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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Nov 2004
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Sep 2004
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Jul 2004
Volume 12, Issue 3 - May 2004
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
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Lean Burn Characteristics in a Heavy Duty Liquid Phase LPG Injection SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 1~11
Combustion and fuel distribution characteristics of heavy duty engine with the liquid phase LPG injection(LPLI) were studied in a single cylinder engine, Swirl ratio were varied between 1.2, 2.3, and 3.4 following Ricardo swirl number(Rs) definition, Rs=2.3 showed the best results with lower cycle-by-cycle variation and shorter burning duration in the lean region while strong swirl(Rs=3.4) made these worse for combustion enhancement. Excessive swirl resulted in reverse effects due to high heat transfer and initial flame kernel quenching. Fuel injection timings were categorized with open valve injection(OVI) and closed valve injection(CVI). Open valve injection showed shorter combustion duration and extended lean limit. The formation of rich mixture in the spark plug vicinity was achieved by open valve injection. With higher swirl strength(Rs=3.4) and open valve injection, the cloud of fuel followed the flow direction and the radial air/fuel mixing was limited by strong swirl flow. It was expected that axial stratification was maintained with open-valve injection if the radial component of the swirling motion was stronger than the axial components. The axial fuel stratification and concentration were sensitive to fuel injection timing in case of Rs=3.4 while those were relatively independent of the injection timing in case of Rs=2.3.
A Study on Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions in a Diesel Engine with Improved Rice Bran Oils as a Fuel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 12~23
The effects of improved rice bran oil on the characteristics of exhaust emissions have been experimentally examined by a single cylinder, four cycle, direct injection, water-cooled agricul-tural diesel engine operating at several loads and speeds. The experiments are conducted with light oil, rice bran oil, and improved rice bran oil as a fuel. The fuel injection timing is fixed to 22
BTDC regardless of fuel types, engine loads and speeds. To reduce the viscosity of rice bran oil, it is used with the methods of heating, methyl ester and ultrasonic system in a highly viscous rice bran oil. In this study, it is found that the brake specific fuel consumption rate of light oil is the lowest and that of improved rice bran oils is lower than that of pure rice bran oil, and NO
emissions of light oil are the lowest and those of pure rice bran oil are the high- est, while soot emissions of light oil are the highest and those of pure and improved rice bran oils are lower than that of light oil. However these results are not amply satisfied with the emissions regulation limit using the pure and improved rice bran oil as fuels in diesel engines.s.
An Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Combustion and Emission in a Gasoline Direct Injection Type HCCI Engine by Controlling Mixture Formation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 24~30
As the environmental pollution becomes serious global problem, the regulation of emission exhausted from automobiles is strengthened. Therefore, it is very important to know how to reduce the NOx and PM simultaneously in diesel engines, which has lot of merits such as high thermal efficiency, low fuel consumption and durability. By this reason, the new concept called as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition(HCCI) engines are spotlighted because this concept reduced NOx and P.M. simultaneously. However, there is trade off between output and NOx in a HCCI engine. In this study, output and emission characteristics for a gasoline direct injection type HCCI engine were investigated to clarify the effects of intake air temperature, injection time and mixture formation. From these experiments, we found that the smoke was not produced when the fuel was injected earlier than BTDC 90
. In addition, the output was increased because of delay of ignition time and NOx emission was decreased because of homogeneous charge of first injection in case of split injection.
Simultaneous NOx, PM Reduction by the Late Injection ＆ Fast Combustion Type Premixed Combustion Technology
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 31~35
A new combustion strategy called LIFC(Late Injection ＆ Fast Combustion) was developed for simultaneous reduction of particulate matter(PM) and nitrogen oxides(NOx) in exhaust emission of diesel engines, In this study, effects of injection timing and injection pressure under relatively high EGR rate were investigated. The experiments were conducted in a conventional engine over a range of commercial engine speed. The test engine could be operated in LIFC up to 2000rpm / bmep 5 bar condition with significant reduction of NOx and PM. The experimental results showed potential for the mechanism of the simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM from HSDI diesel engines.
Numerical Analysis on the Oil Film Behaviors of Connecting Rod Bearings Based on the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 34~34
The purpose of this paper is analyzing the oil film pressure distribution and the minimum oil film thickness for a connecting rod bearing using an A VL′s EXCITE program. It is very important to understand optimized oil supplying holes and oil groove dimensions for supporting sufficiently inertia forces and gas pressures from the combustion chamber for a Diesel engine. The computed results indicate that the optimized oil groove width of a bearing and oil hole of a journal are recommended for high performance of a connecting rod bearing at the elastohydrodynamic lubrication zone. These results as design parameters are very useful data for a bearing designer as a firm reference of an automotive engine.
Numerical Analysis on the Oil Film Behaviors of Connecting Rod Bearings Based on the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 36~41
The purpose of this paper is analyzing the oil film pressure distribution and the minimum oil film thickness for a connecting rod bearing using an A VL's EXCITE program. It is very important to understand optimized oil supplying holes and oil groove dimensions for supporting sufficiently inertia forces and gas pressures from the combustion chamber for a Diesel engine. The computed results indicate that the optimized oil groove width of a bearing and oil hole of a journal are recommended for high performance of a connecting rod bearing at the elastohydrodynamic lubrication zone. These results as design parameters are very useful data for a bearing designer as a firm reference of an automotive engine.
Evaluation of The Holes Reducing Buoyancy During Painting of A Truck Cab
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 42~49
When a truck cab is conveyed at a constant speed by a hanger and immersed into the painting reservoir, it may fall off from the hanger by buoyancy. In order to reduce the buoyancy, on the bottom of a cab panel are holes placed, which allow paint to flow into the inside of a cab. In this study, a differential equation is derived which can be solved numerically by using 4th-Order Runge-Kutta method to calculate transient behavior of the buoyant force with sizes and locations of the holes given. The solution is utilized to optimally determine sizes and locations of the holes.
A Study on the Durability Design of an Automotive Seat Frame
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 50~57
Structural analysis and fatigue tests have been performed to develop design and evaluation technologies of automotive seat frames. Under the back moment loading condition, the numerical simulation unveiled the maximum stress up to the yield strength at the side frame bracket. To measure the stresses under the test condition, strain gauges were attached to some weakest points of the side frames. the measured strains are in good agreements with the CAE results. On the other hand, some fatigue tests have been performed using the side frame bracket specimens made of various welding types to evaluate their durabilities. From the fatigue tests and the numerical analyses, it was recommended that the bracket welding position should be moved upward.
Effect of Peening on Low Temperature Fatigue Strength Behavior of STABILIZER BAR in Suspension Material
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 58~64
The purpose of this study is to predict the behavior of fatigue crack propagation as one of fracture mechanics on the compressive residual stress. We got the following characteristics from fatigue crack growth test carried out in the environment of room temperature and low temperature at
, and -10
in the range of stress ratio of 0.3 by means of opening mode displacement. There is a difference between shot peened specimen and unpeened specimen. Fatigue crack growth rate of shot peened specimen was lower than that of unpeened specimen. Shot peening is improve the resistance of crack growth by fatigue that make a compressive residual stress on surface. That is the constrained force about plasticity deformation was strengthened by resultant stress, which resulted from plasticity deformation and compressive residual stress in the process of fatigue crack propagation. Temperature goes down, fatigue crack growth rate decreased.
A Study on Fatigue Fracture Behaviour of Surface Crack in Finite Plates and Fillet Weldment
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 65~73
Fatigue crack growth from surface defects is one of the most important subjects for the evaluation and the assurance of safety in pressure vessels, piping systems, LPG/LNG fuel tank and other various structures. This paper attempts to analysis some practical or general problems such as the estimation of crack growth life to penetrate the plate thickness, based on fatigue crack growth a single surface flaw and the interaction of multiple flaws. An experiment on the coalescence of multiple undercuts was carried out under cyclic tension condition as a attempt to the analysis of multiple crack problems. It is noted that the fracture strength is characterized by the analogy to that in a single crack growth.
A Study on Material Substitution Design and Evaluation Method for Structural Components of Rolling Stocks
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 74~84
In this paper, a theoretical method was derived to redesign carbody members by substituting light-weight materials, and to estimate their structural characteristics. Some performance indices to estimate structural behaviors were derived in order to obtain equivalent designs in case of material substitutions under important design constraints of rolling stock, such as bending stiffness, natural frequency, bending and buckling strength. Validity of the theoretical method was evaluated by comparing its results with finite element results in some examples where the aluminium alloy was substituted for the structural steel. The numerical results of the examples show that the proposed method gives reasonable initial guesses for the material substitution designs.
The Analysis of Fatigue Damage in Structure under Variable Load
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 85~93
The variable fatigue load is simulated in this study, The stability and the life of the material are analyzed theoretically by the program of Ansys workbench. These results are successfully applied to the practical structures to predict the prevention of fracture and the endurance, The life and the damage on the every part of the fatigue specimen can be predicted. As the available lives are compared for every loading variation, the rainflow and damage matrix results can be helpful in determining the effects of small stress cycles in any loading history. The rainflow and damage matrices illustrate the possible effects of infinite life. The safety and stability of fatigue specimen according to the variable load can be estimated by using the results of this study.
Analysis of a Dynamic Rig Test Model for Truck Chassis Systems
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 94~100
A dynamic finite element analysis of a rig test model for truck chassis systems is conducted to establish an appropriate model designed to predict the fatigue life. A reference Belgian road input, which has been obtained from a field test, is imposed on the finite element model in the modal finite element analysis, and the resulting strain history is employed for the prediction of the fatigue life. This is compared with the prediction based upon the strain history measured in the field test. The two agree with each other within the limitation of the field data and the input data to the model. The high frequency responses over 50 Hz are confirmed to be negligible as far as their effect on the fatigue life is concerned.
Study on a Full-Size Tester for Manual Transmision Clutches
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 101~109
Three models with various degree-of-freedom for a manual transmission clutch full-size tester have been developed and the models' reliability and accuracy have been verified using the measured data. A simulation study has also been conducted to understand dynamic behavior of the tester. The model for this simulation study includes clutch disk friction and damper dynamics. The developed model is very accurate in terms of maximum torque exerted on the clutch, slip duration and the vibration response except a slight difference compared to the measured data. In a history graph of the clutch torque, the maximum torque response from simulation is flat but the measured is sunken with a noticeable curvature. This phenomenon is found to be irrelevant to the dynamics of the full-size tester but is originated from the characteristics of the clutch itself. Thus, the full-size tester has been proven to be a reliable tester for clutch's power and torque transmission capability. To obtain a better understanding of clutch's characteristics and relationship between full-size tester and other testing methodologies, future research directions have been suggested.
Vehicle Dynamic Simulation Using the Neural Network Bushing Model
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 110~118
In this paper, a blackbox approach is carried out to model the nonlinear dynamic bushing model. One-axis durability test is performed to describe the mechanical behavior of typical vehicle elastomeric components. The results of the tests are used to develop an empirical bushing model with an artificial neural network. The back propagation algorithm is used to obtain the weighting factor of the neural network. Since the output for a dynamic system depends on the histories of inputs and outputs, Narendra's algorithm of ‘NARMAX’ form is employed in the neural network bushing module. A numerical example is carried out to verify the developed bushing model.
Design and Implementation of Clutch-by-wire System for Automated Manual Transmissions
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 119~128
With the growing traffic density and increasing comfort requirements, the automation of the drive train will gain importance in vehicles. The automatic clutch actuation relieves the drivers especially in urban driving and stop-and-go traffic conditions. This paper describes the dynamic modeling of a clutch actuator and clutch spring. The dynamic model of the clutch system is developed using MATLAB/Simulink, and evaluated by experimental data using a test rig. This performance simulator is useful to develop the clutch-by-wire (CBW) system for an automated manual transmission (AMT). The electro-mechanical type CBW system is also implemented as an automatic clutch for AMT. The prototype of CBW system is designed and implemented systematically, which is composed of an electric motor, worm gear and slider-crank mechanism. The test rig is developed to perform the basic function test of the automatic clutch, and the developed prototype is validated by the experimental data on the test rig.
Decentralized Control of Cooperative Mobile Robot Systems Using Passive Velocity Field Control Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 129~138
In this paper, we propose a method to apply a decentralized control algorithm for passive velocity field control using virtual flywheel system to cooperative 3-wheeled mobile robots, and these subsystem are under nonholonomic constraints. The considered robotic systems convey a common rigid object in a horizontal plain. Moreover we will proof the passivity and robustness for cooperative mobile robotic systems with decentralized passive velocity field control. Finally, The effectiveness of proposed control algorithm is examined by numerical simulation for cooperation tasks with 3-wheeled mobile robot systems.
Evaluation of Vehicle Stability Control System Using Driving Simulator
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 139~145
This paper presents human-in-the-loop evaluations of vehicle stability control(VSC) system using a driving simulator. A driving simulator which contains full vehicle nonlinear model is evaluated by using actual vehicle test data on the same driving conditions. Braking control inputs for Vehicle Stability Control system have been directly derived from the sliding control law based on vehicle planar motion equations with differential braking. Closed-loop simulation results at realistic driving situations have shown that the proposed controller reduces driving effort of a driver and enhances stability of a vehicle.
Performance Simulation for a Dual Mass Flywheel using Discrete Model of Arcspring
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 146~153
This paper presents a discrete analysis approach to investigate the performance of dual mass flywheel (DMF). In the discrete analysis, arcspring installed between the flywheels is modeled as N- discrete elements. Each element consists of mass, spring and nonlinear friction element. LuGre friction model is used to describe nonlinear friction characteristic. Based on the dynamic models of the DMF, clutch, engine, manual transmission and vehicle, a DMF performance simulator is developed using MATLAB Simulink. Simulation results of the engine speed, driveshaft torque and vehicle velocity are compared with test results. It is found that the discrete DMF model describes the vehicle behavior closely, especially during the clutch actuation period.
Analysis of the Shifting Transients from the Passenger Car with an Automatic Transmission considering the Vehicle Model
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 154~162
In this study, a mathematical model for analyzing the shifting transients of the passenger car with an automatic transmission is proposed. The proposed model comprises a power transmission system and a vehicle system, which are coupled. In order to extract the modeling parameters, on-road car test is carried out. The model is composed of a detailed powertrain, an engine/AT housing, a simplified suspension system, tires and a vehicle body model. On the test, the vehicle accelerations and pitch ratio are measured by using accelerometers and a gyro sensor. The speeds, the brake signal, and the throttle position are taken from sensors which already exist in the vehicle. Considering natural ftequencies, which is calculated from the measured accelerations, and the characteristic equation, vehicle model parameters are identified. Dynamic behaviors during upshift or downshift are simulated using the proposed vehicle model. By comparing and analyzing the simulation result and on-road car test data, the vibration of the Engine/AT housing influences the shifting transients. The effect of model parameters are also studied. Among model parameters, the location of engine mountings influences the vibration of the vehicle body.
Development of the VR Simulation System for the Dynamic Characteristics of the Adaptive Cruise Controlled Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 163~172
Nowadays, to analyze the dynamic characteristics of the automotive driving system, the computer simulation linked up with VR(Virtual Reality) technology is treated as the useful method with the improvement of computing ability. In this paper, the VR simulation system has been developed to investigate the driving characteristics of the ASV(Advanced Safety Vehicle) equipped with an ACC(Adaptive Cruise Control) system. For the purpose, VR environment which generates 3D graphic and sound information of the vehicle, the road, the facilities, and the terrain has been organized for the driving reality. Mathematical models of vehicle dynamic analysis including the ACC model have been constructed for computer simulation. The ACC modulates the throttle and brake functions to regulate the vehicle speed so that vehicles could keep proper spacing. Also, the real-time simulation algorithm synchronizes vehicle dynamic simulation with the graphic rendering. With the developed VR simulation system, simple scenarios are applied to analyze the dynamic characteristics. It is shown that the VR simulation system could be useful to evaluate the adaptive cruise controlled vehicle on various driving conditions.
Finite Element Analysis on Residual Aligning Torque and Frictional Energy of a Tire with Detailed Tread Blocks
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 173~180
The tread pattern of a tire has an important effect on tire performances such as handling, wear, noise, hydroplaning and so on. However, a finite element analysis of a patterned tire with detailed tread blocks has been limited owing to the complexity of making meshes for tread blocks and the huge computation time. The computation time has been shortened due to the advance in the computer technology. The modeling of tread blocks usually requires creating a solid model using a CAD software. Therefore it is a very complicated and time-consuming job to generate meshes of a patterned tire using a CAD model. A new efficient and convenient method for generating meshes of a patterned tire has been developed. In this method, 3-D meshes of tread pattern are created by mapping 2-D meshes of tread geometry onto 3-D tread surfaces and extruding them through tread depth. Then, the tread pattern meshes are assembled with the tire body meshes by the tie contact constraint. Residual aligning torque and frictional energy are calculated by using a patterned tire model and compared to the experimental results. It is shown that the calculated results of a patterned tire model are in a good agreement with the experimental ones.
Effects of Maximum Strain and Aging Conditions on the Fatigue Life of Vulcanized Natural Rubber
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 181~190
The interest of the fatigue life of rubber components such as engine mounts is increasing according to the extension of warranty period of the automotive components. Automotive engine mounts get damaged due to thermal and mechanical loadings. This paper discusses a fatigue life prediction of the 3-dimensional dumbbell specimens for natural rubber compound considering the effects of maximum strain and heat aging temperature. Displacement controlled fatigue life tests were performed using specimens with different levels of maximum strain and various hardness. The basic mechanical properties test and the fatigue test of aged rubber specimen under normal and elevated temperature were executed. A procedure to predicted the fatigue life of vulcanized natural rubber material based on the maximum strain method was proposed, and then this curve was in good agreement with fatigue test data less than 200% error range.
Human Drivers' Driving Pattern Analysis and An Adaptive Cruise Control Strategy
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 191~197
This paper presents experimental results for human drivers' driving patterns and an Adaptive Cruise Control(ACC) strategy. Analyses have shown that female drivers' driving characteristic values such as time-gap and minimum clearance are larger than those of male drivers'. Human drivers tend to have more clearance margins at high speed than at low speed. At low speed, drivers are much more sensitive to the desired clearance than at high speed. A multi-vehicle detection method is presented to improve ride quality of an ACC. Simulation results have shown that the proposed ACC can provide superior performance compared to the ACC strategy which uses a single-vehicle detection method.
Web-based Collaborative Process and Material Planning for Automotive General Assembly
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 198~206
To ensure competitiveness in the modem automotive market, process and material planning should be performed concurrently with new car developments. In automotive general assembly shops, thus, new business workflows and supporting environments are inevitable to reduce the manufacturing preparation time in developing a new car in the manner of concurrent and collaborative engineering. Since complete material planning for a whole general assembly system is a huge and complex job, several planners should execute their planning jobs and share information. Therefore, each planner should provide others with his/her results with continuous on-line communication and cooperation. In this research, a web-based system for concurrent and collaborative process and material planning for automotive general assembly via 3D digital mock-up S/W is developed. By using this system, savings in time and cost of process and material planning are possible, and the reliability of the planning result is improved.
Fatigue Fracture of NBR-coated SUS301 Thin Plate for MLS Gasket
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 4, 2004, Pages 207~212
Full-beads of multi-layer steel engine head gaskets that are used to seal the combustion gas between the head and the block are subject to cyclic bending stresses due to the variation of the head/block gap during engine operation. The S-N curve for the fatigue durability assessment of the full-bead formed on NBR-coated SUS301 thin plate is deduced from the axial fatigue test results because of the difficulty in conducting the bending fatigue test of thin plate. The experimental verification of the deduced S-N curve is presented. It is shown that the NBR coating increases the endurance limit of the plate significantly. Mechanism of crack nucleation and propagation in the full-bead is discussed with photographs of the fatigue cracks.