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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Nov 2007
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Sep 2007
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Jul 2007
Volume 15, Issue 3 - May 2007
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Mar 2007
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
3D Unsteady Numerical Analysis to Design Defrosting System of Automotive Windshield Glass
Kang, Shin-Hyung ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Byun, Ju-Suk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 1~8
The present research is based upon the numerical analysis of a car windshield in order to represent the optimum design guide to improve the overall defrosting performance of the system. First, the control factors that highly affect the defrosting performance of a car windshield are chosen and afterwards, the optimum variables of each control factor are extracted out to analyze its performance. The main control factors for this research are respectively, the air injection angle of a defroster nozzle, the height of a nozzle outlet, and the ratio of the width to the height of a nozzle outlet. For such case when the air inlet angle is relatively small, the flow near the vicinity of the inner face of a windshield tends to expand. As a consequence, the heat transfer rate through the windshield decreases. Also, the height of a nozzle outlet is recommended to maintain its size to minimum. However, when the ratio mentioned before is designed less than unity, the defrosting performance decreases.
Characteristics of Icing Phenomenon with Droplet of an Injector for Liquid Phase LPG Injection System
Park, Cheol-Woong ; Kim, Chang-Up ; Choi, Kyo-Nam ; Kang, Kern-Yong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 9~16
Since the liquid phase LPG injection(LPLI) system has an advantage of higher power and lower emission characteristics than the mixer type fuel supply system, many studies and applications have been conducted. However, the heat extraction, due to the evaporation of liquid fuel, causes not only a dropping of LPG fuel but also icing phenomenon that is a frost of moisture in the air around the nozzle tip. Because both lead to a difficulty in the control of accurate air fuel ratio, it can result in poor engine performance and a large amount of HC emissions. The experimental investigation was carried out on the bench test rig in this study. It was found that n-butane, that has a relatively high boiling point(
), was a main species of droplet composition and also found that the droplet problem was improved by the use of a large inner to outer bore ratio nozzle whose surface roughness is smooth. The icing phenomena were decreased when the an engine head temperature was increased, although a large amount of icing deposit was still observed in the case of
. Also, it was observed that the icing phenomenon is improved by using anti-icing bushing.
A Study on the Application Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuel in a CRDI Diesel Engine on the Swirler in Intake Manifold
Im, Seok-Yeon ; Jung, Young-Chul ; Oh, Dong-Jin ; Ryu, Jeong-In ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 17~23
This study aims to investigate the property of engine performance and the material property of exhaust gas by application of the intake swirler The fuel of BDF 20 was made by mixing 80% of diesel fuel and 20% of biodiesel fuel. These fuels were used and tested in the diesel engine of CRDI type used currently. The swirler was made by streamlined shape to lessen the intake resistance, The three types of its wing angle are
. From experimental results, we found that the characteristics of engine performance, soot was effective in wing angle of
and NOx was effective in
A Study on the Characteristics of Injection and Combustion with Directly Injected Hydrogen Fuel
Lee, Seang-Wock ; Kee, Wan-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 24~29
This study aims to provide a fundamental data for directly injected hydrogen fuel engines. Spray, ignition and combustion characteristics of hydrogen were studied using constant volume chamber. For spray visualization, hydrogen was vertically injected into a combustion chamber at various condition, for example, injection pressure, ambient pressure. And an argon laser was used for the shadowgraph photography by applying optical method. Also, to investigate heat-release rate and flame propagations, spark was ignited on hydrogen injected at the different time after injection and the duration of injection was also changed. Processes of ignition and combustion were analyzed by heat-release rate calculated by pressure history and were observed by shadowgraph photography The results gave much knowledge of spray, ignition and combustion characteristics of hydrogen.
Macroscopic Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether
Suh, Hyun-Kyu ; Park, Ji-Hong ; Lee, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 30~37
Dimethyl Ether(DME) is an alternative fuel for diesel engine, it is renewable and offers potential reductions in emissions. This work was conducted to figure out the macroscopic behavior and the atomization characteristics of DME using a common-rail injection system. The macroscopic behavior was visualized with the spray visualization system composed of a Nd;YAG laser and an ICCD camera. The atomization characteristics were investigated in terms of axial mean velocity, Sauter mean diameter(SMD) and droplet distributions obtained from a phase Doppler particle analyzer(PDPA) system. In this study, it was revealed that the macroscopic behavior and the atomization characteristics of DME are similar compared with commercial diesel fuel. However, DME fuel has a shorter spray tip penetration and a small SMD due to the effect of evaporation characteristics.
A Study on the Measurement of Temperature and Soot in a Visualized D.I Diesel Engine Using the Laser Diagnostics
Han, Yong-Taek ; Lee, Ki-Hyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 38~47
Based upon temperature calibration using the diffusion flame, the temperature and soot concentration of the turbulent flame in a visualized Diesel engine's turbulent flow of flame was qualitatively measured. Two different heads were used to judge the effect of swirl ratio within the combustion chamber. It was possible to measure the highest temperature of the non-swirl head visualized engine which is approximately 2400K, and that the swirl head engine managed up to 2100K. Also, the more the pressure of the spray increases the more the temperature increases due to the improved combustion situation with respect to the visualized diesel engine soot. This experiment also revealed that the KL factor was high where the fuel collided with the walls of the combustion chamber. Moreover the KL factor was high on parts of the chamber where the temperature dropped rapidly.
Optimization of Neural Network Structure for the Efficient Bushing Model
Lee, Seung-Kyu ; Kim, Kwang-Suk ; Sohn, Jeong-Hyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 48~55
A bushing component of a vehicle suspension system is tested to capture the nonlinear behavior of rubber bushing element using the MTS 3-axes rubber test machine. The results of the tests are used to model the artificial neural network bushing model. The performances from the neural network model usually are dependent on the structure of the neural network. In this paper, maximum error, peak error, root mean square error, and error-to-signal ratio are employed to evaluate the performances of the neural network bushing model. A simple simulation is carried out to show the usefulness of the developed procedure.
Correlation between Subjective and Objective Assessments of Ride Comfort
Kim, Min-Seok ; Kim, Yon-Tae ; Moon, Won-Kil ; Ahn, Se-Jin ; Yoo, Wan-Suk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 56~62
In order to compare subjective and objective assessments, a passenger car was driven at several speeds over several road profiles. To measure the acceleration signals experienced by the seated subject who provided an subjective assessment, four triaxial translational accelerometers and one triaxial gyro sensor were mounted on the steering wheel and on the passenger seat and floor, respectively. Correlations were determined between the measured accelerations and the subjective assessments of 3 expert subjects and 9 general subjects using psychophysical power law.
An Numerical Study on the Flow Uniformity and Pressure Drop in Dual Monolith Catalytic Converter during the Rapid Acceleration/Deceleration Driving
Kim, Young-Deuk ; Jeong, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Woo-Seung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 63~71
The conversion efficiency, durability and pressure drop of the automotive exhaust catalysts are dependent on the flow distribution within the substrate. Conventional porous medium approaches assuming monolith resistance based on the one-dimensional laminar flow for simulating the flow through the automotive exhaust catalysts over-predict the flow uniformity in the monolith. In this study, additional pressure loss is also considered by accounting for entrance effects due to the oblique flow incident on the front face of monolith as a consequence of flow separation and recirculation within the diffuser. The incorporation of an additional pressure loss improves the predictions for the maximum flow velocity within the substrate. An numerical study has also been conducted for the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible non-reacting flow inside various dual-monolith catalytic converters for the rapid acceleration/deceleration driving.
Research on Vehicle Crash Compatibility Through Car to Car Frontal Crash Test
Park, In-Song ; Kim, Guan-Hee ; Hong, Seung-Jun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 72~77
Since 2000, sports utility vehicles(SUVs) occupy about 40% of domestic vehicle sales. As sports utility vehicle sales are increased the probability of crash accident between SUVs and passenger vehicles increases. Generally, SUVs are heavier than passenger vehicles and their drive height and front end stillness are higher than passenger vehicles. Because of these characteristics SUVs cause more severe injury and fatal injury in SUV to passenger vehicle head-on impact. To evaluate SUV's aggessivity to passenger vehicle, we carried out SUV to passenger vehicle head-on crash test. And finally the way how to reduce incompatibility between SUVs and passenger vehicles is suggested.
The Characteristics of Exhausted Soot Particles from a Common-Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine by TIRE-LII
Kim, Gyu-Bo ; Han, Hwi-Young ; Chang, Young-June ; Jeon, Chung-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 78~85
Recently, diesel vehicles have been increased and their emission standards have been getting strict. The emission of diesel vehicles contains numerous dangerous compounds, especially particulate matters cause a serious environmental pollutant and affect to human health seriously. Thousands of studies have already reported that particulate matters are associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and death. Due to these, it is necessary to measure the soot concentration and soot particle size in laboratory flames or practical engines to recognize the soot formation, and develop the control strategies for soot emission. In this study, the characteristics of exhausted soot particle size and volume fraction from 2.0L CRDI diesel engine have been investigated as varying engine speed and load. Laser induced incandescence has been used to measure soot concentration. Time-resolved laser induced incandescence has been used to determine soot particle size in the engine. The soot volume fraction is increased as increasing engine load but soot volume fraction is decreased as increasing engine speed. The primary particle size is distributed about
at each experimental conditions.
A Numerical Study on Stratified Charge Formation and Combustion Processes
Lee, Suk-Young ; Huh, Kang-Y. ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 86~96
A direct-injection stratified-charge(DISC) engine has been considered as a promising alternative in spite of high unburned hydrocarbon emission levels during light load operation. In this paper investigation is made to characterize formation and combustion processes of stratified mixture charge in a simple constant volume combustion chamber. Both experimental and numerical analyses are performed for fluid and combustion characteristics with 3 different induction types for rich, homogeneous and lean mixture conditions. The commercial code FIRE is applied to the turbulent combustion process in terms of measured and calculated pressure traces and calculated distributions of mean temperature, OH radical and reaction rate. It turns out that the highest combustion rate occurs for the rich state condition at the spark ignition location due to existence of stoichiometric mixture and timing.
A Study on the Injection Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels Injected through Common-rail Injection System
Seo, Young-Taek ; Suh, Hyun-Kyu ; Lee, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 97~104
The object of this work is to analyze the macroscopic spray performance and atomization characteristics between diesel and biodiesel fuels. In this study, the effects of mixture ratios of biodiesel fuel on the spray tip penetration, fuel injection rate, spray cone angle, and the atomization characteristics such as droplet size, droplets distribution, and spray arrival time according to the axial distance were investigated at various injection parameters. It is revealed that the injection rate is more affected by injection pressure than mixture ratio. And, the spray development process is closely matched between diesel and biodiesel fuels. However, the droplet atomization characteristics of biodiesel shows deteriorated results as the mixture ratio of biodiesel increased because of the high viscosity and density.
Characteristics of NOx Reduction on NSR(NOx Storage and Reduction) Catalyst Supported by Ni, Ru-ZSM-5 Additives
Choi, Byung-Chul ; Lee, Choon-Hee ; Jeong, Jong-Woo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 105~111
In this study, we investigated the conversion performance of de-NOx catalyst for lean-burn natural gas engine. As a de-NOx catalyst, NOx storage reduction catalyst was composed of Pt, Pd and Rh with washcoat including Ba and Ni, Ru-ZSM-5. Ni, Ru-ZSM-5, which was regarded as a NOx direct decomposition catalyst, was made up of ion exchanged ZSM-5 by 5wt.% Ni or Ru. The performance of de-NOx catalyst was evaluated by NOx storage capacity and catalytic reduction in air/fuel,
. The catalytic reaction was also observed when the added fuel was supplied to fuel rich atmosphere by fuel spike period of 5 seconds. The NOx conversion of the catalysts with Ni-ZSM-5 or Ru-ZSM-5 was mainly caused by the effect of NOx adsorption of Ba rather than the catalytic reduction of Ni, Ru-ZSM-5. Ni, Ru-ZSM-5 catalysts can not use for the NSR catalyst because they have quick process in thermal deactivation.
Heat Transfer Analysis of EGR Cooler with Different Tube Shape
Sohn, Chang-Hyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 112~117
With the Euro-4 regulation coming into effect, the domestic car industry is forced to look for newer options to reduce NOX in the exhaust. EGR(Exhaust Gas Recirculation) Cooler is an effective method for the reduction of NOX form a diesel engine. High efficiency, low pressure loss and compactness are desirable features of an EGR Cooler. The cooling performance of EGR depends on the shape of tubes and the location of the entrance and exit. This paper reports the computational work conducted to estimate the performance of EGR cooler with three different cross section tubes and a triangular spiral tube. Three dimensional computation results show that the triangular tube is more effective than circular and rectangular tube. The most effective geometry is a triangular spiral tube with offset inlet and outlet locations.
Analysis of the Efficiency of the Compound-split Hybrid Systems
Kim, Nam-Wook ; Yang, Ho-Rim ; Cho, Sung-Tae ; Park, Yeong-Il ; Cha, Suk-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 118~124
The efficiency of the hybrid systems which are composed of compound planetary gear sets depend on the amount of the recirculating energy among the motors and battery. This paper studies the analysis of the system efficiency with the parameters,
. The efficiency of the systems and the relative torque, speed and power of the power resources are represented by these parameters. The recuperating parameter
which makes the systems generalized is introduced, so the efficiencies of the modes such as the hybrid mode, the engine mode, the motoring mode and the recuperating mode are analyzed with simple equations. The tendency of the system efficiency according to the variations of the
are studied, by which it can be possible to reduce the loss of the power because the strategies for avoiding the singular speed ratio
are helpful for the system efficiency and specific value of
can increase the efficiency of the systems.
Effect of Changing the Side Impact Dummy from EuroSID-1 to EuroSID-2 in the KNCAP Side Impact Evaluation
Lim, Jae-Moon ; Jung, Geun-Seup ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 125~132
In order to provide consumers with safety informations of vehicles according to the Korean New Car Assessment Program(KNCAP), the evaluation results and the star ratings of 21 vehicles for the side impact tests have been reported since 2003. Now, the KNCAP considers changing the side impact dummy from EuroSID-1 to EuroSID-2 near future. The rib deflection of EuroSID-2 is 20-30% higher than that of EuroSID-1 because of the removal of "Flat Tops" effect. In this study, the effect of changing the side impact dummy from EuroSID-1 to EuroSID-2 in the KNCAP side impact evaluation is estimated through the previous KNCAP evaluation results. The results show that the decrease of the star ratings would be one star(
The Contact Fatigue Life Analysis of Transmission Gear considering Running-in
Moon, Kil-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Don ; Cho, Yong-Joo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 133~138
Surface pitting is a major failure mode for gears. The contact fatigue life analysis of transmission gear considering running-in process is presented in this paper. Surface roughness change of rolling test is used in a life analysis. Contact stresses are obtained by contact analysis of a semi-infinite solid based on the use of influence functions; the subsurface stress field is obtained using rectangular patch solutions. Mesoscopic multiaxial fatigue criterion which can yield satisfactory results for non-proportional loading is then applied to predict fatigue damage. Suitable counting method and damage rule were used to calculate the fatigue life of random loading caused by rough surface. The life analysis considering running-in is in good agreement with the experimental results.
Evaluation of Fretting Fatigue Behavior for Railway Axle Material
Choi, Sung-Jong ; Kwon, Jong-Wan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 139~145
Fretting is a kind of surface damage mechanism observed in mechanically jointed components and structures. The initial crack under fretting damage occurs at lower stress amplitude and lower cycles of cyclic loading than that under plain fatigue condition. This can be observed in automobile and railway vehicle, fossil and nuclear power plant, aircraft etc. In the present study, railway axle material RSA1 used for evaluation of fretting fatigue life. Plain and fretting fatigue tests were carried out using rotary bending fatigue tester with proving ring and bridge type contact pad. Through these experiments, it is found that the fretting fatigue limit decreased about 37% compared to the plain fatigue limit. In fretting fatigue, the wear debris is observed on the contact surface, and oblique cracks at an earlier stage are initiated in contact area. These results can be used as useful data in a structural integrity evaluation of railway axle.
A Study of the Opacity Correlation Factor between the Filtration Type and Light Extinction Type Diesel Smoke Meters
Kim, Young-Ju ; Park, Kyoung-Seok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 146~152
Recently, The air pollution problems become hot issues as the production of the diesel automotive increases. The ministry of environment has enforced a precise inspection law to decrease the vehicle emission. In this circumstances, the smoke measurement is somewhat complicated by the use of the different type smoke meters. Although the paper filtration type opacimeter has been used for measuring smoke widely but currently the light extinction type is being used for precise inspection law. These two type opacimeters are different in their measuring principles on each other. So, for the time being the regulation standards can be confused by these two type opacimeters. In this article, The correlation factor between these two type opacimeters is studied by using engine dynamometer and vehicle test. The result of the dynamometer test shows the light extinction type is more sensitive than the filtration type by 1.47 times. But the relation factor by the vehicle test achieved 1.37 value, which is lower than that of the dynamometer test. In the future study the more precise research is needed to estimate the relation factor on vehicle test.
The Effect of Combustion Process by Intensifying the Air Flow in Combustion Chamber of D.I. Diesel Engine
Bang, Joong-Cheol ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 153~159
The performance of a direct-injection type diesel engine often depends on the strength of air flow in the cylinder, shape of combustion chamber, the number of nozzle holes, etc. This is of course because the process of combustion in the cylinder was affected by the mixture formation process. In the present paper, high speed photography was employed to investigate the effectiveness of holes penetrated from the bottom of cavity wall to piston crown for some more useful utilization of air. The holes would function to improve mixing of fuel and air by the increase of air flow in the cylinder. The results obtained are summarized as follows, (1) Activated first of the combustion by shorten of ignition timing and rapid flame propagation (2) Raised the combustion peak pressure, more close to TDC the formation timing of peak pressure.
Endurance Life Estimation of Taper Bearing Units
Ahn, Tae-Kil ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 160~164
An automotive wheel bearing is one of the most important components to guarantee the service life of a passenger car. The endurance life of a bearing is affected by many parameters such as material properties, heat treatment, lubrication conditions, temperature, loading conditions, bearing geometry, internal clearance and so on. Generally, a tapered roller bearing gives longer endurance life than that of an equivalent size ball bearing. Consequently, the application of taper bearing units will be increased for more compact design and extended warranty. In this paper, we derive the relation between loads and deformations of a taper bearing unit. On the basis of that, we calculate the endurance life of the taper bearing unit considering initial axial clearance.
PIV Measurement of Flow Inside of HVAC Blower Unit
Ji, Ho-Seong ; Kim, Bo-Ram ; Lee, Sang-Joon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 165~173
Flow characteristics inside a blower unit of an automotive HVAC module were investigated experimentally using a high-resolution PIV technique. The PIV system consists of a 2-head Nd:YAG laser, a high-resolution CCD camera, optics and a synchronizer. The prototype siroco-fan with forward-curved blades was operated under the same condition of real car. The scroll casing was made transparently for capturing clear flow images. The time-averaged velocity fields were measured in three cross sections. Flow is accelerated with going toward the outer wall of scroll due to centrifugal force and large pressure gradient formed in the region between the fan and the outer casing wall. The presence of the cut-off region and diffusing duct of fan outlet influences largely the flow structure inside the blower unit.
An Estimate of Vehicle Velocity of Braking Starting Point
Han, Chang-Pyoung ; Park, Kyoung-Suk ; Choi, Myung-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 174~179
The transient brake time or distance is one of very important factors to guess the vehicle speed to inspect an automobile accident. But, it is usual that the vehicle speed is estimated by using only skid mark without considering the transient brake distance. Deceleration and the friction coefficients of tire and road surface play an important role in calculating the brake distance. In this paper, a scheme is presented to estimate more accurate automobile speed. The scheme contains the effect of the transient brake distance on the speed. Experiment was carried out on the asphalt, unpacked road to get relationships between the speeds and the skid mark distances, and to get the transient brake time. The experimental results were utilized to construct the equation to approximate more realistic vehicle speeds.
Validation of a Vehicle Model and an ABS Controller with a Commercial Software Program
Song, Jeong-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 15, issue 5, 2007, Pages 180~187
This paper presents a mathematical vehicle model that is designed to analyze the dynamic performance and to develop various safety control systems. Wheel slip controllers for ABS is also formulated to improve the vehicle response and to increase the safety on slippery road. Validation of the model and controller is performed by comparison with a commercial software package, CarSim. The result shows that performances of developed vehicle model are in good accordance with those of the CarSim on various driving conditions. Developed ABS controller is applied to the vehicle model and CarSim model, and it achieves good control performance. ABS controller improves lateral stability as well as longitudinal one when a vehicle is in turning maneuver on slippery road. A driver model is also designed to control steer angle of the vehicle model. It also shows good performance because the vehicle tracks the desired lane very well.