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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Nov 2010
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Sep 2010
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Jul 2010
Volume 18, Issue 3 - May 2010
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Mar 2010
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
Selecting the target year
Optimal Location Issue on both Supporting Bearing and Unbalance Mass of the Balance Shaft Module in a Inline 4-Cylinder Engine
Lee, Dong-Won ; Kim, Chan-Jung ; Bae, Chul-Yong ; Lee, Bong-Hyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 1~7
Large quantity of bending deformation as well as irregular rotating torque fluctuation are the main struggles of the balance shaft module during a high speed rotation. Since two issues are much sensitive to the location of both supporting bearing and unbalance mass at a balance shaft, it is recommended to construct a design strategy on balance shaft at the early stage so as to save developing time and effort before approaches to the detailed design process. In this paper, an optimal design formulation is proposed to minimize the elastic strain energy due to bending as well as the kinematic energy of polar moment of inertia in rotation. Case studies of optimal design are conducted for different mass ratio as well as linear combination of objective function and its consequence reveals that global optimum of balance shaft model is existed over possible design conditions. Simulation shows that best locations of both supporting bearing and unbalance are globally 20% and 80%, respectively, over total length of a balance shaft.
Fault Tolerant Control of Sensor Fault of EPB System
Lee, Won-Goo ; Lee, Young-Ok ; Jang, Min-Seok ; Lee, Choong-Woo ; Chung, Chung-Choo ; Chung, Han-Byul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 8~17
In this paper, a fault tolerant control against sensor faults of electric parking brake (EPB) is proposed. Fault tolerant control method of EPB system is strongly demanded since sensor faults can endanger a driver's safety. In this paper, a clamp force estimation method is presented using motor's armature current and angular velocity. Clamp force estimation method is applied for fault detection method with parity equations. The goal of the detection method is to detect and identify faults in encoder, current sensor, force sensor, and parking cable. And a switching logic for fault tolerant control against the three sensor faults is suggested. Experimental results show that the proposed force estimation method satisfies the specifications of EPB system. The effectiveness of the fault detection method is validated with experimental results. Although a single sensor fault happens, EPB system with the proposed fault detection method does not develop into a failure on subsystem or system level.
Development of Finite Element Model of Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Dummy
Yi, Sang-Il ; Mohan, Pradeep K. ; Kan, Cing-Dao Steve ; Park, Gyung-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 18~30
As the automobile industry is developing, the number of deaths and injuries has increased. To reduce the damages from automobile accidents, the government of each country proposes experimental conditions for reproducing the accident and establishes the vehicle safety regulations. Automotive manufacturers are trying to make safer vehicles by satisfying the requirements. The Hybrid III crash test dummy is a standard Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) used for measuring the occupant's injuries in a frontal impact test. Since a real crash test using a vehicle is fairly expensive, a computer simulation using the Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) is widely used. Therefore, a detailed and robust F.E. dummy model is needed to acquire more accurate occupant injury data and behavior during the crash test. To achieve this goal, a detailed F.E. model of the Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy is constructed by using the reverse engineering technique in this research. A modeling process is proposed to construct the F.E. model. The proposed modeling process starts from disassembling the physical dummy. Computer Aided Design (CAD) geometry data is constructed by three-dimensional (3-D) scanning of the disassembled physical dummy model. Based on the geometry data, finite elements of each part are generated. After mesh generation, each part is assembled with other parts using the joints and rigid connection elements. The developed F.E. model of dummy is simulated based on the FMVSS 572 validation regulations. The results of simulation are compared with the results of physical tests.
Greenhouse Gas and Pollutant Emission from Light-Duty Vehicles Regarding the Relative Positive Acceleration
Lee, Tae-Woo ; Keel, Ji-Hoon ; Park, Kyung-Kyun ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Park, Yong-Hee ; Hong, Ji-Hyung ; Lee, Dae-Yup ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 31~39
Although driving patterns strongly influence greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission rate from light duty vehicles, emission measurements have been mainly based on chassis dynamometer testing with one standard driving pattern. And there has been limited work on quantifying the independent effect of driving parameters on emission rate because of multidimensional nature of real-world driving pattern. The objective of this study is to obtain the quantitative effect of relative positive acceleration (RPA) on vehicle emission rate. RPA has been used to define the occurrence of acceleration demanding large amounts of power in certain driving distance and shown to be a significant affecting parameter for real-world emission rate. 40 driving patterns have been developed with fixed driving parameters to investigate independent effect of RPA. For the same values of average vehicle speed and power, the trend in carbon dioxide emission rate and fuel consumption with respect to RPA is very clear. Emission rate of nitrogen oxide and particulate matter also increase with respect to RPA, but the trend is less clear. Carbon dioxide emission from diesel vehicle appear to be more affected by high accelerations compared to that from gasoline vehicle because of high intake air restriction during acceleration caused by turbocharger and intercooler. The results have implications for the possible reduction of environmental effects through better traffic planning and management, driver education and car design.
Spray-atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuel with Multiple Injection
Park, Su-Han ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Se-Hun ; Lee, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 40~47
This study deals with the investigation about the effect of the pilot and split injection strategies on the spray-atomization characteristics of biodiesel fuel derived from a soybean oil. Experimental results were compared with the calculation results obtained from the numerical analysis. Fuel properties of biodiesel according to the variation of the fuel temperature were inserted to the fuel library in the KIVA code. The amount of fuel injection is divided into equal mass for each split and main injection. In this work, the pilot injection strategy can be achieved by the amount of fuel injection shortly before the start of the main injection. A spray tip penetration, radial distance and spray area were measured for the analysis of macroscopic spray characteristics. In addition, the local and overall droplet size distribution were calculated by using KIVA-3V code to study the effect of split and pilot injection on the atomization performance under high ambient pressure. From these studies, the experimental results showed the multiple injection induced the decrease of the spray tip penetration due to the reduction and division of the spray momentum compared to single injection. In the atomization performance, the droplet size increased in the case of the multiple injection a little. Moreover, the SMD slightly increased as the fuel droplets goes through the axial direction. The spray behavior of numerical results were well predicted the experimental multiple spray characteristics of biodiesel fuel.
Characteristics of Air Pollution at a Junction Area Contaminated with Vehicle Emissions
Lee, Seung-Bok ; Bae, Gwi-Nam ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 48~53
Roadside measurement of ultrafine particles, black carbon, and NOx was carried out to investigate air pollution at a junction area contaminated with vehicle emissions in Seoul from March 19 to 23, 2007. Diurnal variation of ultrafine particles, black carbon, and
concentrations at a roadside showed minimum at around 2-4 a.m. and two peak modes during the morning and evening rush hours. Since these pollutants might be mainly emitted from vehicles, the roadside was highly contaminated with vehicles.
Architecture of Signal Processing Unit to Improve Range and Velocity Error for Automotive FMCW Radar
Hyun, Eu-Gin ; Lee, Jong-Hun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 54~61
In this paper, we design the signal processing unit to effectively support the proposed algorithm for an automotive Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave(FMCW) radar. In the proposed method, we can obtain the distance and velocity with improved error depending on each range(long, middle, and short) of the target. Since a high computational capacity is required to obtain more accurate distance and velocity for target in near range, the proposed signal processing unit employs the time de-interleaving and the frequency interpolation method to overcome the limitation. Moreover, for real-time signal processing, the parallel architecture is used to extract simultaneously the distance and velocity in each range.
Atomization Characteristics for Various Injection Nozzle Type and Property Changes
Kim, Yong-Guk ; Ryu, Jeong-In ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 62~67
The objective of this experimental study is to verify atomization characteristics of emulsified fuel. The emulsified fuel made of adding the ultrasonic energy is analyzed with atomization characteristics and chemicophysics. As water contents within emulsified fuel and needle angle increase, SMD, viscosity and surface tension were analyzed. By measuring the distribution percentage of hydrogen volume by
-NMR spectrum, the proportion of aromatics and paraffins is analyzed and compared each other. The results of study is as follows. First, as water contents within emulsified fuel and needle angle of nozzle increases, SMD increases. Second, for the distribution percentage of hydrogen volume, the distribution percentage of aromatics is about 10% and the rest portion is paraffins.
Optimal Condition for Spot Weldment of Dissimilar Steel Sheet in Automotive
Han, Jae-Hee ; Yang, Sung-Mo ; Yu, Hyo-Sun ; Kim, Tae-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 68~73
Welding conditions in process of spot welding must become optimum and need to guarantee stability and reliability of vehicle body considering dynamic load history. Because welding parameters in process of spot welding are various, it is difficult that the quality of spot weldment was included in the optimum levels. In this paper, we found the optimum welding conditions satisfying KS spot welding qualities using genetic algorithm and spot welding experiments of high tensile strength steel and galvanized steel. Those experiments were dissimilar weld and 2-lap spot welding. Genetic algorithm created random welding condition after that, selected optimum individuals by probability concept.
A Study on Performance Characteristics in Diesel Engine When Applied Ball Bearing Type Turbocharger
Eom, Myung-Do ; Kim, Moon-Suck ; Baik, Doo-Sung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 74~78
Turbocharger in the application to a diesel engine was widely used in automobile industries for the improvement of engine performance. To comply with stringent emission standards, ball bearing turbocharger has been developed by applying new emission reduction technology. Up to date turbocharger has been proved as an essential part of diesel engines by demonstrating its improved engine performance, fuel efficiency and reduced emission as well. In this research, the performance of the ball bearing turbocharger was compared by the conventional journal bearing type turbocharger. The results shows that ball baring turbocharger was proved to be 10~13% higher fuel efficiency and 30% less average emission than journal bearing turbocharger.
The Curve Equation of a Flat Wiper Spring Rail Inducing Uniformly Distributed Loads
Yoon, Young-Sam ; Kim, Cheol ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 79~83
Recently, the flat wiper which is one piece wiper and subjected to a pressing force at a single center point is gaining wide applications on automotive windshields. However, nonuniform reactive pressure distributions takes place, so that wiping is not completed at such locations. The wiping performance of the flat wiper is best when a wiper and a curved windshield have perfect contact without gaps under the specified pressing force of 13 ~ 15 gf/cm. Therefore, it is necessary that the realistic curvature equation of a wiper spring-rail should be obtained. Finite element analysis, CATIA script-macro function, and the least square method were utilized to find out the curvature of a spring-rail for a perfect contact with a windshield under a specified concentrated load. The curvature equation became the third order polynomial.
The Electro-Magnetic Susceptibility Test Method of a Road Vehicle Considering the Field Uniformity
Bae, Min-Gwan ; Shin, Jae-Kon ; Yong, Gee-Joong ; Woo, Hyun-Gu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 84~91
Owing to revolutionary developments in automobile technologies, a variety of advanced vehicles - hybrid vehicle, hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle, electric vehicle, etc. - emerges recently. The safety is getting more important for developing automobiles. The electro-magnetic compatibility has to be assured, since those advanced vehicles are equipped with various new electronic systems. Electro-magnetic compatibility tests, in general, consist of an EMI(electro-magnetic interference) test and an EMS (electro-magnetic susceptibility) test. We investigated the susceptibility test method suggested in KMVSS (Korean Motor Vehicle Safety Standard) as the EMS test method. A series of experiments results that the above test method should be partially revised to comply with a Korean governmental standard method. In this paper, the some directions of modifications are presented to enhance the quality of the above EMS test method.
Study on the 3D Virtual Ground Modeling and Application for Real-time Vehicle Driving Simulation on Off-road
Lee, Jeong-Han ; Yoo, Wan-Suk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 92~98
Virtual ground modeling is one of key topic for real-time vehicle dynamic simulation. This paper discusses about the virtual 3D road modeling process using parametric surface concept. General road data is a type of lumped position vector so interpolation process is required to compute contact of internal surface. The parametric surface has continuity and linearity within boundaries and functions are very simple to find out contact point. In this paper, the parametric surface formula is adopted to road modeling to calculate road hight. Position indexing method is proposed to reduce memory size and resource possession, and a simple mathematical method for contact patch searching is also proposed. The developed road process program is tested in dynamic driving simulation on off-road. Conclusively, the new virtual road program shows high performance of road hight computation in vast field of off-road simulation.
Effect of Induced Voltage on Spray Characteristics of Piezo Actuated Diesel Injector
Lee, Jin-Woo ; Bae, Choong-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 99~106
A piezo-driven injector was applied with a purpose to evaluate the effect of induced voltage on spray characteristics. For this, injection rate, macroscopic imaging, ambient gas entrainment and particle sizing were carried out. It was shown that initial slope of injection rate was steeper as induced voltage increased, while slope of injection rate became mostly constant with fully opened needle. From macroscopoic imaging, longer spray tip penetration was produced with higher induced voltage. Moreover, wider spray angle was detected in the early stage of spray development, when higher induced voltage was applied. Ambient air entrainment rate was increased and particle size was reduced with higher induced voltage.
Comparison of Simulation Models for Train Buffer Couplings
Jang, Hyeon-Mog ; Kim, Nam-Wook ; Park, Yeong-Il ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 107~114
Coupling systems for trains need more complicated buffer equipments than existing systems because the recent tendency of the regulations enforces trains to be safe for collisions even when the driving speed is higher than before. Using hydraulic buffer is an effective way to satisfy the requirement while it causes the increase of the cost for the coupling system. In this study, we introduce the methodology to build a simulation model for the hydraulic buffer, which could be installed into the coupling systems. In the simulation model of the hydraulic buffer, the reacting force is determined by both buffer stroke and speed whereas the elastic buffer model is designed by using only the buffer stroke in other studies. The simulation results with the advanced hydraulic buffer model shows that the simulating results can be close the real experimental results around 10%, and, if we considers friction forces, the simulation calculates the maximum force within 10% comparing to the experimental.
A Study on Reduction of Fuel Consumption by Displaying Fuel Injection Data for Drivers
Ko, Kwang-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 115~120
The reduction rate of fuel consumption by showing the fuel injection data for driver was measured in this study. The fuel injection data are composed of injection period, real time fuel economy and average fuel economy. The fuel consumption was measured by processing the voltage signal of injector and driven distance by GPS sensor. The fuel consumption was reduced by driving more carefully, i.e driving more steady without sudden acceleration and deceleration watching these fuel injection data. The reduction rate was up to 37% and the rate increased as the driver is customed to this driving pattern.
Numerical Prediction of Permanent Deformation of Automotive Weather Strip
Park, Joon-Chul ; Min, Byung-Kwon ; Oh, Jeong-Seok ; Moon, Hyung-Il ; Kim, Heon-Young ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 121~126
The automotive weather strip has functions of isolating of water, dust, noise and vibration from outside. To achieve good sealing performance, weather strip should be designed to have the high contact force and wide contact area. However, these design causes excessive permanent deformation of weather strip. The causes of permanent deformation is generally explained to be the chemical material detrioration and physical variation and cyclic loading, etc. This paper introduces a numerical method to predict the permanent deformation using the time dependent viscoelastic model which is represented by Prony series in ABAQUS. Uniaxial tension and creep tests were conducted to obtain the material data. And the lab. test for the permanent deformation was accelerated during shorter time, 300 hours. The permanent deformation of weather strip was successfully predicted under the different loading conditions and different section shapes using the suggested numerical process.
A Study on Fatigue Design for Welded Joint of STS301L
Baek, Seung-Yeb ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 127~131
Stainless steel sheets are widely used as the structural material for the railroad cars and the commercial vehicles. These kinds of structures used stainless steel sheets are commonly fabricated by using the gas welding. For fatigue design of gas welded joints such as fillet and plug type joint, it is necessary to obtain design information on stress distribution at the weldment as well as fatigue strength of gas welded joints. And also, the influence of the geometrical parameters of gas welded joints on stress distribution and fatigue strength must be evaluated. Thus, in this paper,
curves were obtained by fatigue tests. Using these results,
curves were rearranged in the.
relation with the hot spot stresses at the gas welded joints.
Performance and Emission Characteristics of Dual-fuel(Diesel-CNG) Combustion in a Diesel Engine
Ryu, Kyung-Hyun ; Park, Jin-Chul ; Choi, Kyu-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 132~139
This paper describes an investigation of the performance and emission characteristics of a commercial cylinder direct injection diesel engine operating on natural gas with pilot diesel ignition. Engine tests for variations in the pilot injection timing were performed at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. This study showed that the performance of the dual-fuel diesel engine increased as the engine load increased and as the pilot diesel injection timing angle advanced. The peaks of cylinder pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate all increased while the fuel ignition timing advanced with the pilot injection timing. The engine operation was stable, and the least smoke was produced at a pilot injection timing of
before top dead center. NOx emissions were only exhausted under high-load conditions, and they increased as the pilot injection timing angle advanced.
Experimental Study on the Emission Characteristics of Diesel, GTL, and their Blends with Biodiesel in a Diesel Engine
Lee, Yong-Gyu ; Moon, Gun-Feel ; Jeong, Dong-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 18, issue 4, 2010, Pages 140~146
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the emission characteristics for various alternative fuels in a 2.0 liter 4-cylinder turbo-charged diesel engine. The conventional diesel fuel, neat GTL (Gas to Liquid), blends of diesel and biodiesel(BD20), and blends of GTL and biodiesel(G+BD20 and G+BD40) were applied, and their emission characteristics were compared at various steady-state engine operating conditions. A noticeable reduction of exhaust emissions compared to conventional diesel fuel, except for NOx emission, was observed for G+BD40, where there is a maximum 30% averaged reduction for gaseous emissions (THC and CO) and 70% for PM mass concentrations. When comparing PM size distributions for biodiesel blended fuels, the PM number concentration in accumulation mode, where the diameter of PM is greater than 50 nm, decreased due to additional oxygen content in the biodiesel fuel; in nucleation mode, where the diameter of PM is less than 50nm, there was a slight increase or decrease in the PM number concentration depending on the amount of oxygen available in the combustion chamber.