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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Nov 2010
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Sep 2010
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Jul 2010
Volume 18, Issue 3 - May 2010
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Mar 2010
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
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A Study on HMI Assessment of Joystick Driving System Using the Physiological Signal Measurement Method
Kim, Bae-Young ; Koo, Tae-Yun ; Bae, Chul-Ho ; Park, Jung-Hoon ; Suh, Myung-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 1~7
Recently, the vehicle driving device has been designed for driver's convenience. Especially, the automobile industry develops the vehicle using the joystick instead of steering wheel from the concept car. The biggest strength of using the joystick is that the driver feels less workload and fatigue than when the driver uses steering wheel. However, this kind of study still needs more research and experiments for more accurate result. Therefore, this research evaluated workload according to the driving device by the survey and the measurement of physiological signal. The reason not only using the survey also using the measurement of physiological signal is to support the result of the survey which is not enough to bring the accurate result. There were tow different kinds of methods to carry out this research; SWAT (Subjective Workload Assessment Technique) for the survey and the biopac equipment for the measurement of physiological signal. Furthermore, previously established driving simulator, GPS (Global Positioning System), and Seoul-Cheonan virtual expressway DB were used for the experiment. As the result of the experiment with 13 subjects, it was certain that using joystick device brings less workload and fatigue to the drivers than using steering wheel following both methods-the survey and the measurement of physiological signal. Also, it confirmed the significant result from the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) statistics analysis program.
Study of EMB System Using Wedge Structure
Shin, Dong-Hwan ; Kwon, Oh-Seok ; Bae, Jun-Hyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 8~18
According to the needs of change to hybrid, fuel cell and electric vehicle, and to the increasing demand for safety and eco-friendliness, the necessity of Electro-Mechanical Brake(EMB) is being increased. But, one of the most important problems for realizing EMB to the practical use is that the required motor power for braking is too high. So the high braking efficient EMB is required. In recent years, the Electronic Wedge Brake(EWB) is noticeable for the high braking efficiency. In this research, we examine the improvable matter of the recent published EWB, and we propose the improved mechanism and the cost effective control method using this mechanism. And we test these feasibility by experiment and discuss these meaning and effect.
Numerical Analysis for Booster Effect in DME HCCI Engine with Fuel Stratification
Kwon, O-Seok ; Lim, Ock-Taeck ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 19~25
The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the effects of fuel stratification on reducing the pressure-rise rate at high load in HCCI combustion. It was found that fuel stratification offers good potential to achieve a staged combustion event and reduced pressure-rise rates. The engine is fueled with Di-Methyl Ether (DME) which has unique 2-stage heat release. Numerical analysis is conducted with single and multi-zones model and detailed chemical reaction scheme is done by chemkin and senkin. Calculation result shows that proper fuel stratification prolongs combustion duration and reduce pressure rise rate. Besides IMEP, combustion efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency keep constant. However, too wide fuel stratification increases pressure rise rate and CO and NOx emissions in exhaust gas.
Development of Combustion Model for Engine Control Algorithm Design
Park, Young-Kug ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 26~36
This paper provides a description of the combustion model to obtain an accurate dynamic engine phenomena that satisfies real-time simulation for model-based engine control. The combustion chamber is modeled as a storage device for mass and energy. The combustion process is modeled in terms of a two-zone model for the burned and unburned gas fractions. The mass fraction burnt is modeled in terms of a Wiebe function. The instantaneous net engine torque is calculated from the engine speed and the instantaneous piston work. The modeling accuracy has been tested with a cylinder pressure data on a test bench and also the ability of real-time simulation has been checked. The results show that combustion model yields sufficiently good performance for the model-based control logic design. However the influence factors effected on model accuracy are some room for improvement.
Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of Bolt Tightened in Plastic Region
Cho, Sung-San ; Shin, Chun-Se ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 37~42
Plastic region tightening is widely used in critical bolted joints in internal combustion engines in order to reduce the engine weight by maximizing the use of load-carrying capacity of bolt. Mechanical behavior of bolt tightened in plastic region under external axial tensile load is investigated for various friction conditions using three dimensional finite element analysis. The behavior of bolt tightened in elastic region as well as that in tensile test are investigated for comparison. Tightening process is simulated by rotating the bolt in order to examine the friction effect realistically. It is revealed that the bolt tightened in plastic region can carry more external load until the joint is opened, and yields at lower bolt load than the bolt tightened in elastic region. The friction coefficient has effect on the yield load, but not on the load-carrying capacity. Moreover, the scatter in the bolt preload due to friction begins with plastic deformation of bolt in the angle tightening control, whereas it begins with the onset of tightening in the torque tightening control. The observations are interpreted with the residual torsional stress in the bolt generated during the tightening.
A 3-dimensional Wheel-rail Contact Analysis of Railway Vehicle with 2-point Contacts
Kang, Ju-Seok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 43~52
In this study, the shapes of the wheel and rail are represented by using 3-dimensional surface functions with surface parameters and a 3-dimensional wheel-rail contact analysis is presented. A whole numerical solution of wheel-rail contact at tread and flange including 2-point contacts can be achieved with the proposed numerical algorithm. Kinematic characteristics such as variances of vertical displacement and roll angle, and variance of wheel radius difference for arbitrary yaw and lateral displacement of wheelset, are determined for the KTX wheel-rail pair as an example. The condition of yaw and lateral displacement occurring 2-point contacts to analyze derailment are compared between standard and worn wheels. Differences of contact characteristics between curved and straight rails are also analyzed.
Optimized Strategy of Neighborhood Electric Vehicle with Driving Schedules
Kil, Bum-Soo ; Cho, Chong-Pyo ; Pyo, Young-Dug ; Kim, Gang-Chul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 53~59
The Developing & Producing of Eco-Friendly vehicle have been more incremented, as People appreciate the importance of Earth Environment Conservation. The needs of Neighborhood Electric Vehicle(NEV) that suits Current people's short drive distance is incremented. In this Paper, we define Neighborhood Electric Vehicle through out National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of United States of America's regulation and explain motor and battery of primary constituents of that. We used MATLAB and ADVISOR 200 programs for Simulation, and propsed NEV's Model that tow people can be got in. In this Model, the battery is Lead-acid battery(72V, 85Ah) and the motor is 8kW permanent magnet synchronous motor(PM motor). We compared change of driving range of NEV through out non-changing speed Driving(10km/h, 20km/h, 30km/h, 40km/h) and Manhattan driving schedule.
Study on Multi-Dimensional Simulation of the Flow and Filtration Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters
Kim, Dong-Kyun ; Yoon, Cheon-Seog ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 60~68
In order to understand the flow and filtration characteristics in a wall-flow type DPF(Diesel Particulate Filter), 0-D, 1-D, and 3-D simulations are preformed. In this paper, three model are explained and validated with each other. Based on the comparisons with 1-D and 3-D results for the steady state solution, 3-D CFD analysis is preferable to 1-D for the prediction of wall velocity at the inlet and exit plane. Because PM loading process is transient state phenomena, the combination of full 3-D and time dependent simulation is crucial for the configuration of wall channels. New coupling technique, which is the connection between calculated permeability from 0-D lumped parameter model and UDF(User Defined Functions) of main solver, is proposed for the realisti
A Study on Silane Crosslinking Process of Polypropylene for Enhanced Impact Strength
Kang, Min-Soo ; Park, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Ki-Sung ; Bae, Jong-Rak ; Jeon, Oh-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 69~73
The melt grafting of unsaturated silanes onto polypropylene (PP) in a twin-screw extruder and crosslinking in hot water were studied to enhance impact strength of polypropylene. The influence of grafting formulations on the melt flow rates of grafted PP and the gel percentages of crosslinked PP was investigated. 3-methacryloylpropyltrimethoxysilane (VMMS) unsaturated silane monomer was used. Benzoyl peroxide, (BPO) and Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) were used as an initiator. When benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as an initiator, higher gel percentage and impact strength than those of DCP has been observed. The maximum impact strength was obtained with 0.7 phr of BPO and 2phr of VMMS. The value is 8.7 kgf-cm/cm and it is on a parity with the value of with 20 phr of EOR mixed to PP.
A Study on the Behavior for Automotive Grommet by Using FEA
Han, Chang-Yong ; Lee, Seong-Beom ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 74~79
Automotive industries are interested in material development with low weight and recycling. Grommet is made from EPDM at rubber and used as an automotive component. The nonlinear material properties of rubber are important to predict the behaviors of rubber product. This study concerns material property test to achieve stress-strain curve. Curve fitting is carried out to obtain the nonlinear material constant. The nonlinear material constants of rubber are used for the nonlinear finite element analysis. The results of finite element analysis is executed to predict the behavior property of grommet.
A Study on the Spray-atomization Characteristics of Diesel-ethanol Blended Fuels in a High Pressure Diesel Injection System
Kim, Se-Hun ; Park, Su-Han ; Lee, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 80~87
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of ethanol blending ratio and fuel temperature in diesel-ethanol blended fuel on the spray-atomization characteristics in a high pressure common-rail injection system. In this work, a diesel fuel and three blended fuels were used as test fuels. Blended fuels were made by blending ethanol with a purity 99.9% to diesel fuel, from 0% to 30%. In order to keep diesel-ethanol blending stability, 5% of biodiesel fuel as volumetric ratio was added into test fuels. The fuel temperature was controled in steps with 40K, from 290K to 370K. Macroscopic spray characteristics were investigated by analyzing the spray tip penetration and spray cone angle through spray images obtained from visualization system. In addition, in order to study microscopic spray characteristics of ethanol blended fuels, the droplet diameter, was analyzed using the droplet measuring system. It is revealed that the spray tip penetration is similar regardless of ethanol blending ratio. As ethanol blending ratio is increased, the spray cone angle becomes wider. It is shown that the spray cone angle is affected by low viscosity and density of ethanol. As the fuel temperature increases, the spray tip penetration and spray cone angle become shorter and narrower respectively. The SMD of ethanol blending fuels is smaller than that of diesel fuel because of low viscosity and surface tension of ethanol.
Effects of the Smoke Reduction of Diesel Engine Operated with Ultrasonically Reformed Fuel
Lee, Byoung-Oh ; Kim, Yong-Guk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 88~94
In this paper, the effect of the ultrasonic energy on the diesel engine's smoke reduction has been investigated for indirect injection diesel engine. The smoke concentration of the ultrasonically reformed diesel fuel was reduced remarkably in comparison with conventional diesel fuel. And in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and mass fraction burned was improved but combustion duration was decreased. However, The combustion durations and the smoke concentrations of both diesel fuels were proportional to the increases of engine loads. Also, When the combustion duration has been increasing, the smoke emission has been augmenting in the shape of the exponential functions.
Analysis of Cushion Mechanism with Relief Valve for High-Speed Pneumatic Cylinders
Kim, Do-Tae ; Zhang, Zhong Jie ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 95~103
This paper presents a simulation model of a double-acting high-speed pneumatic cylinder with a relief valve type cushion mechanism. The model predicts piston motion, mass flow rate, pressure and temperature time histories of cushion chamber. Of interest here is to investigate the cushioning effect of varying the piston and piston-rod diameter, cushion ring diameter and length, and stoke in cushion mechanism. As a result, this cushion mechanism is found to be adequate under high-speed driving of pneumatic cylinders. The simulation model proposed here will be very useful to analyze the dynamic characteristics and to improve or design the better cushion mechanism in high-speed pneumatic cushion cylinders.
Development of Accident Analysis Model in Car to Pedestrian Accident
Kang, Dae-Min ; Ahn, Seung-Mo ; An, Jung-O ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 104~109
The fatality of pedestrian accounts for about 21.2% of all fatality at 2007 year in Korea. In car to pedestrian accident it is very important to inspect the throw distance of pedestrian after collision for exact reconstructing of the accident. The variables that influence on the throw distance of pedestrian can be classified into the factors of vehicle and pedestrian, and road condition. It was simulated by PC-CRASH, a kinetic analysis program for a traffic accident in sedan type vehicle and SPSS program was used for regression analysis. From the results, the throw distance of pedestrian increased with the increasing of vehicle velocity, and decreased with the increasing of impact offset. Also it decreased with the increasing of velocity of pedestrian at accident, and throw distance at the road condition of wet was longer than that at dry condition. Finally, the regression model of sedan type vehicle on the throw distance of pedestrian was as follows;
Vibration Analysis of Vehicle Seat Depending on Driving Condition
Kang, Jae-Young ; Kim, Key-Sun ; Choi, Seok-Min ; Choi, Tae-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 110~115
This paper studies the vibration characteristics of a vehicle seat on several driving conditions. Modal test for a vehicle seat is conducted for the three different boundary conditions: on the rigid jig, BIW and the full vehicle. In driving on various road conditions and speeds, vibration level is measured at several locations including seat mounting and seat-back. The vibration pattern for each driving condition is found where the suspension mode and the 1st bending and torsion modes of the seat make the major contribution on it.
Modeling Method for the Force and Deformation Curve of Energy Absorbing Structures to Consider Initial Collapse Behaviour in Train Crash
Kim, Joon-Wo ; Koo, Jeong-Seo ; Lim, Jong-Soon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 116~126
The Korean rolling stock safety regulation stipulates that the collision deceleration of a car body should be maintained under average 5g and maximum 7.5g during train collisions. One-dimensional dynamic model of a full rake train, which is made up of nonlinear springs/bars-dampers-masses, is often used to estimate the collision decelerations of car bodies in a basic design stage. By the way, the previous studies have often used some average force-deformation curve for energy absorbing structures in rolling stock. Through this study, we intended to analyse how much the collision deceleration levels are influenced by the initial peak force modeling in the one-dimensional force-deformation curve. The numerical results of the one-dimensional dynamic model for the Korean High-Speed Train show that the initial peak force modeling gives significant effect on the collision deceleration levels. Therefore the peak force modeling of the force-deformation curve should be considered in one-dimensional dynamic model of a full rake train to evaluate the article 16 of the domestic rolling stock safety regulations.
Mode Shape Variation of Disc Brake with Respect to Contact Stiffness Variation
Kang, Jae-Young ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 127~132
Eigensolutions associated with self-excited vibration of disc brake system can be obtained by complex eigenvalue analysis. The eigenvalue sensitivity to change in contact stiffness can be used to demonstrate stability criteria and eigenvalue veering. Dynamic instability on eigenvalue loci with respect to the variation of contact stiffness is found to be related to mode interaction between two adjacent modes. This modal interaction can be effectively shown by mode shape visualization. This paper presents the methodology to construct the mode shape of disc brake system where a disc and two brake pads are coupled with contact stiffness.
A Study on the Overlay Model for Description of Hysteresis Behavior of a Material under Non-isothermal Loading
Kim, Sang-Ho ; Seo, Dong-Hun ; Yeo, Tae-In ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 133~142
The present work focuses on the characterization of material parameters of the Overlay(multilinear hardening) model for analyzing the non-isothermal cyclic deformation. In the previous study, all the parameters were especially based on the Overlay theories, and a simple method was suggested to find out the best material parameters for the isothermal cyclic deformation analysis. Based on the previous research this paper f dther improves the isothermal parameters and suggests how to apply the isothermal parameters to the non-isothermal conditions especially for the description of TMF(Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue) hysteresis behavior. The parameters are determined and calibrated using 400 series stainless steel test data in the reference papers. For the implementation into ABAQUS, a user subroutine is developed by means of ABAQUS/UMAT. The finite element results show good agreement with test for the case of uniaxial non-isothermal cyclic loading, signifying the proposed method can be used in the TMF analysis of the converter-inserted heavy duty muffler system and the stainless steel exhaust-manifold system which are to be done in our future research.
The Characteristics of Emission on Simultaneous Application with Biodiesel, Oxygenated Fuel(EGBE) and EGR in a DI Diesel Engine
Choi, Seung-Hun ; Oh, Young-Taig ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 143~148
In this study, the potential possibility of biodiesel fuel(BDF) and oxygenated fuel(ethylene glycolvmono-n-butyl ether; EGBE) was investigated as an effective method of decreasing the smoke emission. The smoke emission of blending fuel (BDF and EGBE 0~20 vol-%) was reduced in comparison with diesel fuel and it was reduced approximately 64% at 2000 rpm, full load in the 20% of blending rate. But torque and brake specific energy consumption( BSEC) didn't have no large differences. Also, the effects of exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) for the reduction of NOx emission has been investigated. Consequently, It was found that simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emission was achieved with BDF(90 vol-%) and EGBE(10 vol-%) blended fuel and cooled EGR method(5~10%).
Compatibility for Proposed R.94 PDB Test
Jang, Eun-Ji ; Kim, Joseph ; Beom, Hyen-Kyun ; Kwon, Sung-Eun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 3, 2010, Pages 149~155
Currently various safety tests are being performed in many countries with growing interest in vehicle safety. However the vehicles which have good safety performance in these tests could not secure the good performance in real car to car accident. So new test protocol using progressive deformable barrier (PDB) was proposed by EEVC in Europe, NHTSA in USA and some vehicle manufacturers, etc. The target of PDB test is to control partner protection in addition to self-protection on the same test. The proposal is to update current ECE R.94 frontal ODB test. So barrier, impact speed, overlap are changed to avoid bottoming-out in the test configuration. In this paper 3 different tests (R.94, EuroNCAP and PDB test) were carried out using current production vehicles with same structure. The results of these tests were compared to understand PDB test. As a result PDB test shows the highest vehicle deceleration and dummy injury because PDB offers a progressive increase in stiffness in depth and height. However vehicle intrusion was affected with rather test velocity than stiffness of deformable barrier. PDB deformation data is used for partner protection assessment using PDB software and it shows that the test vehicle is rather not aggressive.