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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Nov 2004
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Sep 2004
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Jul 2004
Volume 12, Issue 3 - May 2004
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Combustion Characteristics of Methane-Air Mixture in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber(3) : Exhaust Emission
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 1~8
A cylindrical constant volume combustion chamber was used to investigate the exhaust emission characteristics of homogeneous charge, stratified pattern and inhomogeneous charge under various conditions using gas chromatography. In the case of homogeneous charge condition, the
concentration is proportional to excess air ratio and overall charge pressure, the
concentration is proportional to excess air ratio and the UHC concentration is inversely proportional to ignition time and overall charge pressure. In the case of stratified pattern, the RI(rich injection) condition shows better exhaust emission characteristics, especially
, than that of HI (homogeneous injection) or LI (lean injection) conditions. In inhomogeneous charge conditions, when initial charge pressure is increased,
and UHC concentration is reduced but
concentration is increased. And when the excess air ratio of initial charge mixture is 3.0, UHC and
concentration show lowest values.
Effect of Exhaust Heat Exchanger on Catalytic Converter Temperature in an SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 9~16
Close-coupled catalyst (CCC) can reduce the engine cold-start emissions by utilizing the energy in the exhaust gas. However, in case the engine is operated at high engine speed and load condition, the catalytic converter may be damaged and eventually deactivated by thermal aging. Excess fuel is sometimes supplied intentionally to lower the exhaust gas temperature avoiding the thermal aging. This sacrifices the fuel economy and exhaust emissions. This paper describes the results of an exhaust heat exchanger to lower the exhaust gas temperature mainly under high load conditions. The heat exchanger was installed between the exhaust manifold and the inlet of close-coupled catalytic converter. The exhaust heat exchanger successfully decreased the exhaust gas temperature, which eliminated the requirement of fuel enrichment under high load conditions. However, the cooling of the exhaust gas through the heat exchanger may cause the deterioration of exhaust emissions at cold start due to the increment of catalyst light-off time.
Analysis of Heat Quantity in CNG Direct Injection Bomb(1) : Homogeneous Charge
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 17~23
A cylindrical constant volume combustion bomb is used to investigate the combustion characteristics and to analyze the heat quantity of homogeneous charge methane-air mixture under various initial pressures, excess air ratios and ignition times. As the overall pressure increase, the values of maximum combustion pressure, maximum heat release rate and cumulative heat release have been increased. But it is not very meaningful to compare with some values such as maximum combustion pressure, maximum heat release rate and cumulative heat release for different overall pressure due to the different heat energy of supplied fuel. So the each value is needed to be compared with normalized value, which is divided by the entered fuel energy. To analyze the heat quantity, some definitions including the CHR ratio, the UHC ratio and the HL ratio are needed and are calculated. As the overall pressure increase, the CHR ratios and the UHC ratios have been decreased, while the HL ratios have been increased. The CHR ratio of 300 ms has the higher value than that of 10000ms, and the HL ratios of 300 ms have a lower value.
Analysis of Heat Quantity in CNG Direct Injection Bomb(2) : Inhomogeneous Charge
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 24~31
A cylindrical constant volume combustion bomb is used to investigate the combustion characteristics and to analyzer the heat quantity of inhomogeneous charge methane-air mixture. To analyze the heat quantity, some definitions including the CHR ratio, the UHC ratio and the HL ratio are needed and are calculated. It is shown that the effect of stratification is not significant in case of the overall excess air ratio of 1.1, mainly due to the higher heat loss and lower thermal efficiency compared to those of homogeneous condition. In the case of the overall excess air ratio of 1.4, as the initial charge pressure decreases, the CHR ratio has been decreased while the HL ratio has been increased, Generally, as the initial charge pressure increases, the amount of injection mixture has been decreased and has resulted in lower mean velocity and turbulence intensity for injection mixture. Also, the injected mixture is too rich to result in mixing deficiency in combustion chamber. From these results, it could be possible to acquire the improvement of thermal efficiency and the reduction of heat loss simultaneously through the 2-stage injection in CNG direct injection engine.
The Effect of Injection Timing and Cavity Geometry on Fuel Mixture Formation in a Central Injected DI Gasoline Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 32~38
This study was performed to investigate the behavior of liquid and vapor phase of fuel mixtures with different piston cavity diameters in a optically accessible engine. The conventional engine was modified as Central Injected DI gasoline engine with swirl motion. Two dimensional spray fluorescence images of liquid and vapor phase were acquired to analyze spray behavior and fuel distribution inside of cylinder using exciplex fluorescence method. Piston cavity geometries were set by Type S, M and L. The results obtained are as follows. In the spray formation after SOI, the cone angle and width of the spray were decreased at late injection timing. With a fuel injection timing of BTDC
, fuel was not greatly affected in a piston cavity but generally distributed as homogeneous mixture in the cylinder. With a fuel injection timings of BTDC
, fuel mixture was widely distributed in near the cavity center. As a injection timing was late in the compression stroke, residual width of fuel mixture was narrow in proportion to piston cavity.
Visualization of the Icing at LPLi Engine Injector and the Effect of the Inflow of Ice Particle into Cylinder on the Combustion and the Exhaust Gas
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 39~44
As air pollution has become an important issue across the world, studies of clean fuel are on going to reduce combustion emissions. One example is development of the LPLi(Liquefied Phase LPG injection) engine. Some problems are occurred during development. One of the problems is icing phenomenon at injector tip due to evaporation potential heat when liquid LPG is injected. If the Icing is raised at injector tip or injector inserting hole, it disturbs fuel injection. And if the ice particles are inducted into cylinder, it brings problems associated with control of emission and air/fuel ratio. In order to solve the problems, a rig system was set up and observed Icing of injector tip. Engine test was carried out for visualization of injector tip icing and its effects on combustion and emissions.
A Study on the Combustion Characteristics of Lean Mixture by Radicals Induced Injection in a Constant Volume Combustor (1)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 45~53
An experimental study was carried out to obtain the fundamental data about the effects of radicals induced injection on premixture combustion. A constant volume combustor divided to the sub-chamber and the main chamber was used. The volume of the sub-chamber is set up to occupy less than 1.5％ of that of whole combustion chamber. Radial twelve narrow passage holes are arranged between the main chamber and the sub-chamber. The products including radicals generated by spark ignition in the sub-chamber will derive the simultaneous multi-point ignition in the main chamber. While the equivalence ratio of pre-mixture in the main chamber and the sub-chamber is uniform. We have examined the effects of the sub-chamber volume, the diameter of passage hole, and the equivalence ratio on the combustion characteristics by means of burning pressure measurement and flame visualization. In the case of radical ignition method(RI), the overall turning time including the ignition delay became very short and the maximum burning pressure was slightly increased in comparison with those of the conventional spark ignition method(SI), that is, single chamber combustion without the sub-chamber. The combustible lean limit by RI method is extended to more ER=0.25 than that by SI method. Therefore the decrease of every emission including NOx and the improvement of fuel consumption is anticipated due to lean burn.
Numerical Study on the Effect of Exhaust Flow Pattern under Real Running Condition on the Performance and Reliability of Closed-Coupled Catalyst
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 54~61
The engine-out flow is highly transient and hot, and may place tremendous thermal and inertial loads on a closed-coupled catalyst. Therefore, time-dependent and detailed flow and thermal field simulation may be crucial. The aim of this study is to develop combined chemical reaction and multi-dimensional fluid dynamic mathematical model and to study the effect of unsteady pulsating thermal and flow characteristics on thermal reliability of closed-coupled catalyst. The effect of cell density on the conversion performance under real running condition is also investigated. Unlike previous studies, the present study focuses on coupling between the problems of pulsating flow pattern and catalyst thermal response and conversion efficiency. The results are expressed in terms of temporal evolution of flow, pollutant and temperature distribution as well as transient characteristics of conversion efficiency. Fundamental understanding of the flow and thermal phenomena of closed-coupled catalyst under real running condition is presented. It is shown that instants of significantly low values of flow uniformity and conversion efficiency exist during exhaust blowdown and the temporal varaition of flow uniformity is very similar in pattern to one of conversion efficiency. It is also found that the location of hot spot in monolith is directly affected by transient flow pattern in closed-coupled catalyst.
The Effect of Simultaneous Application with Biodiesel and ULSD on Exhaust Emissions and DOC
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 62~68
To comply with stringent exhaust emission standards, it is necessary to reserch on some better quality of automotive fuels. Sulfur in fuels is sulfur compound by DOC and then it caused to the increase of PM on the surface of the catalyst. This research is focused on diesel emission characteristics and poisoning effect on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst when Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel(ULSD) and biodiesel are applied simultaneously. The biodiesel is used to improve viscosity of fuel specially in fuel injection system of engine since the introduction of ULSD may degrade viscosity in the process of desulfurization. Furthermore, this study may provide some basic data for the design of emissions reduction technology.
Numerical Study on the Droplet Vaporization Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether(DME) Droplet
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 69~75
The present study is numerically investigated for the high pressure effects on the vaporization process of the DME droplet. The evaporation rate of DME droplets is about twice that of dodecane droplets at the same chamber condition. The DM droplet vaporization characteristics is parametrically studied for the wide range of the operating conditions encountered with the high pressure combustion process.
Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on the Performance and Exhaust Emissions in IDI Diesel Engine Using Biodiesel Fuel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 76~82
Biodiesel fuel(BDF) which is easily produced from vegetable oils such as soybean oil and rice bran oil can be effectively used as an alternative fuel in diesel engine. However, BDF can affect the performance and emissions in diesel engine because it has different chemical and physical properties from diesel fuel. To investigate the effects of injection timing on the characteristics of performance and emissions with BDF in IDI diesel engine, BDF derived from rice bran oil was considered in this study. The engine was operated at six different injection timings and six loads at a single engine speed of 2000rpm. When the injection timing was retarded, better results were obtained, which may confirm the advantage of BDF. The reduction of NOx and smoke was observed for a 2
retarded injection timing without any sacrifice of BSEC.
Development of a Rapid Compression Expansion Machine and Compression Ignition Combustion of Homogeneous Premixtures
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 83~90
A flywheel-driven rapid compression and expansion machine is developed and utilized for experimental study of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. Compression ignition of homogeneous charge in IC engines offers possibilities of realizing ultra-lean engine operation with greatly reduced NOx and particulate formation. Fundamental investigations are carried out in order to better understand this ideal engine combustion mechanism. Perfectly premixed propane-air mixtures of various equivalence ratio are compression-ignited in the rapid compression and expansion machine, and the characteristics of the auto-ignition and the following combustion process are analyzed.
CFD Analysis for the Flow Phenomena of the Narrow Channels in Plate Heat Exchanger for Intercooler
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 91~100
Plate heat exchangers (PHE) have been widely used in different industrial applications, because of high heat transfer efficiency per unit volume. Basic study is performed for PHE to the application of intercooler in automobile. In order to understand the flow phenomena in the plate heat exchanger, a channel which was formed by the upper and lower plate in single plate was considered as calculation domains. Because chevrons attached on the upper plate are brazed with chevrons attached on the lower plate, the flow channel has very complex configuration. This complex geometry was analyzed by Fluent. In order to validate this methodology the proper experimental and theoretical data are collected and compared with numerical results. Finally, due to the lack of experimental values for PHE to the application of intercooler, various chevron angles and air velocities at inlet were tested in terms of physical phenomena. From this point of view, results of velocity vector, path lines, static pressure, heat flux, heat transfer coefficient, and Nusselt number are physically reasonable and accepted for the solutions. From these results, the correlations for pressure drop and Nusselt number with respect to chevron angle and Reynolds number in specific PHE are obtained for the design purpose. Thus, the methodology of the flow analysis in the full geometry of the channel was established for the predictions of performance in plate heat exchanger.
CFD Analysis on the Continuous and Variable Damping Characteristics of a Semi-Active Shock Absorber
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 101~108
Recently, a semi-active shock absorber has been taking interest because of its low cost and simple structure than the active one. CFD analysis has been conducted to investigate the continuous and variable damping characteristics of the semi-active shock absorber. Also, the flow resistance characteristics of a spool valve has been examined to identify individual parameters(namely, exponent and discharge coefficient) of pressure-flow rate relation needed for the accurate valve modeling. The flow field in the damping valve was simulated using the commercial code, CFX-5.3. The numerical results showed reasonable agreement with the experimental outputs. The pressure distribution with the variation of spool opening length and volume flow rate were discussed in detail. And the continuous and variable damping performance was found clearly. The individual parameters of spool valve were obtained as a function of orifice area. The exponent and discharge coefficient were fitted in with the first and the third polynomial respectively.
Reduction in Pressure Ripples for a Bent-Axis Piston Pump
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 109~116
Bent-axis piston pump have been commonly used in hydraulic systems because of high pressure level, best efficiency, low shear force on pistons and low operating costs. The other side, they have a few demerits like that they have the relatively high number of moving parts and more discharge pressure ripples. Especially, the discharge pressure ripples bring about vibrations and noises in hydraulic system components such as connecting pipes and control valves, so that these deteriorate the stability and accuracy of the systems. Therefore, the hydraulic systems having the bent-axis piston pump require the methods to reduce the discharge pressure ripples. So, the purpose of this paper is to reduce the discharge pressure ripples by the phase interference of pressure wave and to develope the analysis model of the pumps to predict the discharge pressure ripples. In this paper, the analysis model of the bent-axis piston pump was developed using the AMESim software, and the reliability of that was verified by the comparison with the experimental results. The hydraulic pipeline with a parallel line was used as the method to generate the phase interference of pressure wave. the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic pipeline with a parallel line were analyzed by a transfer matrix method. the usefulness of the phase interference of pressure wave was investigated through the experiment and simulation. The results from the experiment and simulation said that the phase interference of pressure wave by the hydraulic pipeline with a parallel line could reduce the discharge pressure wave of the pump well. The analysis model of the bent-axis piston pump developed in this paper and the method of the phase interference by the hydraulic pipeline with a parallel line are expected to be helpful to achieve the design of the pump and to reduce the discharge pressure wave of the pump effectively.
The Study on the Fatigue Life Prediction on Wheels through CAE
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 117~122
The fatigue life in wheels was predicted by simulating the experimental method using Finite-Element analysis. Based on a high frequency fatigue property, calculations of the stresses in wheels were performed by simulating the rotating bending fatigue test. Wheels made of an aluminum alloy(A356.2) were tested using a bending fatigue tester. Results from bending fatigue test showed a linear correlation between bending moment and stress amplitude. Consequently, Finite-Element calculations were performed by a linear analysis. In order to find stress-cycles curves, spoke parts of wheel were tested using a rotary bending fatigue tester. Also, highly accurate Finite-Element analysis requires regression lines and confidence intervals from these results. In conclusion, if the fatigue data related to the material and manufacturing procedure are reliable, the prediction on fatigue lift in wheels can be carried out with high accuracy.
A Study for the Reliability Based Design Optimization of the Automobile Suspension Part
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 123~130
The automobile suspension system is composed of parts that affect performances of a vehicle such as ride quality, handling characteristics, straight performance and steering effort, etc. Moreover, by using the finite element analysis the cost for the initial design step can be decreased. In the design of a suspension system, usually system vibration and structural rigidity must be considered simultaneously to satisfy dynamic and static requirements simultaneously. In this paper, we consider the weight reduction and the increase of the first eigen-frequency of a suspension part, the upper control arm, especially using topology optimization and size optimization. Firstly, we obtain the initial design to maximize the first eigen-frequency using topology optimization. Then, we apply the multi-objective parameter optimization method to satisfy both the weight reduction and the increase of the first eigen-frequency. The design variables are varying during the optimization process for the multi-objective. Therefore, we can obtain the deterministic values of the design variables not only to satisfy the terms of variation limits but also to optimize the two design objectives at the same time. Finally, we have executed reliability based optimal design on the upper control arm using the Monte-Carlo method with importance sampling method for the optimal design result with 98％ reliability.
Robust Design of a Driver-Side Airbag Using the Taguchi Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 131~138
In the proto design stage of a new car, the performances of an occupant protection system can be evaluated by CAE even though the real test should be carried out. The number of the real test is reduced by the exact predictions followed by the appropriate design recommendation. However, the existing researches using CAE in predicting the performances do not consider the uncertainties of parameters. That often leads to inconsistency between test and CAE. In this research, the robust design of a protection system such as airbag and load limiter is suggested considering the frontal crash. The parameter design scheme of the Taguchi method is introduced to obtain the robust design of arbitrary airbag and load limiter. It is performed based on the frontal crash test condition of US-NCAP with an arbitrary passenger car. The variances of the performances such as HIC, chest acceleration and probability of combined injury are calculated by the outer array and the Taylor series expansion. Through the analysis of the Taguchi method, the robust optimum is determined.
Engine Control TCS using Throttle Angle Control and Estimated Load Torque
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 139~147
The purpose of engine control TCS is to regulate engine torque to keep driven wheel slip in a desired range. In this paper, engine control TCS using sliding mode control law based on engine model and estimated load torque is proposed. This system includes a two-level controller. Slip controller calculates desired wheel torque, and engine torque controller determines throttle angle for engine torque corresponding to desired wheel torque. Another issue is to measure load torque for model based controller design. Luenberger observer with state variables of load torque and engine speed solves this problem as estimating load torque. The performance of controller and observer is certificated by simulation using 8-degree vehicle model, Pacejka tire model, and 2-state engine model. The simulation results in various maneuvers during slippery and split road conditions showed that acceleration performance and ability of the vehicle with TCS is improved. Also, the load torque observer could estimate real load torque very well, so its performance was proved.
Vibration Mode of the Drivesystem Considered the Vehicle Body's Dynamic Characteristics
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 148~159
This paper discusses vibration mode of the drivesystem considered the vehicle body's dynamic characteristics to study the influence of the vehicle body's dynamic characteristics on the vibration mode of the engine mount system and the ride quality of a vehicle. The simulation model consists of the engine mount system, the powertrain and the rigid or elastic vehicle body. Variables used in this study are the stiffnesses of an engine mount system and the excitation forces. The Goals of the study are analyzing both the vibration transmitted to the vehicle body including the drivesystem and the influence of the vehicle body's dynamic characteristics on the engine mount system. The mode of drivesystems with a rigid and a elastic vehicle body was compared. From the result of the forced vibration analysis for the drivesystem with a elastic vehicle body, it is shown that the vehicle body's dynamic characteristics influence on the engine mount system reciprocally.
Analysis of the Effect of Contact Stiffness on the Out-of-plane Motion of a Disc Brake System using 2-DOE Model
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 160~167
A two degree-of-freedom mathematical model is presented to investigate the friction mechanism of a disc brake system. A contact parameter is introduced to describe the coupling between the in-plane and the out-of-plane motions. The model with the contact parameter is considered under the assumption that the out-of-plane motion depends on the friction force along the in-plane motion. In order to describe the relationship between the friction force and the out-of plane motion, the dynamic friction coefficient is considered as a function of both relative velocity and normal farce. Using this friction law, a contact stiffness matrix along the normal direction can be obtained. The out-of-plane motion is then investigated by both the stability analysis and the numerical analysis for various parametric conditions. The results show that the stiffness parameters of the pad and the disc must be controlled at the same time. Also, the numerical analysis shows the existence of limit cycle caused by the effect of intermittent contact stiffness.
A New Shift Algorithm using a Longitudinal Accelerometer
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 168~174
A shift algorithm of an automatic transmission is decided by the compromise between the performance and the fuel economy of the vehicle. But because in the traditional shia algorithm, throttle opening and vehicle speed are used to decide the shift points, the actual load of the vehicle is not exactly considered. In this paper, to consider the actual load, that is, the road grade and the vehicle acceleration, the longitudinal accelerometer is used to decide the shift points. As the result, the performance and the fuel economy of the vehicle which adapts the new shift algorithm are shown better than the traditional one.
Development of Automotive Braking Performance Analysis Program Considering Dynamic Characteristic
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 175~181
Analysis of brake characteristics has progressed rapidly in recent years, as computer techniques have developed. However, there are many problems in predicting braking characteristics, due to the numerous design variables of the brake system. Therefore, a synthetic braking performance analysis is required for all brake system parts such as master cylinder, booster, control valve and split system. In this paper, a program which can analyze braking performance such as force distribution, braking efficiency, pedal force and pedal travel, is presented. The preprocessor of the program helps users prepare input files through a dialog box. An additional postprocessor makes the graph presentation of solved results. Also, a simple example problem is applied to show the usefulness of the presented program.
Characteristics of Ultrasonic Test on Interfaces of Adhesively Bonded Components
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 182~189
The application of adhesively bonded components is increasing in various industries such as automobile, aircraft, IC packages, and soldering techniques. In spite of such wide application in adhesively bonded components, nondestructive test techniques applying to adhesively bonded components have not been clearly established yet. In this paper, characteristics of ultrasonic test on interfaces of adhesively bonded components have been investigated by calculating transmission coefficient theoretically and experimentally. From the experimental results, the optimum conditions to establish frequencies for adhesively bonded homogeneous and dissimilar components are 4∼6 MHz and 2∼4 MHz, respectively.
Optical Design of Reflector of Automotive Headlamp
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 190~196
ACR(All Clear Reflector), also widely referred to as FFR(Free Form Reflector), were designed in general and intelligent ways using a NUDBS surface for the mathematical modelling of the reflector shape and artificial intelligence as the optimum design algorithm. An ACR, which consists of a continuous surface reflector and clear outer lens, offers styling advantages and provides a high quality light performance. The clear outer lens of an ACR remains efficient even with a highly inclined shape, as in the design of a sports car, as well as the complete clearness of the reflector surface eliminates the nuisance of stray light caused by the steps between adjacent segments of multi-faced reflectors. The application of an ACR to low beam lamp was so sucessful to obtain the sharp cut-off with the lens-free single-surfaced-smooth reflector. The design technique of ACR was tested with all types of lamps, including low beams, high beams, and fog lamps.
A Study on the Circuit Composition and Characteristics Analysis for Heavy-Duty Vehicular Hybrid Hydraulic Driving System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 197~204
An accumulator in hydraulic systems stores kinetic energy during braking action, and then that controls hasty surge pressure. An energy recovery system using accumulator seems to be advantageous for ERBS due to its high energy density. This study suggests a method to decide suitable accumulator volume for ERBS. The method is based upon energy conservation between kinetic energy of moving inertia and elastic energy of accumulator. The energy conversion was analyzed and a simple formula was derived. Also accumulator tests were conducted for different load mass and motor speed. A series of test work were carried out in the laboratory and the dynamic characteristics of the hydraulic motor system, such as the surge pressure and response time, were investigated in both brake action and acceleration action and these results show that the proposed design is effective for decision accumulator volume in ERBS.
Development of an Automobile Black Box for Reconstruction Analysis of Collision Accidents
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 2, 2004, Pages 205~214
This paper presents design concepts, specifications and performances of a newly developed Black Box, the reconstruction analysis tool with the records, and results of validation tests. The Black Box can detect crash accidents automatically, and record the vehicle's motion and driver's maneuvers during a pre-defined time period before and after the accident. The items of the Black Box included the acceleration, yaw-rate, vehicle speed, engine RPM, braking application, steering and several digital inputs for recording driver's maneuvers. To detect the accident-related-crash, it is important to understand characteristics of the crash signal, which are much different from those of normal driving. Therefore, analytical considerations should be taken in designing pre-filtering circuits and selecting appropriate parameters for identifying crash accidents. And, it is necessary to select proper combination of motion sensors and design proper pre-filtering circuits in order to describe the vehicle's motion. The analysis algorithms were developed and implemented which can perform accurate detection of crash accidents, simulating pre-crash trajectories, and calculating parameters for reconstruction analysis of crash accidents. The developed Black Box was installed on passenger cars and several types of validation tests were conducted. Through the tests, the accuracy of the recorded data and usefulness of the analysis tool for reconstruction have been validated.