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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Nov 2011
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Sep 2011
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Jul 2011
Volume 19, Issue 3 - May 2011
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Mar 2011
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
System Modeling and Simulation for an In-wheel Drive Type
Lee, Jeong-Yeob ; Suh, Seung-Whan ; Shon, Woong-Hee ; Kim, Chang-Jun ; Han, Chang-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 1~11
The skid-steering method that applied a number of mobile robot currently is extremely effective in narrow area. But it contains several problems such as its natural properties, slip, occurred by different direction between vehicle's driving and wheel's rotary. Through this paper, suitable control algorithm of
skid steering wheeled vehicle and its driving methods are proposed by analyzing the behavior
skid-steered wheeled vehicle model designed by engineering analysis strategy. To do this, based on a behavior of designed driving system, required torque and other performance of in-wheel type motor system are considered, and finally control algorithm for each wheel is proposed and simulated using this model. To test the proposed vehicle system, driver model is designed using PID closed loop system and included in the total driving control algorithm. The Performance of designed vehicle model is verified by using DYC (Direct Yaw Control) cornering mode and slip mode control to follow the steering input which are essential to evaluate the driving performance of
vehicle. Proposed modeling strategy and control method will be implemented to the real
in-wheel drive type vehicle.
Real-world Accident Study on Injury Characteristics of Elderly Driver in Car-to-Car Frontal Crashes
Hong, Seung-Jun ; Park, Won-Pil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 12~19
Real-world accident cases were investigated to understand injury characteristics of the elderly driver. A total 10 cases of car-to-car frontal crash accidents from passenger car including SUV claimed to domestic car insurance company were reviewed. The injury characteristics of the elderly were analyzed from personal information (gender, age), medical treatment record (medical certificate, curative days), vehicle information (model, air-bag, seatbelt) and damage information. This study showed that elderly driver has higher possibility of thorax injury than non-elderly's. Moreover, Injury type and severity were more severe than non-elderly driver at similar type accident conditions. Also, elderly driver's medical treatment period needs 3 times more than non-elderly driver's.
Effect of EGR Rate on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Single-cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine with Common-rail
Heo, Jeong-Yun ; Cha, June-Pyo ; Yoon, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 20~25
The purpose of this work is an experimental investigation of combustion and emission characteristics in DI diesel engine applied high EGR rate as a method of low-temperature combustion. In order to analyze the effect of EGR rate variation, a single-cylinder DI diesel engine was operated under various EGR rate conditions. In addition, injection timing was variously controlled to investigate the effect of injection timing in DI diesel engine using the cooled-EGR system. The NOx emissions were decreased in accordance with the increase of EGR rate. On the contrary, soot emissions were generally increased under applied EGR conditions. However, soot emissions were decreased in a few injection timings under high EGR rate conditions. The EGR results show that the ignition delay were increased by decreased oxygen concentrations in combustion chamber under the high EGR rate.
Transient Air-fuel Ratio Control of the Cylinder Deactivation Engine during Mode Transition
Kwon, Min-Su ; Lee, Min-Kwang ; Kim, Jun-Soo ; SunWoo, Myoung-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 26~34
Hybrid powertrain systems have been developed to improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines. In the case of a parallel hybrid powertrain system, an engine and a motor are directly coupled. Because of the hardware configuration of the parallel hybrid system, friction and the pumping losses of internal combustion engines always exists. Such losses are the primary factors that result in the deterioration of fuel efficiency in the parallel-type hybrid powertrain system. In particular, the engine operates as a power consumption device during the fuel-cut condition. In order to improve the fuel efficiency for the parallel-type hybrid system, cylinder deactivation (CDA) technology was developed. Cylinder deactivation technology can improve fuel efficiency by reducing pumping losses during the fuel-cut driving condition. In a CDA engine, there are two operating modes: a CDA mode and an SI mode according to the vehicle operating condition. However, during the mode change from CDA to SI, a serious fluctuation of the air-fuel ratio can occur without adequate control. In this study, an air-fuel ratio control algorithm during the mode transition from CDA to SI was proposed. The control algorithm was developed based on the mean value CDA engine model. Finally, the performance of the control algorithm was validated by various engine experiments.
Comparison of DME HCCI Operating Ranges for the Thermal Stratification and Fuel Stratification based on a Multi-zone Modeling
Jeong, Dong-Won ; Lim, Ock-Taeck ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 35~41
This work investigates the potential of in-cylinder thermal stratification and fuel stratification for extending the operating ranges in HCCI engines, and the coupling between thermal stratification and fuel stratification. Computational results areemployed. The computations were conducted using both a custom multi-zone version and the standard single-zone version of the Senkin application of the CHEMKINII kinetics rate code, and kinetic mechanism for di-methyl ether (DME). This study shows that the potential of thermal stratification and fuels stratification for extending the high-load operating limit by a staged combustion event with reduced pressure-rise rates is very large. It was also found that those stratification offers good potential to extend low-load limit by a same mechanism in high-load. However, a combination of thermal stratification and fuel stratification is not more effective than above stratification techniques for extending the operating ranges showing similar results of fuel stratification. Sufficient condition for combustion (enough temperature for) turns misfire in low-load limit to operate engines, which also leads to knock in high-load limit abruptly due to the too high temperature with high. DME shows a potential for maximizing effect of stratification to lower pressure-rise rate due to the characteristics of low-temperature heat release.
Part Load Performance Characteristics according to Port Masking
Kim, Hyeong-Sig ; Kim, In-Ok ; Park, Chan-Jun ; Ohm, In-Yong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 42~49
To expand lean misfire limit and improve combustion stability, the effects of port masking were estimated to secure basic data for applying the mechanism to SI engine instead of asymmetrical port and port throttling devises. For this purpose, various shapes and ratios of masking plates were mounted between port and manifold. The masking effects were evaluated by mixture response test under various load and speed conditions. The results showed that lean misfire limits were expended and fast combustion was observed for all masking shapes and ratios, especially, the effect of diagonal 1/4 masking was remarkable. In conclusion, the port masking method could be easily applied to engine without redesign of port for improving part load performance.
Development of Map based Open Loop Control Algorithm for Urea - SCR System
Ham, Yun-Young ; Park, Yong-Sung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 50~56
To meet the NOx limit without a penalty of fuel consumption, Urea-SCR system is currently regarded as promising NOx reduction technology for diesel engines. SCR system has to achieve maximal NOx conversion in combination with minimal
slip. In this study, map based open loop control for urea injection was developed and assessed in the European Transient Cycle (ETC) for heavy duty diesel engine. The basic urea quantity set-value which was calculated using the look up tables of engine out NOx, exhaust flow rate and optimum NSR resulted in NOx reduction of 80% and the average
slip of 24 ppm and maximum of 79 ppm. In order to reduce
storage control algorithm was applied to correct the basic urea quantity and reduced
slip levels to the average 15 ppm and maximum 49 ppm while keeping NOx reduction of 76%. With high and increasing SCR temperature, the
storage capacity decreases, which leads to
slip. The resulting
slip peak can be avoided by stopping or significantly reducing the urea injection during the SCR temperature gradient is over
Hydropneumatic Modeling and Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of a Heavy Truck Semi-active Cabin Air Suspension System
Lee, Kwang-Heon ; Jeong, Heon-Sul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 57~65
In this paper, a hydropneumatic modeling and dynamic analysis of a heavy truck semi-active cabin air suspension system is presented. Semi-active cabin air suspension system improves driver's ride comfort by controlling the damping characteristics in accordance with driving situation. So it can reduce vibration between truck frame and cabin. Semi-active cabin air suspension system is consist of air spring, leveling valve and CDC shock absorber, and full cabin system are mathematically modelled using AMESim software. Simulation results of components and full cabin system are compared with experimental data of components and test results of a cabin using 6 axis simulation table. It is found that the simulation results are in good agreements with test results, and the hydropneumatic model can be used well to predict dynamic characterics of heavy truck semi-active cabin air suspension system.
Performance Evaluation of PTFE Oil-seal for Automotive Engine Front Part
Choi, Hyun-Jin ; Park, Chul-Woo ; Lee, Jong-Cheol ; Kim, Jong-Gab ; Choi, Seong-Dae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 66~71
This study analyzed the mechanical characteristics and evaluated their subsequent performance for two types of seals which reinforced characteristics with lower friction and anti-wear functions among the foremost important features in the automotive engine seals; one with the addition of glass fiber to PTFE(Polytetrafluoro ethylene); the other with the addition of self-lubricant molybdenumin addition to the glass fiber. Based on the configuration design of seal installed to the front part in the automotive engine, this study carried out interpretations on the stress and reaction for those two types of oil seals to compare the maximum stress and contact load generated from the seal steel, rubber and PTFE lip. This study also verified the stress concentration and anti-wear performance through the coefficient of friction, torque and durability test by producing two types of PTFE seals actually.
Development of Diagnosis System for Hub Bearing Fault in Driving Vehicle
Im, Jong-Soon ; Park, Ji-Hun ; Kim, Jin-Yong ; Yun, Han-Soo ; Cho, Yong-Bum ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 72~77
In this paper, we propose effective diagnosis algorithm for hub bearing fault in driving vehicle using acceleration signal and wheel speed signal measured in hub bearing unit or knuckle. This algorithm consists of differential, envelope and power spectrum method. We developed diagnosis system for realizing proposed algorithm. This system consists of input device including acceleration sensor and wheel speed sensor, calculation device using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and display device using Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Using this diagnosis system, a driver can see hub bearing fault(flaking) from the vibration in driving vehicle. With early repairing, he can keep good ride feeling and prevent accident of vehicle resulting from hub bearing fault.
A Study on the Conversion Performance of Lean NOx Trap for a 4-stroke Diesel Engine
Han, Joon-Sup ; Oh, Jung-Mo ; Lee, Ki-Hyung ; Lee, Jin-Ha ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 78~83
Diesel engine has many advantages such as high thermal efficiency, low fuel consumption and low emission of CO2. However, the diesel engine faced with strengthened emission regulation about NOx and PM. To suppress NOx emission, after-treatment systems such as Lean NOx Trap (LNT), Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are considered as a more practical strategy. This paper investigated the performance of Lean NOx trap of the 4 stroke diesel engine which had a LNT catalyst. Characteristic of exhaust emission at NEDC mode was analyzed. From this result, the effect of nozzle attaching degree, injection quantity and gas flow change on NOx conversion performance was clarified.
A Study on the Coating Thickness Prediction of a Piston Skirt
Chun, Sang-Myung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 84~91
The purpose of this study is to find how to be formed the wet film thickness during the low friction coating process for a piston skirt with application to the theory of screen printing. In other words, the general expressions predicting the pressure under a blade and the volume of coating fluid passing through the blade edge are derived. Using these expressions, the coating thickness on a piston skirt during a sample blade coating process can be quantitatively assessed.
A Study on Automatic Compensation for Head Lamps Cut-off Line Under Load Variation
Kim, Ki-Hyeon ; Kim, Jun-Hyeon ; Byeon, Dong-Kyu ; Lee, Dong-Ik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 92~97
Vehicle lightings are very important for safe driving during night time. Since the eye recovery time after an exposure to oncoming headlights would take after several seconds, the aiming point of vehicle head lamps have to pass safety requirements. Despite the fact that vehicle inclination is variable with vehicle load conditions, the head lamps aiming point is usually fixed at a constant position which is set by car manufacturer. Consequently, vehicle head lamps under varying load conditions often make people in the opposing vehicle uncomfortable, and even worse, can cause an accident. This paper presents an active vehicle lighting mechanism to automatically adjust its aiming point, or cut-off line, in order to compensate the change in vehicle inclination resulting from load variations. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through a set of simulations and experiments with a real vehicle.
Diesel SCR Development to Meet US Tier2 Bin5 Emission Regulation
Lee, Kang-Won ; Kang, Jung-Whun ; Jo, Chung-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 98~104
The introduction of a diesel engine into the passenger car and light duty applications in the United States involves significant technical challenges for the automotive makers. This paper describes the SCR System optimization procedure for such a diesel engine application to meet Tier2 Bin5 emission regulation. A urea SCR system, a representative
reduction after-treatment technique, is applied to a 3.0 liter diesel engine. To achieve the maximum
reduction performance, the exhaust system layout was optimized using series of the computational fluid dynamics and the urea distribution uniformity test. Furthermore a comprehensive simulation model for the key factors influencing
reduction performance was developed and embedded in the Simulink/Matlab environment. This model was then applied to the urea SCR system and played a key role to shorten the time needed for SCR control parameter calibration. The potential of a urea SCR system for reducing diesel
emission is shown for FTP75 and US06 emission standard test cycle.
Performance Evaluation on the Addition of Low-pressure Loop EGR in a Commercial Diesel Engine
Wang, Tae-Joong ; Lee, Jong-Yoon ; Shim, Eui-Joon ; Kim, Duk-Sang ; Lee, Dong-In ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 105~110
Through this study, the performance evaluation on the addition of low-pressure loop EGR(Exhaust Gas Recirculation) in a 6.0 L commercial diesel engine was carried out using WAVE modeling and simulation. Since the key technology of advanced diesel engine combustion such as low-temperature combustion is to steadily supply high rates of EGR in a wide operating range, the current study could be effectively contribute to the design and development processes of up-to-date diesel engine systems as real-world reference data. The current simulation results show that the system in which low-pressure loop EGR is added shows almost 2.3 times increase in maximum EGR rate at 1000 rpm as well as almost 1.6 times increase at 2200 and 1600 rpm in comparison with an engine system employing high-pressure loop EGR only. Also, both turbocharger axis speed and charging pressure level did not deteriorate due to the addition of low-pressure loop EGR at 2200 and 1000 rpm, but they were fairly decreased at 1600 rpm.
Durability Improvement of Engine Bulkhead by Adjusting Design Parameters
Yang, Chull-Ho ; Han, Moon-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 111~116
Three-dimensional finite element analyses have been performed to improve the durability of bulkhead. To keep pace with design changes and concentrate on regions of interest, SUBMODEL technique in ABAQUS was used for analysis. An analysis was conducted with following load cases: 1) Cap press-fit, 2) Bearing crush, 3) Bolt assembly, 4) Hot assembly, 5) Firing load, 6) Alternating firing load, 7) 2nd hot assembly. Fatigue analysis was done using commercial software FEMFAT and fatigue factors at the interested regions such as bolt tip area, counter bore, breathing hole, honing clearance were calculated and compared to aid design validation. Finite element modeling in the area of thread engagement used a simple constraint equations. Increasing bolt length, to a minimum of 39 mm above joint face gives a better fatigue resistance to the bulkhead. Breathing hole helps not only circulate the air in the crankcase but also fatigue resistance of bulkhead by relieving the stress at the critical locations.
Shape Optimization of the Cross Section for a Non-circular Spring Wire of Valve Springs for an Automotive Engine
Kim, Do-Joong ; Kim, Young-Kyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 117~124
Valve springs with non-circular cross-section are widely used in automotive engines. Because of the reduced height, the oval cross-section provides some merits in its install height and stress distribution. This paper introduces a new method to generate optimal shape of the non-circular cross-section. For given width and height, arbitrary shape of the cross-section are described using the Hermite spline curves. Cross-section area and maximum stress level are chosen as performance indices, and nonlinear optimization problems are formulated with inequality constraints. Compared to a production spring wire, cross-section area can be reduced about 2.4 [%] without increasing maximum stress level. In addition, the other approach gives an optimum cross-section which reduces maximum stress level of 2.0 [%] without increasing cross-section area.
Effect of Punch Shapes on Failure Instability of Expansion Tube
Choi, Won-Mok ; Kwon, Tae-Su ; Jung, Hyun-Sung ; Kim, Jing-Sung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 125~132
The rupture of an expansion tube is mainly affected by the expansion ratio and the external shape of the punch used to expand the tube. In order to prevent the tube from rupture, the effect of the external shape of the punch should be considered in the design. The aim of this paper is to confirm the effect of key design parameters of the punch on rupture of the tube using a finite element analysis with a ductile damage model. The results of the analysis indicated that the expansion ratio of the tube was mainly affected by variation of the radius of the punch. However, the rupture was more affected by variation of the punch angle than the radius of the punch. The existence of a specific punch angle at which rupture did not occur, even if the radius of the punch was increased, was found from the results.
Effect of Payload on Fuel Consumption and Emission of Light Duty Freight Truck during Acceleration Driving
Lee, Tae-Woo ; Keel, Ji-Hoon ; Jeon, Sang-Jin ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Hong, Ji-Hyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 133~141
The effect of payload on fuel consumption and emission of light duty freight truck during acceleration driving has been analyzed. Running tests were carried out with various payload conditions on chassis dynamometer. A typical driving pattern for urban cities was used. Real time emission measurement systems for gaseous and soot emission were utilized to investigate the real time dynamic of fuel use and exhaust emissions. It was observed that fuel use and pollutant emissions were increased as payload was increased. Under the same payload condition, the increased amount of acceleration driving is much higher than that of steady state driving. The results demonstrated the advantages of eco-driving, which is an environmentally friendly driving manner, could be emphasized in heavier payload condition. Inertial tractive power was introduced for considering the parameters affecting emission during acceleration driving, which are speed, acceleration and payload. Fuel use and emission in various driving conditions were expressed as functions of inertial tractive power. The estimated result by these functions well predicted measured result within 10 % deviation.
Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Bi-fuel CNG/LPG Passenger Cars
Cho, Chong-Pyo ; Lee, Young-Jae ; Kim, Gang-Chul ; Kwon, Oh-Seuk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 2, 2011, Pages 142~147
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is well known as one of the cleanest burning alternative fuels. Bi-fuel CNG vehicle can also run on gasoline or another fuel while dedicated natural gas vehicle is designed to run on natural gas only. Recently, increased attention has been focused on bi-fuel CNG/LPG taxi because of good fuel economy of CNG. A number of LPG taxis modified to CNG Bi-fuel vehicles are running in many cities. In this paper, the emissions characteristics of in-use passenger cars running on CNG and LPG were investigated. Chassis dynamometer test was used to measure exhaust emissions from an in-use fleet of 5 cars. Exhaust emissions were collected for CVS-75 driving mode. The test results showed that for CNG fuel mode, CO,
and NMHC emissions decreased to 9%, 12% and 14% respectively, and
emissions increased to 317% and 47% respectively.