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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Nov 2004
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Sep 2004
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Jul 2004
Volume 12, Issue 3 - May 2004
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
A Thermodynamic Analysis on the Performance with turning Diesel Cycle into Diesel-Atkinson Cycle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 1~11
In order to recognize thermal efficiency and power improvement in case that diesel cycle is turned into diesel-atkinson cycle, the fuel-air diesel-atkinson cycle considered gas exchange process is analyzed non-dimensionally and thermodynamically. As a result, in case of diesel-atkinson cycle, as expansion ratio is increased, thermal efficiency and mean effective pressure is increased and it has maximum value at Rec=1. When diesel cycle is turned into diesel-atkinson cycle by late intake valve closing timing, thermal efficiency and power is decreased because of the decline of effective compression ratio and intake airflow, but it could be compensated by increase of compression ratio or super-charged. In case compression ratio is compensated, Rec appears 1 around 100
ABDC, and it is expected that thermal efficiency is enhanced by 14.3% compared with conventional diesel cycle. In case compression ratio and intake airflow are compensated simultaneously, super-charged pressure is demanded 2.06bar at Rec=1 and it is more efficient when only compression ratio is compensated in the view point of thermal efficiency.
Analysis of Transient Diesel Spray with Visualization and Injection Rate Measurement
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 12~18
Transient natures of diesel sprays are often characterized with spray visualization, since it is a non-intrusive and straightforward technique to be applied. However, as injection pressure is increased higher than a thousand bar in a modern direct injection diesel engine, very fine temporal and spatial resolutions in the spray visualization are required while sprays become optically denser. Discussed in this paper are macroscopic and microscopic spray visualization techniques and an example of image processing process for efficient and consistent measurement of spray parameters. The injection rate measurement method based on hydraulic pulse principle was suggested as a way of estimating injection velocity for transient diesel sprays. The spray visualization and injection rate measurement techniques were applied to analyze transient diesel sprays from a common-rail injection system and found to be practically effective.
Effect of Injection Rate and Gas Density on Ambient Gas Entrainment of Non-evaporating Transient Diesel Spray from Common-Rail Injection System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 19~24
Entrainment of ambient gas into a transient diesel spray is a crucial factor affecting the following preparation of combustible mixture. In this study, the entrainment characteristics of ambient gas for a non-evaporating transient diesel were investigated using a common-rail injection system. The effects of ambient gas density and nozzle hole geometry were assessed with entrainment coefficient. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) technique was introduced to measure the entrainment speed of ambient gas into a spray. There appeared a region where the entrainment coefficients remained almost constant while injection rates were still changing. The effect of common-rail pressure, which altered the slope of injection rate curve, was hardly noticed at this region. Entrainment coefficient increased with ambient gas density, that is, the effect of ambient gas density was greater than that of turbulent jet whose entrainment coefficient remained constant. The non-dimensional distance was defined to reflect the effect of nozzle hole diameter and ambient gas density together. The mean value of entrainment coefficient was found to increase with non-dimensional distance from the nozzle tip, which would be suggested as the guideline for the nozzle design.
A Study on the Optimization of Articulated Steel Forging Piston and 3D Analysis of Fluid Characteristics for Light Duty DI Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 25~31
In order to prepare for the large power diesel vehicle, the current trend of advanced nations is to shift from the aluminum alloy piston to the steel piston. In this research, a steel forging piston which replaces the aluminum alloy piston is developed to improve the power performance of the diesel engine. The three dimensional flow and combustion analysis of the target engine is conducted. Using the result of the analysis, the piston is optimized, and a prototype of the articulated steel forging piston is built. The reliability of the piston has been evaluated through durability test using a Hydropuls Test Machine for 300,000 km.
Effects of Two-Stage Injection on Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics in a HCCI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 32~39
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion has a great advantage in reducing NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) by lowering the combustion temperature due to spontaneous ignitions at multiple sites in a very lean combustible mixture. However, it is difficult to make a diesel-fuelled HCCI possible because of a poor vaporability of the fuel. To resolve this problem, the two-stage injection strategy was introduced to promote the ignition of the extremely early injected fuel. The compression ratio and air-fuel ratio were found to affect not only the ignition, but also control the combustion phase without a need for the intake-heating or EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The ignition timing could be controlled even at a higher compression ratio with increased IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure). The NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) emission level could be reduced by more than 90 % compared with that in a conventional DI (Direct Injection) diesel combustion mode, but the increase of PM and HC (Hydrocarbon) emissions due to over-penetration of spray still needs to be resolved.
The Effect of Triple Injection on Engine Performance and Emissions in a HSDI Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 40~57
The effects of triple (pilot, main and after) injection on combustion and emission characteristics in a HSDI (High-Speed Direct Injection) diesel engine were investigated using a single-cylinder optical diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. The pilot injection affected the spray and combustion evolution of the following main injection. It was found that the pilot injection reduced the ignition delay, which led to lowered NOx (Nitric Oxides) level, and increased IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) due to slow combustion pace during an expansion stroke. The after-injection was shown to be effective in reducing PM (Particulate Matter) even when a small amount of fuel was added. The results suggest that a proper combination of individual injection strategy could bring about a good synergetic effect on engine performance and emission.
Characteristics of Combustion Radical in CNG Direct Injection Vessel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 58~65
A cylindrical constant volume combustion chamber was used to investigate the combustion characteristics of stratified methane-air mixture under several initial charge conditions in the author's previous reports. The results showed that the improvement of thermal efficiency and reduction of heat loss was realized simultaneously by using 2-stage injection method. This paper deals with the reason why the stratified combustion has showed better combustion rate through the measurement and analysis of chemiluminescence of C
radicals. An optic fiber bundle is used to measure the local emission of C
radicals to map the relationship between the excess air ratio and local radical intensity ratio in the combustion vessel at 5 mm apart form the geometric center. The results show that there exist a relationship between the intensity ratio and the air-fuel ratio. It is revealed that the improvement of combustion rate in a lean-stratified mixture is realized through the 2-stage injection method. method.
Simultaneous Reduction of Smoke and NOx by Dimethoxy Methane and Cooled EGR Method in a DI Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 66~72
In this study, the effects of oxygen component in fuel and exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) method on the exhaust emissions has been investigated for a D.I. diesel engine. It was tested to estimate change of exhaust emission characteristics for the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenate blended fuel which has five kinds of blending ratio. Dimethoxy methane(DMM) contains oxygen component 42.5% in itself, and it is a kind of effective oxygenated fuel for reduction of smoke emission. It was affirmed that smoke emission was decreased with increasing of DMM blending ratio. But, NOx emission was increased compared with commercial diesel fuel. It was needed a NOx reduction counterplan that EGR method was used as a countermeasure for NOx reduction. It was found that simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emission was achieved with DMM blended fuel and cooled EGR method(1015%).
Durability Properties of Liquid Phase LPG Injection System with Various Qualities of LPG Fuels
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 73~78
The liquid phase LPG injection (LPLi) system (the third generation technology) has been considered as one of the next generation fuel supply systems for LPG vehicles, since it has a very strong potential to accomplish the higher power, higher efficiency, and lower emission characteristics than the mixer type(the second generation technology) fuel supply system. To investigate the durability property of core part of injector in liquid phase LPG injection system, leakage test, SEM test of injectors and analysis of unvaporized fuel components with various LPG fuel qualities were tested. The experimental results showed that no serious problem in durability test using favorable LPG fuel quality, while high leakage amount due to the large scratches in the needle and nozzle of the injector were found using LPG fuel with highly containing olefin components, especially butadiene species.
Comparison of NOx Reduction Characteristics of NOx Storage Catalyst and TWC for Lean-burn Natural Gas Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 79~84
We evaluated the reduction performance of NOx storage catalyst and TWC for lean-burn natural gas engine by the model gas. The method of unsteady state reaction was used to compare with reduction performances of NOx storage catalyst and TWC. It was found that the effective parameter was rich spike duration, temperature of the model gas. In the presence of
in the reaction mixture was decreased the NOx reduction performance.
Optimal Design of Electric Vehicle Cross Beam for Adaptive Design of Homogenized Structure
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 85~93
Electric vehicle body has to be subjected to uniform load and requires auxiliary equipment such as air pipe and electric wire pipe. Especially, the cross beam supports the weight of passenger and electrical equipments. This need to use adaptive design in initial design stage to gain economy through interchangeability between many kinds of components. This study performs the topology optimization by the concept of homogenization based on optimality criteria method which is efficient for the problem with a number of boundary condition and design variable. Therefore this provides the method to determine the optimum position and the shape of circular hole in the cross beam and then can achieve the weight minimization of electric vehicle body.
The Crush Energy Absorption Capacity Optimization for the Side-Member of an Aluminum Space Frame Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 94~100
In order to improve the frontal crash performance of an Aluminum Space Frame Vehicle, this presents a systematic optimal design process to maximize the crush energy absorption capacity of side-members while satisfying the maximum displacement constraint. In this study, five design types are studied for selecting a good collapse initiator. Then, for the selected collapse initiator type, 7 design variables are defined to represent cross section shape, thickness and bead interval. The systematic optimization processor, R-INOPL uses DOE, RSM and numerical optimization techniques. R-INOPL uses only 14 analyses to solve the 7 design variable optimization problem the final design can improve 103.9% of the internal energy and reduce 13.9% of the maximum displacement.
Finite Element Analysis on the Energy Absorption Characteristics of Hybrid Structure
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 101~107
Recently the objective of vehicle design was focused on the crash safety and the energy saving. For the energy saving vehicle structures must be light weight, but for the crash safety some energy absorbing elements must be added. In this paper hybrid structure which consists of a steel and a FRP was studied on the energy absorption characteristics under the impact load by finite element method. Test results of the other researchers were compared with that of computer simulation on this simple hybrid structure. Side rail of vehicle front structure was replaced with hybrid materials for the application of the vehicle structure. 35mph frontal crash simulation was performed with hybrid structure and with conventional steel structure. By the adoption of hybrid structure, the improvement of energy absorption characteristics and reduction of weight was observed under the frontal crash simulation.
Nondestructive Evaluation of the Flaw in a Ceramic Ferrule by Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 108~117
In this paper, a measuring NDT(nondestructive testing) system using RUS(Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy) was built for nondestructive evaluation of the flaw in a ceramic Ferrule. The principle of RUS is that the mechanical resonant frequency of the materials depends on density, and the coefficient of elasticity. The RUS system is the measuring which is to exite specimen and to inspect the difference of natural frequency pattern between acceptable specimen and specimen which has some defects. RUS system is configured of spectrum analyzer, power amplifier, PZT sensor and support frame. For defect evaluation by the RUS, we performed to measure natural frequency of Ferrule, both acceptable and cracked. In the case of Ferrule, the resonant frequency of cracked-Ferrule existed to higher frequency band than acceptable-Ferrule.
Experimental Analysis on Brake Squeal Noise Due to Disk Misalignment
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 118~124
To investigate the mechanics of brake squeal noise, the sound and vibration of an actual brake system was measured using a brake dynamometer. The experimental results show that disk run-out due to the misalignment of brake disk varies with brake line pressure and becomes the important factor of brake squeal noise generation. Also, it was confirmed that the frequency of the squeal noise equals to the natural frequency of the disk bending mode.
Multi-Agent for Traffic Simulation with Vehicle Dynamic Model I : Development of Traffic Environment
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 125~135
The validity of simulation has been well-established for decades in areas such as computer and communication system. Recently, the technique has become entrenched in specific areas such as transportation and traffic forecasting. Several methods have been proposed for investigating complex traffic flows. However, the dynamics of vehicles and their driver's characteristics, even though it is known that they are important factors for any traffic flow analysis, have never been considered sufficiently. In this paper, the traffic simulation using a multi-agent approach with considering vehicle dynamics is proposed. The multi-agent system is constructed with the traffic environment and the agents of vehicle and driver. The traffic environment consists of multi-lane roads, nodes, virtual lanes, and signals. To ensure the fast calculation, the agents are performed on the based of the rules to regulate their behaviors. The communication frameworks are proposed for the agents to share the information of vehicles' velocity and position. The model of a driver agent which controls a vehicle agent is described in the companion paper. The vehicle model contains the nonlinear subcomponents of engine, torque converter, automatic transmission, and wheels. The simulation has proceeded for an interrupted and uninterrupted flow model. The result has shown that the driver agent performs human-like behavior ranging from slow and careful to fast and aggressive driving behavior, and that the change of the traffic state is closely related with the distance and the signal delay between intersections. The system developed shows the effectiveness and the practical usefulness of the traffic simulation.
Multi-Agent for Traffic Simulation with Vehicle Dynamic Model II : Development of Vehicle and Driver Agent
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 136~145
In companion paper, the composition and structure of the traffic environment is derived. Rules to regulate agent behaviors and the frameworks to communicate between the agents are proposed. In this paper, the model of a driver agent which controls a vehicle agent is constructed. The driver agent is capable of having different driving styles. That is, each driver agent has individual behavior settings of the yielding index and the passing index. The yielding index can be defined as how often the agent yields in case of lane changes, and the passing index can be defined as how often the agent passes ahead. According to these indices, the agents overtake or make their lanes for other vehicles. Similarly, the vehicle agents can have various vehicle dynamic models. According to their dynamic characteristics, the vehicle agent shows its own behavior. The vehicle model of the vehicle agent contains the nonlinear subcomponents of engine, torque converter, automatic transmission, and wheels. The simulation has proceeded for an interrupted flow model. The result has shown that it is possible to express the characteristics of each vehicle and its driver in a traffic flow, and that the change of the traffic state is closely related with the distance and the signal delay between intersections. The system developed in this paper shows the effectiveness and the practical usefulness of the traffic simulation.
Kinematic Analysis of Torsion Beam Rear Suspension
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 146~153
Torsion beam rear suspension has been widely adopted to the rear suspension of vehicle by reason of simple structure and cost competitiveness. Since the kinematic characteristics of torsion beam rear suspension are determined by elastic behavior of torsion beam, quasi-static analysis based on finite element modeling of torsion beam has been conducted to obtain the kinematic parameters of torsion beam rear suspension. In this paper, simple kinematic equations with rear geometric parameters are derived to predict the kinematic behavior of torsion beam rear suspension. The suspension design parameters such as roll center height, roll stiffness, roll steer and roll camber can be easily obtained with the kinematic equations. The suggested kinematic equations are validated from comparison with the test results and solution offered by ADAMS. The suspension design parameters varied with the position of torsion beam are discussed.
Evaluation of Performance and Development of Control Method of a New Electric Power Steering System(EPS-TT)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 154~161
A new column type electric power steering system (EPS-TT) is proposed in this study. The remarkable features of EPS-TT are its opto-isolated torque sensor and assist torque control methodology. EPS-TT uses a uni-directional motor and two clutches. Full order and simplified models for EPS-TT are developed to evaluate the EPS-TT. A full car model is also used to investigate the vehicle responses. A PID control logic is designed to control the torque of the assist motor. Various sinusoidal inputs are applied to the system and the resulting performances are analyzed. The results prove that the performances achieved by the EPS-TT are improved compared to those of a conventional EPS-TT across the frequency domain. In addition, it is inexpensive and easy to control the motor. The results of the full order steering system model are similar to those simplified model, but the vehicle responses are slightly different.
A Study on the Improving the Rendering Performance of the 3D Road Model for the Vehicle Simulator
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 162~170
In these days, a vehicle simulator is developed by using a VR(Virtual Reality) system. A VR system must provide a vehicle simulator with a natural interaction, a sufficient immersion and realistic images. To achieve this, it is important to provide a fast and uniform rendering performance regardless of the complexity of virtual worlds or the level of simulation. In this paper, modeling methods which offer an improved rendering performance for complex VR applications as 3D road model have been implemented and verified. The key idea of the methods is to reduce a load of VR system by means of LOD(Level of Detail), alpha blending texture mapping, texture mip-mapping and bilboard. Hence, in 3D road model where a simulation is complex or a scene is very large, the methods can provide uniform and acceptable frame rates. The VR system which is constructed with the methods has been experimented under the various application environments. It is confirmed that the proposed methods are effective and adequate to the VR system which associates with a vehicle simulator.
A Study on the Characteristic Analysis of the Gyro Sensor and Development of Hybrid Navigation Algorithm for the Car Navigation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 171~179
Today, the number of vehicle increased rapidly with the development of modem science technology, and it caused serious problems; traffic jam, accident and pollution etc. One of the solve methods these problems it is necessary to develope the vehicle navigation systems and it is already widely used to in field of military etc. Vehicle navigation system can increase the efficiency of traffic flow and offer at a drivers at a best driving conditions. In the vehicle navigation, most important thing is to measure of correct position. There are classifiable as three types. The first is G.P.S., method at artificial satellites which measures the present position and velocity any time, any where in the world at the same time. Secondly, a vehicle can determine its position and path information with a gyroscope and odometer signal, which is called Dead-Reckoning method. Thirdly, hybrid navigation system is the combined of two methods to make utilize the advantage of each navigation system. In the paper, we are analyzed to characteristics at a gyro sensor and introduce at a composition of hybrid navigation system which is combined with the G.P.S., D.R., and map-matching technique. We analyze deeply for the Map-Matching method and explain the coordinate transformation for G.P.S., and the Hybrid navigation algorithm is developed and experimented. Finally, we conclude and comment about our road test results.
Development of a Simulator of Vehicle Equipped with Mechanical Transmission and Hydraulic Accumulator Type-Braking Energy Regeneration System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 180~186
The simulator of a vehicle equipped with mechanical transmission and hydraulic accumulator type-braking energy regeneration system is developed using a PC. The simulator receives the shift lever position, the accelerator pedal angle and the brake pedal angle generated by the operator using the keyboard, updates the state variables of the energy regeneration system responding to the input signals, and draws the moving pictures of the accumulator piston and pump/motor plate angle every drawing time on the PC monitor. Also, the operator can observe the shift lever position, the accel pedal angle, brake pedal angle, pressures of accumulators, vehicle speed, hydraulic torque, engine torque and air brake torque representing the operation of braking energy regeneration system through the PC monitor every drawing time. The simulator can be a very useful tool to design and improve the braking energy regeneration system.
Effects of Cylinder Shell Elasticity on Effective Bulk Modulus of Oil in Automotive Hydraulic Dampers
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 187~197
This paper presents the effects of cylinder shell elasticity on effective bulk modulus of oil
in automotive hydraulic dampers. A theoretical model of cylinder shell bulk modulus
based on the elasticity theory of thick-walled cylinder incorporating not only radial but longitudinal deformation is proposed. In a cylinder, values of
by the new model and traditional models are computed and the discrepancies among them are discussed. In a twin-tube type automotive damper, the variation of
under different pressure values in chambers of the damper cylinder, based on different theoretical models for
is computed. Through these computations, it is shown that remarkable discrepancies in computed values of
might occur according to the
models in connection with
An Analysis of Plastic Stress in Square Bar Impacting Plate
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 198~204
Dynamic fracture is investigated in plate applied by impacting bar. Numerical simulations of the experiments are made by using a finite element method(FEM) code, LS-DYNA. The eroding surface-to-surface contact allows between impacting bar and impacted plate. The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate results and hourglass energy is minimized to obtain the good accuracy of result. Total, internal and kinetic energies, von Mises plastic stress and X,Y,Z velocities of impacting bar are analyzed in this study.
Performance Characteristics of Sub-Cooled Hybrid Condenser in Automotive Air-Conditioning System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 12, issue 5, 2004, Pages 205~210
Sub-cooled hybrid condenser(SCHC) which have been developed through this study is an appliance of integrating a condenser with a receiver dryer, which were previously separated. It is supposed that the development of sub-cooled hybrid condenser will be able to reduce not only weight, size, production process and cost, but also quite improve in capability, which will be of great use for the technological development and research of an air conditioning system whose importance is higher in a car. Through the present study it was found that the developed SCHC increases in the degree of sub-cooling by 10∼100% compared to conventional condenser. The excessive sub-cool has improved the cooling performance by 10%, and that leads to the reduction in evaporator outlet air temperature
. Additionally, it is expected that sub-cooled hybrid condenser weights less by 100g than the previous condensers which has equal super heat.