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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Nov 2005
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Sep 2005
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Jul 2005
Volume 13, Issue 3 - May 2005
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Mar 2005
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Fuel Economy for a 42-volt ISG Vehicle Using Performance Simulator
Kim Jeongmin ; Oh Kyoungcheol ; Lee aeho ; Kim Hyunsoo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 1~9
In this paper, an operation algorithm and a performance simulator are developed for a 42-volt ISG vehiclewhich consists of 5 kW ISG, 2500cc IC engine, torque converter and 4 speed automatic transmission. Modularapproach using MATLAB Simulink is used to construct a dynamic model of the vehicle powertrain which is obtainedfrom each component such as engine, battery, ISG, torque converter, etc.. An operation strategy for a 42-volt ISG vehicle including the function such as engine idle stop and regenerative braking is proposed. Performance simulator is developed based on the dynamic models of the powertrain. It is found from the simulation results that fuel economy can be improved as much as 6 percent for FTP75 driving cycle mostly owing to the engine idle stop.
The Characteristics of Pressure Pulsation according to Operating Condition of a S.I Engine for Motorcycle
Lee Kihyung ; Nam Hosung ; Kim Yongla ; Bae Jaeil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 10~16
Recently, the international regulations about the exhaust emissions of the motorcycle have been strengthened. The electrically controlled fuel injection type motorcycle has been emphasized to meet with this regulation. However, since the pulsation phenomenon happens in the intake port of the motorcycle because of the characteristic of high speed and the smaller layout than the passenger car, there are many difficulties to select the factor about control parameters needed to develop the ECU system. In this paper, the pulsation values measured from the engine test were compared with the calculated one by WAVE, and it was analyzed the pulsation characteristic according to the driving condition and estimated the mass flow rate. This research showed that the lowest point of the pressure gets lowin the low load and the pulsation of pressure were increased in the high load. Also, the simulation program was verified by showing good prediction of the pulsation and air mass flow rate.
A Study on Cormsion Characteristics of Suspension Material by Surface Processing
Park Keyoungdong ; Rpu Hyoungioo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 17~23
In this study, the high strength and superior toughness spring steels as the suspension material, used for automobile and railroad industries were utilized to carry out the following investigations. Corrosion times were controlled in 7, 14,30 and 60days to examine the relation between corrosion pit and compressive residual stress in the static corrosion environment after shot peened. And then corrosion current and corrosion potential were measured for every 24 hours to investigate the corrosion mechanism. Shot peened material shows the low or rate of corrosion current as compared with unpeened material. In case of hot peened material which has the highest residual stress, it has a low corrosion current density.
Design of Automobile Seat for Regulations using Axiomatic Design
Kang Byung-Soo ; Jeong a-young ; Shin Moon-Kyun ; Park Gyung-jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 24~34
The automobile seat must satisfy various safety regulations for the passenger's safety. In many design practices, each component is independently designed by concentrating on a single related regulation. However, since multiple regulations can be involved in a seat component, there may be design confliction among the various safety regulations. Therefore, a new design methodology is required to effectively design an automobile seat. The axiomatic approach is employed for considering multiple regulations. The Independence Axiom is used to define the overall flow of the seat design. Functional requirements (FRs) are defined by safety regulations and components of the seat are classified into groups which yield design Parameters (DPs). The classification is carried out to have independence in the FR-DP relationship. Components in a DP group are determined by using orthogonal away of the design of experiments (DOE). Numerical analyses are utilized to evaluate the safety levels by using a commercial software system for nonlinear transient finite element analysis.
The Influence of Operating Conditions on Fuel Economy of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Lee Youngjae ; Kim Gangchul ; Pyo Youngdug ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 35~40
In the present study, the influence of operating conditions on fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicle was analyzed. In order to accomplish this, vehicle speed, engine speed, battery current and voltage, SOC (state of charge),motor speed and torque, generator speed and torque, engine coolant temperature etc. were measured in real time. The tests were carried out under different driving cycles which are urban and highway cycles, KOREA CITY cycle and on-road driving, and also under various operating conditions such as different initial SOC, with or without regenerative braking etc.. Generally, conventional gasoline engines show a poor fuel economy at stop and go driving, because braking energy is wasted and the engine is operated in low thermal efficiency regions. However, in case of hybrid vehicles, higher fuel economy can be obtained because of utilizing the maximum thermal efficiency regions of engine, idling stop of engine, and regenerative braking etc..
Brake Squeal Noise Due to Disk Run-out
Lim Jae-Hoon ; Cho Sung-Jin ; Choi Yeon-Sun ; Choi Sung-Jin ; Choi Gyoo-Jae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 41~47
This paper deals with a squeal noise in a brake system. It has been proved that the squeal noise is influenced by the angular misalignment of a disk, disk run-out, with the previously experimental study. In this study, a cause of the noise is examined by using FE analysis program(SAMCEF) and numerical analyses with a derived analytical equation of the disk based on the experimental results. The FE analyses and numerical results show that the squeal noise is due to the disk run-out as the experimental results and the frequency component of the noise equals to that of a disk's bending mode arising from the Hopf bifurcation.
Extraction of Lane-Reined Information Based on an EDF and Hough Transform
Lee Joonwoong ; Lee Kiyong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 48~57
This paper presents a novel algorithm in order to extract lane-related information based on machine vision techniques. The algorithm makes up for the weak points of the former method, the Edge Distribution Function(EDF)-based approach, by introducing a Lane Boundary Pixel Extractor (LBPE) and the well-known Hough Transform(HT). The LBPE that serves as a filter to extract pixels expected to be on lane boundaries enhances the robustness of machine vision, and provides its results to the HT implementation and EDF construction. The HT forms the accumulator arrays and extracts the lane-related parameters composed of orientation and distance. Furthermore, as the histogram of edge magnitude with respect to edge orientation angle, the EDF has peaks at the orientations corresponding to lane slopes on the perspective image domain. Therefore, by fusing the results from the EDF and the HT the proposed algorithm improves the confidence of the extracted lane-related information. The system shows successful results under various degrees of illumination.
Optimal Design of the Passenger Vehicle Aluminum Seat for Weight Reduction and Durability Performance Improvement
Kim Byung-Kil ; Kim Min-Soo ; Kim Bum-Jin ; Heo Seung-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 58~63
In order to minimize weight of vehicle seat, an optimum design of aluminum seat is presented while satisfying stress and fatigue life constraints. In this study, the analysis model is validated by comparing it's stress with that of test. Then, two-level orthogonal array is used to estimate the design sensitivity for 7 design variables. Finally, the sequential approximate optimization (SAO) is performed using the constructed RSM models. The approximate RSM models are sequentially updated using the analysis results corresponding to the approximate optimum obtained during the SAO. After 14 analyses, the SAO gives an optimal design that can reduce 16.7
of weight while increasing 369
of fatigue life and satisfying stress constraint.
Application of the CAE Process to the Parameter Determination far the Tool Design of an Auto-body Member
Kim Seho ; Huh Hoon ; Song Junghan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 64~73
This paper is concerned with the simulation-based parameter determination for the tool design in the stamping process of the complicated auto-body member. The CAE procedure of the stamping process is proposed so that troubles such as wrinkle, springback and excess metal be eliminated with changing parameters such as the blank size, the restraining force of the draw-bead and the embossing shape in the die face. The selected indicators of failure during forming are wrinkling. the amount of spring after unloading of the tool, the amount of excess metal developed .The proposed analysis scheme is applied to the tool and process parameter design for the front side member of a RV car. The simulation results show that the scheme can produce sound product from the viewpoint of thickness distribution, the contact condition between tools and the blank, the shape accuracy and so on.
Two-zone Modeling for Combustion Processes of HCCI Engine
Lee Myunghoon ; Kim Kunhong ; Kim Yongmo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 74~79
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition(HCCI) combustion is currently under intensive investigation because of its potential to increase thermal efficiency while greatly decreasing NOx and p.M. In order to account for the thermal boundary layer effects, the two-zone model has been developed to analyze the combustion characteristics of HCCI engine. The detailed chemistry are represented by the GRI mechanism 3.0 involving 53 species and 325reactions. The present combustion model has been validated against the experimental results. Computations are also made for the wide-range operating conditions of HCCI engine.
Conversion Characteristics of Warm-up Catalytic Converter for the Diesel Vehicle
Choi Byungchul ; Juhng Woonam ; Yoon Youngbae ; Jung Myunggun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 80~86
In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the conversion efficiency and the effect of ageing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). The DOC was composed of Warm-up Catalytic Converter (WCC) and Underbody Catalytic Converter (UCC). As the result, the conversion efficiency of THC was 10
on WCC and 30
on UCC .The conversion efficiency of CO was 80
on WCC and remained 10
of CO was purified on UCC. The WCC shows high conversion efficiency on CO. After 20 hours aging process of engine bench, conversion efficiencies of THC and CO were improved a little, because it was activated catalyst surface by 20 hours aging. In case of 80 hours aging, the conversion efficiencies of THC and CO were decreased on WCC. However, the UCC was not affected by aging process .
Output Characteristics Using Indirect Measurement of Air Flow in a Motorcycle Engine
Jung Taegyun ; Chae Jaeou ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 87~95
Most of the motorcycle engines have used carburetors in the fuel system, because of its simple structure and reliability but the fuel economy and the emissions of those engines are bad when we compared with automobile engines .To meet with the tighten emission regulations and the higher requirements for fuel economy, the application of the carburetor on the motorcycle engines would be limited. Therefore, it is important to develope a ECU control system for motorcycle engines. Since the fuel injection system is expensive, it is necessary to decrease the cost of ECU system for motorcycle engines, but the accuracy of the ECU control system should be increased as high as possible. In this paper, we studied about the AFS characteristics of motorcycle engine controled by indirect method.
An Optimization of 11kW Gas Engine for Distributed Energy Source Modified from Gasoline Engine
Lee Youngae ; Pyo Youngdug ; Kim Gangchul ; Oh Sidoek ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 96~101
Cogeneration is an energy conversion process, where electricity and useful heat are produced simultaneously in one process. Also, carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced as well. The cogeneration process may be based on the use of steam, gas turbines or combustion engines. However, there have been few models with an output of less than 100 kilowatt. In the present study, a spark ignited gas engine with generation output of 10 kilowatts was developed for micro cogeneration package. The gas engine shows 29.2
of thermal efficiency under Stoichiometric combustion and 33.6
of thermal efficiency under lean combustion. NOx emission shows less than 10ppm at 13
oxygen under stoichiometric combustion and about 100ppm at 13
oxygen under lean combustion.
Robust Wheel Slip Control for Brake-by-Wire System
Hong Daegun ; Huh Kunsoo ; Kang Hyung-Jin ; Yoon Paljoo ; Hwang Inyong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 102~109
Wheel-slip control systems are able to control the braking force more accurately and can be adapted to different vehicles more easily than conventional ABS systems. But, in order to achieve the superior braking performance through the wheel-slip control, real-time information such as the tire braking force is required. For example, in the case of EHB (Electro-Hydraulic Brake) systems, the tire braking force cannot be measured directly, but can be approximated based on the characteristics of the brake disk-pad friction. The friction characteristics can change significantly depending on aging of the brake, moisture on the contact area, heat etc. In this paper, a wheel slip The proposed wheel slip control system is composed of two subsystems: braking force monitor and robust slip controller In the brake force monitor subsystem, the tire braking forces as well as the brake disk-pad friction coefficient are estimated considering the friction variation between the brake pad and disk. The robust wheel slip control subsystem is designed based on sliding mode control methods and follows the target wheel-slip using the estimated tire braking forces. The proposed sliding mode controller is robust to the uncertainties in estimating the braking force and brake disk-pad friction. The performance of the proposed wheel-slip control system is evaluated in various simulations.
Linear Dynamic Simulation using SIMULINK
Kim Seong Keol ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 110~116
Linear dynamic simulations with one and two degrees of freedom were built from SIMULINK in MATLAB commercial program. Before starting the simulations, initial conditions and system parameters which are mass, spring constant and coefficient of damping are easily inputted by user through each pop-up window, and the conditions for the simulation including time step, analysis methodology and so on can be modified with ease. Also, as soon as the simulations are started, the windows for animations which shows deformed motions dynamically with real time are popped-up and the graphical results are shown in time and frequency domains, simultaneously, The results of the simulations were verified through some examples of textbooks of mechanical vibrations. It was found that the programs would help us to solve any kind of linear dynamic simulation for one and two degrees of freedom.
Creep Characteristics of Titanium Alloy(Ti-6Al-4V) at 0.3Tm
Yoon Jongho ; Hwang Kyungchoon ; Woo Hyun-Gu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 117~122
Titanium alloy has widely been used as material for glasses frame parts because it has high specific strength. It is also light and harmless to human body. However, we have little design data about the mechanical properties such as the creep behaviors of the alloy. Therefore, in this study, creep tests under four constant stress conditions have been conducted with four different temperature conditions. A series of creep tests had been performed to get the basic design data and life prediction of titanium products and we have gotten the following results. First, the stress exponents decrease as the test temperatures increased. Secondly, the creep activation energy gradually decrease as the stresses became bigger. Thirdly, the constant of Larson-Miller parameter on this alloy was estimated as about 2.5. Finally, the fractographs at the creep rupture showed the ductile fracture due to the intergranullar rupture and some dimples.
Conversion Efficiency of Catalyst for Lean-bum Natural Gas Vehicles with Steady and Unsteady State Temperature Change
Cho Byung-Chul ; Juhng Woo-Nam ; Piao Fengai ; Lee Choon-Hee ; Lee Jang-Hee ; Yun Jeong-Eui ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 123~130
In this study, we evaluated the CH4 and CO conversion efficiencies over the oxidation catalysts for natural gas vehicle with lean-burn system. On the fresh catalyst, the conversion efficiency was increased when the loading of precious metal was increased. On the aged catalyst, the conversion efficiency was decreased as increasing the excess air ratio. We could confirm the measuring conversion efficiency of the unsteady state with the FTIR and that of steady state with the GC The temperature increasing ratio of unsteady state is acceptable from 3
/min. to 15
/min. for the evaluation of catalyst conversion performance , which has within the 4
of the difference of conversion efficiency. We observed a physical behavior of the thermal aged catalyst's surface using TEM and BET device. It was found that the precious metal was grown to the micro-scopic size by thermal aging process.
A Study on Free Spray Patterns of Diesel with Ultra High Pressure
Jeong Daeyong ; Lee Jongtai ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 131~137
Ultra high pressure injection equipment was developed to estimate and analyze the spray characteristics in ultra high pressure injection. Spray patterns were visualized by schlieren method and analyzed in ultra high pressure. Spray tip penetration, spray thickness, spray volume, and entrained air mass increased with the increase of the injection pressure. But over 2,800 bars of the injection pressure region, it was shown that the rate of improvement was not increased remarkably ,and the spray characteristics such as spray penetration, volume, and entrained air mass were reversed and got worse at 4,140 bars.
The Effect of Auxiliary use LPG on the Performance of a D.I Diesel Engine
Bang Joong Cheol ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 138~145
Recently, the tightening of an available crude oil supplies has resulted in the development of intense consciousness for saving fuels. At the same time, some research programs have been launched to secure substitute energy sources for petroleum-derived fuels, and to reduce unhealthy products, such as CO, HC, NOx and smoke. To keep up with these trends in society, the regulation affecting diesel smoke may be greatly strengthened in a short time. In not too distant future, LPG and LNG are the most hopeful substitute fuels for automobile and truck uses. This paper discusses how to use such gaseous fuels in a diesel engine, and how much methods for introducing these fuels affect the engine performance.
A Study on Structural Design of Torsion Beam Rear Suspension
Kang Juseok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 146~153
Structural design of the torsion beam rear suspension is investigated by calculating warping of the torsion beam. Since the longitudinal displacement in the cross section of the torsion beam due to torsional moment causes normal stress across the beam restrained from outside at both ends, the profile of torsion beam needs to be designed considering the warping. Warping function of the beam is derived with the parameters of cross section fur the arbitrary shapes of torsion beam profiles assuming thin-walled open section. From comparing the warping calculated for two different beam profiles, the design method for the torsion beam in the view point of low stress is discussed. It is shown that the gusset used to reinforce the torsion beam can be optimized in accordance with warping shape. The method to fix the end point of the gusset is proposed to minimize the stress concentrated on the end point of the gusset produced during torsional moment. The result from finite element analysis shows the stress is minimized when the height of gusset end point is coincident with the point where warping of the beam is minimized.
Determination of a Duty Cycle for Tracked Vehicle Using Genetic algorithm
Oh Chul-Sung ; Im Hyung-Eun ; Hwang Won-Gul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 154~161
The durability of a vehicle is a very important performance which can be evaluated from endurance test. This study developed a procedure for determination of a duty cycle theoretically. Vehicle load data is classified and rearranged using standard test road profile. A load pattern and a duty cycles are extracted from classified vehicle data using genetic algorithm. A duty cycle could be utilized in dynamo test to meet required test mileage. The derived duty cycles have been verified by fatigue test through the dynamometer test.
Hood and Bumper Structure Design Methodology for Pedestrian Regulation
Lee Jaewan ; Yoon Kyonghan ; Kang Younsoo ; Park Kyungtaek ; Park Gyungjin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 162~170
Although the numbers of pedestrian fatalities and injuries are steadily declining worldwide, pedestrian protection is still an important issue. Extensive researches have been carried out in the field of pedestrian protection in order to establish pedestrian safety regulations. The automobile hoods and bumpers, which pedestrians frequently run into during accidents, should be safely designed for pedestrians. Two analysis methods are utilized to design safe structures of the hood and the bumper. They are real experiment and computer simulation. In this research, a method is developed to simultaneously utilize the results from the experiment and the simulation. For design, orthogonal arrays are employed to combine the two methods. Based on this method, a hood and a bumper are designed to protect pedestrians.
PAH and Soot Formation Characteristics of DME/Ethylene Fuel
Yoon, Seung-Suk ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Chung, Suk-ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 171~177
In order to investigate the effect of dimethyl ether (DME) on PAH and soot formation, the fuel has been mixed to the counter-flow diffusion flames of ethylene. Laser-induced incandescence and laser-induced fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative concentrations of soot volume fraction and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration, respectively. Results showed that even though pure DME flame produces the minimal amount of PAH and soot, the mixture fuel of DME and ethylene could increase PAH and soot formation, as compared to those of pure ethylene flame. This implies that even though DME has been known to be a clean fuel for soot formation, the mixture fuel of DME and the hydrocarbon fuel could produce enhanced production of soot. Numerical simulation demonstrated that methyl (CH
) radical generated by the initial pyrolysis of DME can be contributed to the enhancement of PAH and soot formation, through the formation of propargyl (C
Determination and Applications of U and K
for Crack Closure Evaluation under Mixed-mode loading
Song Samhong ; Seo Kijeong ; Lee Jeongmoo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 178~185
Crack tip displacement is originated by tensile stress component, s and shear stress component, t on pure Mode I and pure Mode II. The crack tip displacement(CTD) depends on combined types of different two stress components under mixed-mode loading conditions (MMLC). Thus, the analysis of crack tip displacement must be CTD vector, dv which is composition of ds and dt under MMLC. In this paper, various effects of MMLC on the crack closure are studied experimentally. The crack closure magnitude is calculated from the information of crack tip displacement under MMLC. This information has been obtained from the high resolution optical microscope in direct observations of crack displacement behavior at the crack tip. Observed crack tip displacement is analyzed by using CTD vector to determine crack opening load. The various effects of MMLC on the crack closure are explained using crack opening ratio with crack length and mode mixture. The effective stress intensity factor considering crack closure is also discussed.
A Study on the Creep Deformation Characteristic of AZ31 Mg Alloy at High Temperature
An Jungo ; Kang Daemi ; Koo Yang ; Sim Sungbo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 13, issue 3, 2005, Pages 186~192
The apparent activation energy Qc, the applied stress exponent n, and rupture life have been determined from creep test results of AZ31 Mg alloy over the temperature range of 200
and the stress range of 23.42 MPa to 93.59 MPa, respectively, in order to investigate the creep behavior. Constant load creep tests were carried out in the equipment including automatic temperature controller with data acquisition computer. At the temperature of 200
and under the stress level of 62.43
93.59 MPa, and at around the temperature of 280
and under the stress level of 23.42
39.00 MPa, the creep behavior obeyed a simple power-law relating steady state creep rate to applied stress and the activation energy fur the creep deformation was nearly equal to that of the self diffusion of Mg alloy including aluminum From the above results, at the temperature of 200
the creep deformation for AZ31 Mg alloy seemed to be controlled by dislocation climb but controlled by dislocation glide at 280
.And relationship beween rupture time and stress at around the temperature of 200
and under the stress level of 62.43
93.59 MPa, and again at around the temperature of 280
and under the stress level of 23.42
39.00 MPa, respectively, appeard as fullow; log
= -0.25(T+460)(logtr+21)+8.02 Also relationship beween rupture time and steady state creep rate appears as follow; ln