locations and mechanical properties. The human model was constituted using MADYMO based on data from GEBOD. Frontal crash and bump passing test were simulated and the driver's motion data calculated were transmitted into the virtual environment. The human model was organized into scene graphs and its motion was visualized by virtual reality techniques including OpenGL Performer. The human model can be controlled by an arm master to test driver's behavior in the virtual environment.
Development of System Analysis for the Application of MDO to Crashworthiness
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 210~218
MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization) technology has been proposed and applied to solve large and complex optimization problems where multiple disciplinaries are involved. In this research. an MDO problem is defined for automobile design which has crashworthiness analyses. Crash model which are consisted of airbag, belt integrated seat (BIS), energy absorbing steering system .and safety belt is selected as a practical example for MDO application to vehicle system. Through disciplinary analysis, vehicle system is decomposed into structure subspace and occupant subspace, and coupling variables are identified. Before subspace optimization, values of coupling variables at given design point must be determined with system analysis. The system analysis in MDO is very important in that the coupling between disciplines can be temporary disconnected through the system analysis. As a result of system analysis, subspace optimizations are independently conducted. However, in vehicle crash, system analysis methods such as Newton method and fixed-point iteration can not be applied to one. Therefore, new system analysis algorithm is developed to apply to crashworthiness. It is conducted for system analysis to determine values of coupling variables. MDO algorithm which is applied to vehicle crash is MDOIS (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Based on Independent Subspaces). Then, structure and occupant subspaces are independently optimized by using MDOIS.
The Effect of Temperature on Fatigue Fracture of Pressure Vessel Steel for Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 11, issue 5, 2003, Pages 219~226
The fatigue crack growth behavior of the SA516/60 steel used for pressure vessels was examined experimentally at room temperatures
with stress ratio of R=0.05, 0.1 and 0.3. fatigue crack propagation rate da/dN related with stress intensity factor range
K was influenced by stress ratio in stable than fatigue crack growth (Region II) with an increase in
K. The resistance of fatigue crack growth at low temperature is higher compared with that at room temperature, which is attributed to the extent of plasticity-induced by compressive residual stress according to the cyclic loads. Fractographic examinations reveal that the differences of the fatigue crack growth characteristics between room and low temperatures are explained mainly by the crack closure and the strengthening due to the plasticity near the crack tip and roughness of the crack faces induced.