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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Nov 2004
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Sep 2004
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Jul 2004
Volume 12, Issue 3 - May 2004
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of HC Emissions by Starting Conditions in an SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 1~9
During the SI engine starting up, starting conditions directly contribute to the unburned hydrocarbon emissions in spark ignition engines. The effects of catalyst temperatures and fuel injection skip methods on HC emissions were investigated. The test was conducted on a 1.5 L, 4-cylinder, 16 valve, multipoint-port-fuel-injection gasoline engine. To understand the formation of HC emissions, HC concentration was measured in an exhaust port using a Fast Response Flame ionization Detector (FRFID). The result showed that HC emissions, which were emitted at the cold coolant and catalyst temperature, were generated much higher than those of hot coolant and catalyst temperatures. In additions, fuel injection skips reduced highly HC emissions. It is convinced that optimized fuel injection skip method according to coolant and catalyst temperatures could be applied to reduce HC emissions during the SI engine starts.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Mixture Distribution in the Constant Volume Combustion Chamber on the Combustion Characteristics
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 10~18
It is well known that the stratified charge combustion has many kind of advantages to combustion characteristics, such as higher thermal efficiency and less CO, NOx levels than conventional homogeneous mixture combustion. Although this combustion can be caused low fuel consumption, it is produced the high unburned hydrocarbon and soot levels because of different equivalence ratio in the combustion chamber. Moreover it has a lot of possibility of low output and misfire if the mixture gas would not be in existence around the spark plug. In this paper, fundamental studies for stratified combustion were carried out using a constant volume combustion chamber. The effect of locally mixture gas distribution according to control the direct injection and premixed injection in the chamber were examined experimentally. In addition, the effects of turbulence on stratified charge combustion process were observed by schlieren photography.
A Study on the Combustion Characteristics of Lean Mixture by Radicals Induced Injection in a Constant Volume Combustor (2)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 19~26
A prior fundamental study was executed using a constant volume chamber to improve the burning properties of lean pre-mixture by the injection of active radicals generated in the sub-chamber. In consequence, RI method shows remarkable progress in the aspects of burning velocity and combustible lean limit compared with SI method. In this study, the necessary additional works have been performed to be based on the former results. We changed parameters as the initial temperature and the initial pressure of mixture. And the effects of residual gas at issue in a real engine were investigated. As a result, the effects of initial temperature were significant, but on the other hand, those of initial pressure were slight. The correlation of passage hole number between overall passage hole area was grasped. And the more detailed analysis is required on residual gas.
A Study on the Performance Prediction of Automotive Water Pump with Double Discharge Single Suction
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 27~36
A Numerical analysis has been used to predict the performance in the automotive water pump with double discharge single suction. The influence of parameters such as coolant flow rate, rotational speed, ratio of blade height and clearance has been investigated. Also, the prediction of hydraulic performances such as static pressure rise, shaft power, hydraulic power and pump efficiency is carried out on the water pump including an impeller and a volute casing. A full size water pump test bench has been developed to validate the CFD flow model. Discharge flow rate, suction pressure, discharge pressure, rotational speed and torque measurements are provided. Coolant temperature is 8
, water tank pressure is 1 kgf/
and flow rates vary.
The Effect of Engine Tilting Conditions on the Oil Supply System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 37~43
Engine lubrication system is generally affected by vehicle driving conditions; acceleration, braking deceleration, and cornering. The oil supply system such as oil pan, baffle plate, and oil pick-up pipe should be optimized to cope with severe driving conditions. The main purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of the engine tilting angle on the oil supply system using engine tilting test rig. For the purpose, the oil pressure fluctuation and oil aeration in the main gallery are measured at various engine tilting angles. In addition, the oil flow is visualized by using transparent oil pan to investigate the cause of the formation of oil aeration. The test results show there is a strong correlation between the main gallery oil pressure fluctuation and oil aeration. It is also found that the visualization technique is helpful to stabilize the oil supply system at severe driving conditions.
The Numerical Study on Breakup and Vaporization Process of GDI Spray under High-Temperature and High-Pressure Conditions
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 44~50
The purpose of this study is to improve the prediction ability of the atomization and vaporization processes of GDI spray under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. Several models have been introduced and compared. The atomization process was modeled using hybrid breakup model that is composed of Conical Sheet Disintegration (CSD) model and Aerodynamically Progressed TAB(APTAB) model. The vaporization process was modeled using Spalding model, modified Spalding model and Abramzon ＆ Sirignano model. Exciplex fluorescence method was used for comparing the calculated with the experimental results. The experiment and calculation were performed at the ambient pressure of 0.5 MPa and 1.0 MPa and the ambient temperature of 473k. Comparison of caldulated and experimental spray characteristics was carried out and Abramzon ＆ Sirignano model and modified Spalding model had the better prediction ability for vaporization process than Spalding model.
An Optimization Technique for Diesel Engine Combustion Using a Micro Genetic Algorithm
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 51~58
Optimization of engine desist and operation parameters using a genetic algorithm was demonstrated for direct injection diesel engine combustion. A micro genetic algorithm and a modified KIVA-3V code were used for the analysis and optimization of the engine combustion. At each generation of the optimization step the micro genetic algorithm generated five groups of parameter sets, and the five cases of KIVA-3V analysis were to be performed either in series or in parallel. The micro genetic algorithm code was also parallelized by using MPI programming, and a multi-CPU parallel supercomputer was used to speed up the optimization process by four times. An example case for a fixed engine speed was performed with six parameters of intake swirl ratio, compression ratio, fuel injection included angle, injector hole number, SOI, and injection duration. A simultaneous optimization technique for the whole range of engine speeds would be suggested for further studies.
Numerical Study on the Effect of the Wall Curvature on the Behaviors of the Impinging Sprays
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 59~65
In this paper a numerical study was performed for the effect of the wall curvature on the behaviors of fuel sprays impinging on the concave Surface. Actually, in the real diesel engines, a piston head has a curved shape for the purpose of the controlling the movement of fuel droplets and the mixture formation. For past decades, although many experimental and numerical works had been performed on the spray/wall impingement phenomena, the curvature effect of impinged wall was rarely investigated. The wall curvature affects on the behaviors of the secondary droplets generated by impingement and the concave wall obstructs the droplets to advance from the impinging site to outward. In present study, the simulation code was validated for the flat surface case and three cases of the different curvature were calculated and compared with the flat surface case for several parameters, such as the spray radius, the spray height and the position of vortex center of gas phase. The simulation results showed that the radial advance of the wall spray and the vortex is decreased with increasing the curvature. It was concluded that the curvature of the impinged wall significantly affects the behaviors of both the gas-phase and the droplet-phase.
A Study on the Characteristics of DPF System of Peugeot 607 Diesel Passenger Car
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 66~74
DPF technology has been considered as one of the most effective methods for reducing diesel particulate emission. PSA Peugeot Citroen introduced the DPF equipped diesel passenger car, Peugeot 607 HDI Sedan, in 2000 for the first time in the world, in which SiC filter, an oxidation catalyst, cerium based fuel born catalyst and post-injection technology were used for PM regeneration. In the present study, the characteristics of the Peugeot 607 DPF system were studied on chassis dynamometer and real road driving conditions. The change of emissions and fuel economy during 80,000km operation were also tested. Additionally, ash contents accumulated in the DPF filter was analyzed and particle size distributions was investigated after running of 80,000km.
A Study on the Ignition Characteristics at Constant Volume Combustion Chamber of LPG
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 75~82
The allowable exhaust standard has been intensified as a part of the countermeasure to decrease air pollution in the world. As the cars with an alternative fuel starts to get into the spotlight, the cars with low emission has been introduced and exhaust gas regulation forced in this country. These days, LPG vehicles, which infrastructure of fuel was already built up, and CNG vehicles are recognized for alternative fuel cars in this country. In this study, the constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and used for experiments to obtain the ignition characteristics of LPG fuel and the optimal ignition energy. The experiment measured the combustion characteristics, in regard to the change of combustion variable, and the change of ignition energy. During the combustion of fuel, the maximum temperature inside the combustion chamber is higher when the initial pressure is higher. The burning velocity also seems to have the same characteristic as the temperature. However, the heat flux did not change much with the theoretical correct mixture but the various initial temperature of the combustion chamber. The heat flux got faster and ignition energy bigger as the dwell time of the ignition system expanded. When the dwell time get longer, the ignition energy also increased then fixed. The ignition energy increased as the initial pressure inside the combustion chamber higher. The heat flux got faster as the dwell time expanded.
A Study on the NOx Removal in Multiple Plasma/Catalyst Combined Reactor
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 83~90
Plasma/catalyst combined reactor was designed to overcome the limits of plasma and catalyst technologies. Optimum reductant and catalyst was selected from screening test. Experiments about the concentrations of reactant and
and the effect of temperature were carried out. Hydrocarbons with double bond such as propylene and so on were more reactive than any other reductants in plasma/catalyst condition. Photocatalyst, especially hombikat >
with the largest surface area among the catalysts tested, showed the highest DeNOx efficiency in plasma/catalyst reaction. As the concentration of
increased, the removal of NO was enhanced. The increased concentration of >
promoted the reaction of NO which was oxidized to
A Study on the Development of Aluminum Seat Frame for Commercial Bus
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 91~100
This study presents the development of a new aluminum seat frame for the commercial bus. Back moment and seat belt anchorage analysis of the conventional steel seat frame was conducted as a base model. Effective aluminum section dimensions for aluminum pipe were calculated from equivalent stiffness and equivalent weight study. Back moment and seat belt anchorage strength with the developed aluminum seat frame were compared to those of the base model. Additionally, to pass the fatigue test, shape modification of side frame assembly was conducted. From this study we could reduce the weight of seat frame more than 5 kg. And the current analysis model and procedure can provide useful informations in designing a new commercial car seat and can reduce the overall design cost and time.
The Shape Optimization of a Torque Converter Lock-up Clutch Using the B-Spline and Finite Element Mesh Smoothing
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 101~108
A FEM-based efficient method is developed for the shape optimization of 2-D structures. The combined SLP and Simplex method are coupled with finite element analysis. Selected set of master nodes on the design boundaries are employed as design variables and assigned to move towards their normal directions. The other nodes along the design boundaries are grouped into the master node. By interpolating the repositioned master nodes, the B-spline curves are formed so that the rest mid-nodes efficiently settle down on the B-spline curves. Mesh smoothing scheme is also applied for the nodes on the design boundary to maintain most finite elements in good quality. Finally, a numerical implementation of optimum design of an automobile torque converter piston subjected to pressure and centrifugal loads is presented. The results shows additional weight up to 13% may be saved after the shape optimization.
Structure Borne Durability Design of a Vehicle Body Structure
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 109~121
This paper presents an optimal design method for structure-borne durability of a vehicle body structure. Structure-borne durability design requires a new design that can increase fatigue lives of critical areas in a structure and must prohibit transition phenomenon of critical areas that results from modification of the structure at the same time. Therefore, the optimization problem fur structure-borne durability design are consists of an objective function and design constraints of 2 types; type 1-constraint that increases fatigue lives of the critical areas to the required design limits and type 2-constraint that prohibits transition phenomenon of critical areas. The durability design problem is generally dynamic because a designer must consider the dynamic behavior such as fatigue analyses according to the structure modification during the optimal design process. This design scheme, however, requires such high computational cost that the design method cannot be applicable. For the purpose of efficiency of the durability design, we presents a method which carry out the equivalent static design problem instead of the dynamic one. In the proposed method, dynamic design constraints for fatigue life, are replaced to the equivalent static design constraints for stress/strain coefficients. The equivalent static design constraints are computed from static or eigen-value analyses. We carry out an optimal design for structure-borne durability of the newly developed bus and verify the effectiveness of the proposed method by examination of the result.
A Study on FEM Analysis Method for Life Evaluation of Forging Steel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 122~129
In plastic working, as working becomes speedy, automatic and working condition deteriorates, the increase of forging working has been remarkable. Therefore, we need the estimation of mold lift in detail, in order to counterplan of effective mold life extension. In this study, on the SKH51, mold steel which is forged by cold working and the KCW1, tool steel of low alloy, we estimated mold life on the base of FEM analysis and investigated mold lift by low cycle fatigue test. Also, this paper suggested a new method of estimation of mold lift.
A Study on the Structural Strength of the Rolling Stock Seat Frame
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 130~138
In this paper, the structural strength of a rolling stock seat were numerically evaluated under several design load conditions based on the UIC requirements. The rot]ins stock seat was designed for the high speed train of a Chinese conventional line. To maximize its weight reduction and structural strength, an aluminium alloy, ALDC8-T5, was applied to the base frame, side frames and armrests. The designed seat frame satisfied the strength requirements on inertia loads and fatigue test conditions. However, it couldn't satisfy the requirements on the static test conditions of UIC 566 OR. Therefore, some design modifications were suggested and numerically evaluated whether the static test requirements could be satisfied or not.
A Study on the Plastic Zone of the Specimen at the Impact of Dynamic Load
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 139~144
Dynamic crack initiation in ductile steel is investigated by means of impact loaded 3 point bend(PB) specimens. Results from non-viscoplastic and viscoplastic materials are compared. Their materials are applied with various impact velocities and static strain rates. The specimen has the size 320
750 mm with a thickness of 10 mm. A modified 3PB specimen design with reduced width at the ends has been developed in order to avoid the initial compressive load of the crack tip and also to avoid the uncertain boundary conditions at the impact heads. Numerical simulations are made by using the FEM code ABAQUS. Therefore, their results are plotted by shapes of the von Mises plastic stress and equivalent plastic strain of the specimens applied by various impact velocities.
Design of Ratio Control Valve for a Pressure Control Type CVT Using P-Line
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 145~151
In this paper, a pressure control type ratio control valve(RCV) is designed for a metal belt CVT. Steady state and transient characteristics of the pressure control CVT are investigated by simulations and experiments. In addition, P-line is proposed to predict the shift performance. It is found that the bigger the pressure margin, the faster the shift response. It is expected that the P-line can be used in design of the RCV to meet the desired shift performance.
Characteristics of Fin-Side Heat-Transfer and Pressure Drop in a Condenser for Automobile
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 152~158
An experimental study was performed to determine the fin-side heat transfer and pressure drop of a condenser for automobile. Five sample with different fin height and louver angle were tested, 9mm, 8mm, 7.5mm, 5.4mm and 4.5mm. Results are presented as plot of Colburn j-factor(or heat transfer coefficients) and friction factor(or pressure drop) against the Reynolds number(or inlet air velocity) based on louver pitch, in the range of 110 to 480. The results show that both heat transfer and pressure drop on the fin are mainly affected by the louver angle in a lower range of air velocity, but, by the fin height in a higher range of air velocity. The performance of 5.4mm fin is the highest, compared to other fin sample.
Integration Control of Air-Cell Seat and Semi-active Suspension Using Sliding Perturbation Observer Design
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 159~169
In this study, integration control of air-cell seat and semi-active suspension is proposed to minimize the road-tyre force which can cause uncomfortable feeling to rider. The proposed integration control with sliding perturbation observer is consisted of air-cell seat control which uses the force generated by air-cell and the sky-hook control. The air-cell seat itself has been modeled as a 1 degree of freedom spring-damper system. The actual characteristics of the air-cell have been analyzed through experiments. In this paper, we introduces a new robust motion control algorithm using partial state feedback for a nonlinear system with modelling uncertainties and external disturbances. The major contribution of this work is the development and design of robust observer for the state and the perturbation. The combination skyhook controller and air-cell controller using the observer improves control performance, because of the robust routine called Sliding Observer Design for Integration Control of Air-Cell Seat and Semi-active Suspension. The simulation results show a high accuracy and a good performance.
Dynamic Characteristics Modeling for A MR Damper using Artifical Neural Network
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 170~176
MR dampers show highly nonlinear and histeretic dynamic behavior. Therefore, for a vehicle dynamic simulation with MR dampers, this dynamic characteristics should be accurately reflected in the damper model. In this paper, an artificial neural network technique was developed for modeling MR dampers. This MR damper model was successfully verified through a random input forcing test. This MR damper model can be used for semi-active suspension vehicle dynamics and control simulations with practical accuracy.
Numerical Simulation of OOP(Out-of-Position) Problem with
Percentile Female F.E Model
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 177~183
The out-of-positioned small female drivers are most likely to be injured during airbag deployment due to their stature and proximity to the steering wheel and airbag module. In order to investigate the injury mechanisms, some experimental studies with Hybrid III 5% female dummy and with female cadavers could be found from the open literatures. However, the given information from those experimental studies is quite limited to the standard conditions and might not be enough to estimate the airbag inflation aggressiveness regarding on the occupant responses and injury. In this study, a finite element analysis has been performed in order to investigate the airbag-induced injuries. A finite element 5% female human model in anatomical details has been developed. The validation results of the model are also introduced in this paper.
Development of an Inspection Machine for Automotive Oil-Seals Using Machine Vision
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 184~191
In this study, an inspection system for automotive parts using machine vision has been developed and presented. The system is comprised of six analog CCD cameras, frame grabber, and mechanism that loads the automotive parts to the system for the inspection. An Image processing algorithm for detecting eight different types of defects of oil-seals are developed, and the effectiveness of the algorithm is experimentally verified. Inspection process is completed in 1 second with acceptable accuracy. It is envisaged that this inspection system will have a wide application in the automotive part manufacturing industry in the future.
Serration Behavior of AA5l82/Polypropylene/AA5182 Sandwich Sheets
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 192~203
The AA5182/polypropylene/AA5182 (AA/PP/AA) sandwich sheets have been developed for the application for automotive body panels in the future light weight vehicles with significant weight reduction. It has been reported that the 5182 aluminum sheet shows Luders band because of dissolved Mg atoms that causes fabrication process problem, especially surface roughness. The examination of serration behavior has been made after the tensile deformation of the AA/PP/AA sandwich sheets as well as that of the 5182 aluminum skin at room and elevated temperatures. All sandwich sheets and the 5182 aluminum skin showed serration phenomena on their flow curves. However, the magnitude of the serration was significantly diminished in the sandwich sheet with the high volume fraction of the polypropylene core. According to the results of the surface roughness analysis after the tensile test, the sandwich sheet evidently showed lower Luders band depth than the 5182 aluminum skin. Strain rate sensitivity, m-value, of the 5182 aluminum skin was -0.006. By attaching this skin with polypropylene core which has relatively large positive value, 0.050, m-value of the sandwich sheets was changed to the positive value. The serration reduction of the sandwich sheets was quantitatively investigated in the point of the effect on the polypropylene core thickness variation, that on the strain rate sensitivity. It was found that the serration reduction degree from the experimental results of the sandwich sheet was higher than that from the calculated values by the rule of mixture based on volume fraction of the skins and the core.
Characterization of the Material Properties of Sheet Metal for Auto-body at the High Strain Rate Considering the Pre-strain Effect
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 3, 2004, Pages 204~210
Most auto-body members fabricated by the sheet metal forming process. During this process the thickness and material properties of the sheet metal are changed with the residual stress and plastic strain. This paper deals with the material properties of the sheet metal at the high strain rate considering the pre-strain effect. Specimens are selected from sheet metals for outer panels and inner members, such as SPCEN, SPRC45E, SPRC35R and EZNCD. The specimens are prepared with the pre-strain of 2, 5 and 10 % by tensile elongation in Instron 5583, which could be equivalent to the plastic strain in sheet metal forming. High speed tensile tests are then carried out with the pre-stained specimens at the strain rate of 1 to 100/sec. The experimental result informs that the material properties are noticeably influenced by the pre-strain when the yield stress of the specimens is moderate as SPCEN, SPRC35R and EZNCD. The result also demonstrates that the ultimate tensile strength as well as the yield stress is increased as the amount of the pre-strain is increased.