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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Nov 2011
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Sep 2011
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Jul 2011
Volume 19, Issue 3 - May 2011
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Mar 2011
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
A Study on Accelerated Life Prediction Automation of Gas Welded Joint of STS301L (Plug and Ring Type)
Baek, Seung-Yeb ; Sohn, Il-Seon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 1~8
Stainless steel sheets are widely used as the structure material for the railroad cars and the commercial vehicles. These kinds structures used stainless steel sheets are commonly fabricated by using the gas welding. Gas welding is very important and useful technology in fabrication of an railroad car and vehicles structure. However fatigue strength of the gas welded joints is considerably lower than parent metal due to stress concentration at the weldment, fatigue strength evaluation of gas welded joints are very important to evaluate the reliability and durability of railroad cars and to establish a criterion of long life fatigue design. In this paper,
curve were obtained by fatigue tests. Using these results, the accelerated life test (ALT) is conducted. From the experimental results, an acceleration model is derived and acceleration factors are estimated. So it is intended to obtain the useful information for the fatigue lifetime of plug and ring gas welded joints and data analysis by statistical reliability method, to save time and cost, and to develop optimum accelerated life prediction plans.
Analysis of Factors Affecting Pedestrian Leg Injury Severity
Park, Jae-Hong ; Oh, Cheol ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 9~15
This study analyzed contributing factors affecting leg injury severity in pedestrian-vehicle crashes. A Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) method was used to identify the factors. Independent variables include characteristics for pedestrian, vehicle, road, and environmental conditions. The leg injury severity is classified into two classes, which are dependent variables in this study, such as 'severe' and 'minor' injuries. Pedestrian age, collision speed, and the height of vehicle were identified as significant factors for the leg injury. The probabilistic outcome of predicting leg injury severity can be effectively used in not only deriving pedestrian-related safety policies but also developing advanced vehicular technologies for pedestrian protection.
A Study on In-vehicle Aggressive Driving Detection Recorder System for Monitoring on Drivers' Behavior
Hong, Seung-Jun ; Lim, Lyang-Keun ; Oh, Ju-Taek ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 16~22
This paper presents the potential of in-vehicle data recorder system for monitoring aggressive driving patterns and providing feedback to drivers on their on road behaviour. This system can detect 10 risky types of drivers' driving patterns such as aggressive lane change, sudden brakes and turns with acceleration etc. Vehicle dynamics simulation and vehicle road test have been performed in order to develop driving pattern recognition algorithms. Recorder systems are installed to 50 buses in a single company. Drivers' driving behaviour are monitored for 1 month. The drivers' risky driving data collected by the system are analyzed. Aggressive lane change in 50km/h below is a cause in overwhelming majority of risky driving pattern.
Effects of Port Masking on Emission
Kim, Hyeong-Sig ; Park, Chan-Jun ; Ohm, In-Yong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 23~28
To secure basic data for intake port design, effects of a port masking on the part load performance were investigated in a 4 valve SI engine. For this purpose, 9 kinds of masking, which have different shapes and masking ratio, are applied to the engine intake system. The characteristics of the performance were estimated through mixture response test at various engine load and speed. The results show that NOx emission, one of indexes for stratification, increases considerably in spite of retarded spark timing due to the stratification which is caused by unequal flow distribution between the two intake ports. The mechanism of stratification by masking is different from axial stratification and the fuel entering through masked port plays a very important role in this stratification process. In conclusion, the port masking method could be easily applied to engine intake system and be very effective for inducing the stratified charging without the change of port design.
Study on the Modal Test for a Turbocharger Wheel Using Vibro-acoustic Responses
Lee, Hyeong-Ill ; Lee, Dug-Young ; Park, Ho-Il ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 29~37
The modal characteristics of a compressor wheel of an automotive turbocharger have been investigated using an experimental method based on an acoustic frequency response function, p/f(
), where p is sound pressure radiated from a structure, and f is impact force. First, a well-defined annular disc with narrow radial slots was examined to check whether the vibro-acoustic test could precisely determine natural quencies and vibration modes of structures showing that the vibro-acoustic test proposed in this paper was comparable to the conventional modal test with an accelerometer and the numerical analysis. The conventional method has been found to be inappropriate for compressor wheel because of additional mass due to the accelerometer and additional damping from the accelerometer cable alter the dynamic responses of the wheel blades. odal characteristics of the wheel have been defined using vibro-acoustic test and verified with the results from another conventional method using a laser vibrometer. Natural quencies and mode shapes of a turbocharger wheel, which can't be precisely obtained with onventional method, could be defined accurately without the additional effects from sensor and cable. Proposed method can be applied to small structures where conventional sensors and cables could generate troubles.
The Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of CNG/Diesel Dual-fuel Engine by CNG Mixing Ratio
Choi, Gun-Ho ; Lim, Ock-Taeck ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 38~43
A CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine uses CNG as the main fuel and injects a small amount of diesel as an ignition priming. This study proposed the modification of the existing diesel engine into a dual-fuel engine that injects diesel with a high pressure by common rail direct injection (CRDI) and by injecting CNG at the intake port for premixing. And experiment was progressed for understanding about effect of CNG mixing ratio. The CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine showed equally satisfactory coordinate torque and power regardless of CNG mixing ratio. The PM emission was low at any CNG mixing ratio because of very small diesel pilot injection. In case of NOx and HC, high CNG mixing ratio showed low NOx and HC emissions at low speed. At medium & high speed, low CNG mixing ratio showed low NOx and HC emissions. Therefore, it would be optimized by controlling CNG mixing ratio.
Optimization of Air Supply for Increased Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell System Efficiency
Chu, Keon-Yup ; Jo, Ki-Chun ; SunWoo, Myoung-Ho ; Choi, Seo-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 44~51
Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs) operate in wide-range changes in temperature, humidity, and electric current for automotive applications. In order to operate automotive PEFC efficiently, optimal air supply is required to adjust to these changes. This paper presents an air-supply optimization process that consists of experiments, modeling of the PEFC system, and optimization. The objective is to establish an air supply suitable for the required power for PEFC system and optimized with a Lagrange multiplier. Our simplified PEFC system model is used as a constraint for optimization problem. The result of this paper presents that efficient operation of PEFC system can be achieved by air-supply optimization.
Effect of NO on Catalytic Soot Oxidation in Tight Contact with
Using a Flow Reactor System
Lee, Dong-Il ; Song, Chang-Hoon ; Song, Soon-Ho ; Chun, Kwang-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 52~56
Active regeneration in CDPF requires
which regenerates soot at high temperature. However, small amount of NO can interrupt
regeneration in CDPF. To verify this phenomena, soot oxidation experiments using a flow reactor with a
catalyst are carried out to simulate Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) phenomena. Catalytic soot oxidation with and without small amount of NO is conducted under tight contact condition. As the heating rate rises, the temperature gap of maximum reaction rate is increased between with and without 50ppm NO. To accelerate the
de-coupling effect, CTO process is performed to eliminate interfacial contact for that time. As CTO process is extended, temperature which indicates peak reaction rate increases. From this result, it is found that small amount of NO can affect tight contact soot oxidation by removal of interfacial contact between soot and catalyst.
Durability Analysis of a Large-sized Military Truck Using Virtual Test Lab
Suh, Kwon-Hee ; Song, Bu-Geun ; Lim, Hyeon-Vin ; Chang, Hun-Sub ; Oh, Cheol-Jo ; Yoo, Woong-Jae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 57~64
In general, the durability performance of a large-sized military truck has been checked through a field durability test which required many man-hours and costs. To reduce these expenses, the durability analysis using a VTL(Virtual Test Lab) at an initial design stage was introduced recently. In this paper, the VTL with a multi-post testrig template for a large-sized truck was developed to compute the load histories transferred to cabin and chassis frame. The VTL consisted of trimmed FE models of cabin, chassis frame, and deck, dynamic models of front and rear suspensions, and a 8-post testrig template. The basic characteristics of the VTL were correlated with experimental results which had been extracted from actual driving test, modal test, and static weight test. The fatigue analysis using MSM(Modal Superposition Method) was applied to evaluate the durability performance of a large-sized military truck. From a series of analytic methods, it is shown that the fatigue analysis process using the VTL could be a useful tool to estimate the fatigue lives and weak areas of a large-sized military truck.
Particulate Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark-ignition Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and LPG
Lee, Seok-Hwan ; Oh, Seung-Mook ; Kang, Kern-Yong ; Cho, Jun-Ho ; Cha, Kyoung-Ok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 65~72
In this study, the numbers, sizes of particles from a single cylinder direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine fuelled with gasoline and LPG are examined over a wide range of engine operating conditions. Tests are conducted with various engine loads (2~10bar of IMEP) and fuel injection pressures (60, 90, and 120 bar) at the engine speed of 1,500 rpm. Particles are sampled directly from the exhaust pipe using rotating disk thermodiluter. The size distributions are measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the particle number concentrations are measured using a condensation particle counter (CPC). The results show that maximum brake torque (MBT) timing for LPG fuel is less sensitive to engine load and its combustion stability is also better than that for gasoline fuel. The total particle number concentration for LPG was lower by a factor of 100 compared to the results of gasoline emission due to the good vaporization characteristic of LPG. Test result presents that LPG for direct injection spark ignition engine help the particle emission level to reduce.
Analysis of Correlation of Fuel Efficiency and Cost Depending on Component Size of Heavy-duty Parallel Hybrid System
Jeong, Jong-Ryeol ; Lee, Dae-Heung ; Shin, Chang-Woo ; Lim, Won-Sik ; Park, Yeong-Il ; Cha, Suk-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 73~82
Most of countries start to restrict the emission gases of vehicles especially CO2 because of the global warming. Many vehicle companies including Toyota have launched various HEVs to satisfy the restriction laws and to improve the vehicle's efficiency. However, development for heavy-duty hybrid system is not plentiful rather than the passenger car. In this study, we choose the optimal size of engine, motor and battery for heavy-duty hybrid systems using dynamic programming. Also we analyze the correlation of the system's cost and efficiency because the added cost of vehicle to make the hybrid system is very important factor for the manufacturing companies. Finally, this study suggests a method to choose the appropriate system components size considering its performance and the cost. With this method, it is possible to select the component size for various systems.
A Study on the Characteristic and Droplet Uniformity of Spray Injection to Exhaust Gas Flow from Urea Solution Injector
Oh, Jung-Mo ; Cha, Won-Sim ; Kim, Ki-Bum ; Lee, Jin-Ha ; Lee, Ki-Hyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 83~89
Diesel engines can produce higher fuel efficiency and lower
emission, they are subject to ever more stringent emission regulation. However, there are two major emission concerns fo diesel engines like such as particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Moreover, it is not easy to satisfy the regulations on the emission of NOx and PM, which are getting more strengthened. One of the solutions is to apply the new combustion concept using multistage injection such as HCCI and PCCI. The other solution is to apply after-treatment systems. For example, lean NOx trap catalyst, Urea-SCR and others have various advantages and disadvantages Especially, Urea-SCR system have advantages such as a high conversion efficiency and a wide operation conditions. Hence the key factor to implementation of Urea-SCR technology, good mixing of urea(Ammonia) and gas, reducing Ammonia slip. Urea mixer components are required to facilitate evaporation and mixing because the liquid state of urea poses significant barriers for evaporation, and the distance to mixer is the most critical that affect mixer performance. In this study, to find out the distance from injector to mixer and simulation factor, a laser diagnostics and high speed camera are used to analyze urea injector spray characteristics and to present a distribution of urea solution in transparent manifold In addition, Droplet Uniformity Index is calculated from the acquired images by using image processing method to clarify the distribution of spray.
The Study on the Noise Contributing Factors Extraction of the Passenger Diesel Engine(I)
Kim, Sung-Hun ; Kwon, Yong-Jun ; Ko, Pil-Kyu ; Jung, Yeon-Uk ; Lim, Ock-Taeck ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 90~98
Noises from diesel engine are the major issues for noise pollution as well as affect customers' purchasing needs to vehicles powered by diesel engine. This study investigates to screen-out main factors that contribute to noises from diesel engine using VGT 2000cc engine developed recently. Changes of fuel temperature, intake temperature and the presence of three way catalyst don't affect the 'Engine Radiation Noise' and the solely three way catalyst influence on the 'Tail Pipe Noise'. Especially, there are no effects of the presence of three way catalyst on torque, which is main subject that should be considered in secondary study.
Effect of Injection Strategy on the Exhaust Emission and Performance Characteristics of a Light-duty Diesel Engine
Roh, Hyun-Gu ; Lee, Doo-Jin ; Lee, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 99~105
This paper described the effect of the multiple injections on the emission characteristics and combustion stability in a common rail diesel engine. In order to investigate the influence of multiple injections in a passenger car diesel engine, the injection strategy was varied with pilot injection, post injection and one main injection at various conditions. Based on the experimental results, the combustion and emissions characteristics were analyzed for the various injection strategies such as main, pilot-main, double-pilot-main, double- pilot-main-post injection strategy. It is revealed that the
, HC and CO emissions are reduced by double pilot and post injection at medium load, however, soot emission is increased. Also, in the case of multiple injection, the combustion pressure is increased smoothly near the TDC and the coefficient of variation and fuel consumptions are decreased.
The Effect of an Aromatic Content on Exhaust Emissions in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion
Han, Man-Bae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 106~112
This study is to investigate the effect of an aromatic content in high cetane number (CN) fuels on exhaust emissions under low temperature diesel combustion, which expands the previous research about an aromatic content in low CN fuels. A 1.9L common rail direct injection diesel engine was run at 1500 rpm 2.6 bar BMEP with four fuel sets: an aromatic content of 20% (A20) or 45% (A45) with CN30, i.e. low CN fuels, and CN55, i.e. high CN fuels. Given experimental conditions, the trend of exhaust emissions in high CN fuels was inconsistent with that of low CN fuels which all produced nearly zero smoke but higher NOx for the high aromatic fuel (CN30-A45). For high CN fuels, however, the low aromatic fuel (CN55-A20) produced lower smoke than the high one (CN55-A45) while NOx was similar to each other. The cause of this discrepancy between high CN and low CN fuels is unclear whether it comes from that CN may be a dominant factor to govern exhaust emissions rather than an aromatic content or that the actual CN value of CN55-A45 is lower than CN55-A20. More decent fuel matrix should be prepared and further experiments are needed to confirm it.
An Experimental Study on the Transient Behavior of Vehicle Rollover
Lee, Myung-Su ; Kim, Sang-Sup ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 113~121
Rollover accident is one of the serious traffic accident and rollover accident takes high portion of all accident. The most common type of rollover is a tripped rollover which occupy 95% of all type of single-vehicle rollover. Tripped rollover occurs when a vehicle leaves normal road way and tripped by loose gravel, soil of fixed object such as guard rail, curbs and ditches. And the rest of the type of rollover is un-tripped rollover. An un-tripped rollovers that occurs during high-speed collision avoidance maneuvers. In this paper, presents the explanation of the un-tripped rollover test method and procedure, additionally this paper deals with various occurrence in the un-tripped test such as occurring excessive tire camber in the un-tripped test, tire side-wall contact with road surface and roll oscillation. And this paper analyzes the analysis of the roll rate amplitude in specific frequency through the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and the roll angle at the steering reverse timing which is the Fishhook test roll rate feedback time. Finally, this paper analyzes the relations between the estimated steady state roll gain and rollover stability.
The Study of Correlation between Biodiesel Components and Derived Cetane Number
Lim, Young-Kwan ; Park, So-Ra ; Kim, Jong-Ryeol ; Yim, Eui-Soon ; Jung, Choong-Sub ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 122~129
Biodiesel produced from triglyceride which is main component of animal fats and vegetable oils by methanolysis was known for remarkable cetane number. In this study, the derived cetane number of 3 kinds of biodiesel came from vegetable oils such as soybean oil, palm oil, and perilla oil and 2 kind of biodiesel which were produced from beef tallow and pork lard were analyzed using IQT (Ignition quality tester). In IQT test result, the derived cetane number of palm- , beef tallow- and pork lard's biodiesel were more excellent than other biodiesels. After analysis of biodiesel composed molecular by gas chromatography-mass and determination of the derived cetane number of pure biodiesel components using IQT, we have found that the low olefin contented and long alkyl chained biodiesel have excellent derived cetane number.
Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Distilled Water/Commercial Coolant Based
Kwon, Hey-Lim ; Hwang, Kyo-Sik ; Jang, Seok-Pil ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 130~137
Experimental investigations are conducted to figure out the feasibility of
nanofluids as the alternative coolant for car engine. For the purpose, the thermal conductivities and viscosities of water/commercial coolant based
nanofluids with 0.3, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 vol. % at temperatures ranging from
are measured. Thermal conductivities are measured using the transient hot-wire method and also viscosities are measured by Brookfield LVDV-III rheometer. Based on the results, it is shown that thermal conductivity of
nanofluids with 3.0 vol. % is increased about 11% at
and the increment of viscosity approaches to 84% at shear rate of 600(1/s) and 80% at shear rate of 960(1/s) in the same temperature. with fundamental data for the thermal conductivity and viscosity of the nanofluids, the feasibility of
nanofluids as the alternative coolant for car engine are discussed.
Studies on Reforming Gas Assisted Regeneration of Multi-channel Catalyzed DPF
Choi, Kwang-Chun ; Chung, Jin-Hwa ; Song, Soon-Ho ; Chun, Kwang-Min ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 138~145
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems are being used to reduce the particulate matter emission of diesel vehicles. The DPF should be regenerated after certain driving hours or distance to eliminate soot in the filter. The most widely used method is active regeneration with oxygen at
. Syngas (synthetic gas) can be used to lower the regeneration temperature of Catalyzed DPF (CDPF). The syngas is formed by fuel reforming process of CPOx (Catalytic Partial Oxidation) at specific engine condition (1500rpm, 2bar) using 1wt.%
catalyst. The oxidation characteristics of PM with syngas supplied to filter were studied using partial flow system that can control temperature and flow rate independently. The filter is coated with washcoat loading of
, and multi-channel CDPF (MC-CDPF) was used. The filter regeneration experiments were performed to investigate the effect of syngas exothermic reaction on soot oxidation in the filter. For this purpose, before oxidation experiment, PM was collected about 8g/L to the filter at engine condition of 1500rpm, bmep 8bar and flow temperature of
Various conditions of temperature and concentration of syngas were used for the tests. Regeneration of filter started at 2%
and CO concentration respectively and inlet temperature of
. Filter Regeneration occurs more actively as the syngas concentration becomes higher.
A Study on Combustion Process of Biodiesel Fuel with Pilot Injection in a Common-rail Diesel Engine
Bang, Joong-Cheol ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 3, 2011, Pages 146~153
American NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) reported that BDF20 could reduce PM, CO, SOx, and cancerogenic matters by 13.6%, 9.3%, 17.6%, and 13% respectively, compared to diesel fuel. BDF20 has been being tested on garbage trucks and official vehicles at Seoul City, which is positive on air environment, but negative on combustion by higher viscosity in winter season. This study investigated the combustion characteristics by applying pilot injection for improving the deterioration of combustibility caused by the higher viscosity of the BDF20 with the combustion flames taken by a high-speed camera and the cylinder pressure diagram. A 4-cycle single-cylinder diesel engine was remodeled to a visible 2-cycle engine taking the flame photographs, which has a common-rail injection system. The test was done laboratory temperature at
. The results obtained are summarized as follows, (1) In the case of without pilot injection, the flame propagation speed was slowed and the maximum combustion pressure became lower. The phenomena became further aggravated as the fuel viscosity gets higher. (2) In the case of with pilot injection, early stage of combustion such as rapid ignition timing and flame propagation was activated since intermediate products formed by pilot injection act as a catalyst for combustion of main fuel.