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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Nov 2011
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Sep 2011
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Jul 2011
Volume 19, Issue 3 - May 2011
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Mar 2011
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
A Driving System Design of an Electric Motor Scooter
Kim, Moon-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1~6
This paper proposes a new design method for electric scooter which can maximize the power efficiency at the given driving condition. The proposed method is designed with the electric and mechanical parameters and driving dynamics. These values are extracted from the dynamic and mathematical equations of the scooter. For validation, numerical simulation results are presented in this paper. As a result, the scooter achieved over 80% efficiency at 360 rpm at 1.42kw load. It is clear that the proposed method was verified through a 1.42kw numerical model.
The Analysis of a Electric Scooter's Performance through Motor and Battery Capacity Changing
Kil, Bum-Soo ; Kim, Gang-Chul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 7~13
The climate change due to the increased consumption with fossil fuel and rise of the oil price have been serious global issues. Automobile industry consumes 30% of the oil every year and causes air pollution and global warming by the exhaust emissions and carbon dioxide (
). The demand of two-wheeled vehicle increases every year due to the parking and traffic problem caused by the increased automobiles in the urban area. Approximately 50,000,000 two-wheeled vehicles were produced in 2008. The development and sales of the hybrid two-wheeled vehicle industry become active due to its increased market demands. In this paper, the change of the motor and battery efficiency, driving distance, hill climbing ability with the change of the motor capacity was analyzed. Simulation of the peculiarities in urban driving schedule(World-wide Motorcycle Test Cycle(WMTC), Manhattan driving schedule), constant speed(10 km/h, 35 km/h) of small electronic two-wheeled vehicle was also carried out. Through the simulation result, appropriate capacities of the motor and battery for urban driving was acquired.
Feedforward EGR Control of a Passenger Car Diesel Engine Equipped with a DC Motor Type EGR Valve
Oh, Byoung-Gl ; Lee, Min-Kwang ; Park, Yeong-Seop ; Lee, Kang-Yoon ; SunWoo, Myoung-Ho ; Nam, Ki-Hoon ; Cho, Sung-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 14~21
In diesel engines, accurate EGR control is important due to its effect on nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions. Conventional EGR control system comprises a PI feedback controller for tracking target air mass flow and a feedforward controller for fast response. Physically, the EGR flow is affected by EGR valve lift and thermodynamic properties of the EGR path, such as pressures and temperatures. However, the conventional feedforward control output is indirectly derived from engine operating conditions, such as engine rotational speed and fuel injection quantity. Accordingly, the conventional feedforward control action counteracts the feedback controller in certain operating conditions. In order to improve this disadvantage, in this study, we proposed feedforward EGR control algorithm based on a physical model of the EGR system. The proposed EGR control strategy was validated with a 3.0 liter common rail direct injection diesel engine equipped with a DC motor type EGR valve.
Roll Motion Control of a Passenger Vehicle Using Hybrid Control
Kim, Hyo-Jun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 22~28
This paper presents an active roll motion control of a passenger vehicle. The roll controller is designed in the framework of
control scheme based on the 3 DOF vehicle model taking into consideration parameter variations, which affect the roll dynamics, and unmodeled high frequency dynamics for robustness and performance. In order to investigate the feasibility of the active roll control system in a car, its performance is evaluated by simulation in a full vehicle model with nonlinear tire characteristics under various operating conditions. Finally, in order to enhance the performance in a transient region taking into account the limited bandwidth of the actuating module, a hybrid control strategy is presented.
Research on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of the DME/Diesel Dual-fuel Engine
Lim, Ock-Taeck ; Pyo, Young-Duck ; Lee, Young-Jae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 29~34
This study investigates the potential of DME/Diesel dual fuel engine for reducing emissions with same power. Dual fuel engine controls the combustion using two different fuels, DME and diesel with different auto-ignition timings. In the previous work, the caracteristics of combustion and emissions under single cylinder engine and ignition is done by compression ignition. Pre-mixture is formed by injecting low-pressure DME into an intake manifold and high-pressure fuel (diesel or DME) is injected directly into the cylinder. Both direct diesel injection and port fuel injection reduced the significant amount of Smoke, CO and NOx in the homogeneous charge compression ignition engine due to present of oxygen in DME. In addition, when injecting DME directly in cylinder with port DME injection, there is no changes in emissions and energy consumption rate even operated by homogeneous charge compression ignition.
A Study on Individual Cylinder Equivalence Ratio Estimation and Control Algorithm for SI Engines
Kim, Jun-Soo ; Oh, Seung-Suk ; Lee, Min-Kwang ; SunWoo, Myoung-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 35~44
In a spark ignition engine, a variable valve lift (VVL) system has been developed for high fuel efficiency and low power loss. However, changes in valve lift cause deviations of cylinder air charge which lead to individual cylinder equivalence ratio maldistribution. In this study, in order to reduce the maldistribution, we propose individual cylinder equivalence ratio estimation and control algorithms. The estimation algorithm calculates the equivalence ratio of each cylinder by using a mathematical engine model which includes air charging, fuel film, exhaust gas, and universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor (UEGO) dynamics at various valve lifts. Based on the results of estimated equivalence ratio, the injection quantity of each cylinder is adjusted to control the individual cylinder equivalence ratio. Estimation and control performance are validated by engine experiments. Experimental results represented that the equivalence ratio maldistribution and variation are decreased by the proposed algorithms.
Analysis of Cylinder Compression Pressure & Valve Timing by Motoring Current & Crank Signal during Cranking
Kim, In-Tae ; Park, Kyoung-Suk ; Shim, Beom-Joo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 45~50
Compression pressure of individual cylinder and valve timing have big influence on combustion pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), emission, vibration, combustion noise and many other combustion parameters. Conventional method, however, to check compression pressure uniformity is done by mechanical pressure gage and valve timing is checked manually. This conventional method causes inaccuracy of cylinder pressure measurement because of different cranking speed results from battery status and temperature. Also to check valve timing, related FEAD parts should be disassembled and timing mark should be checked. This study describes and suggests new methodology to measure compression pressure by analysis of start motor current and to check valve timing by cylinder pressure with high accuracy. Results, it is found that detection of bulky as well as small leaky cylinder is possible by cranking motor current analysis and wrong valve timing can be detected by cylinder pressure analysis and cam and crank sensor signal.
A Study on the Correlation of Oil Drain and Engine Tilting Angle
Kim, Dae-Yeol ; Park, Pyong-Wan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 51~57
Parametric studies based on analysis of lubrication system of a four cylinder gasoline engine are illustrated system in this paper. In development process of engine lubrication system, parts of failure cases are related with oil pull over and oil churning phenomenon. The crankcase & head system pressure by oil churning phenomenon are gradual increased. It cause oil pull over phenomenon at engine breather line and oil over-consumption. In order to improve oil reduction and oil pull over phenomenon are also considered in the developing state. For this study, the characteristics of engine lubrication system are measured at various tilting angle and drain hole sizes. In addition, the oil flow & oil quantity are tested by blow by meter and catch jar. Results are presented to stabilize the oil supply system at sever driving condition. The data from present study are available for the engine lubrication system.
Performance Design of Boiler for Waste Heat Recovery of Engine Coolant by Rankine Steam Cycle
Heo, Hyung-Seok ; Bae, Suk-Jung ; Hwang, Jae-Soon ; Lee, Heon-Kyun ; Lee, Dong-Hyuk ; Park, Jeong-Sang ; Lee, Hong-Yeol ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 58~66
A 2-loop waste heat recovery system with Rankine steam cycles for the improvement of fuel efficiency of gasoline vehicles has been investigated. A high temperature loop(HT loop) is a system to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas, a low temperature loop(LT loop) is for heat recovery from the engine coolant cold relatively. This paper has dealt with a layout of a LT loop system, the review of the working fluids, and the design of the cycle. The design point and the target heat recovery of the LT boiler, a core part of a LT loop, has been presented and analytically investigated. Considering the characteristics of the cycle, the basic concept of the LT boiler has been determined as a shell-and tube type counterflow heat exchanger, the performance characteristics for various design parameters were investigated.
Development of an Energy Absorbing Mechanism for Car Seat using Magnesium Alloys
Shin, Hyun-Woo ; Park, June-Gyu ; Lee, Kyu-Hung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 67~75
A new energy absorbing mechanism for car seat was developed to reduce the neck injury in rear impacts. Energy absorbing principle is based on the shear-bolt behavior of thin-walled cast components subjected to static and dynamic loads. Results of shear bolt test using AM60 of Mg alloys showed robust behavior giving an approximately constant mean force during failure processes. Simply designed energy absorbing mechanism was assembled with the recliner between seat backs and seat rails. We have simulated the sled test of seat with dummy under the rear end impact using the finite element method. Results of simulation show that the new seat mechanism reduces thorax acceleration to a considerable extent, but it is not sufficient to mitigate neck injury indices e.g. neck shear force, neck tension force and NIC. With heightened headrest and narrowed backset, the energy absorbing mechanism resulted in good performance of protecting the neck injuries.
Evaluation of Catalyst Assisted EGR Cooler System for EGR Cooler Fouling Reduction
Hong, Kwang-Seok ; Park, Jung-Soo ; Lee, Kyo-Seung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 76~81
Exhaust gas recirculation is the well-known and widely used NOx reduction technology for diesel engines. More effective EGR cooler has been developed and applied to diesel engines to meet the reinforced emission regulation. However, the contaminated EGR cooler by diesel exhaust gas reduces the performance of the engine and NOx reduction rate. The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers cause significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20~30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operation conditions. In this study, as a solution for this problem, DOC assisted EGR cooler is designed and then investigated to reduce fouling and its impact on cooler performance. A single channel EGR cooler fouling test apparatus and soot particle generator were developed to represent the real EGR cooler and exhaust gas of diesel engine. EGR cooler effectiveness of the case with catalyst of pt 30g/ft3 decreased just up to 5%. This value was 45% less compared to the case without catalyst which decreased up to 9% after 10hours experiments.
Reconstruction Analysis of Vehicle-pedestrian Collision Accidents: Calculations and Uncertainties of Vehicle Speed
Han, In-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 82~91
In this paper, a planar model for mechanics of a vehicle/pedestrian collision incorporating road gradient is derived to evaluate the pre-collision speed of vehicle. It takes into account a few physical variables and parameters of popular wrap and forward projection collisions, which include horizontal distance traveled between primary and secondary impacts with the vehicle, launch angle, center-of-gravity height at launch, distance from launch to rest, pedestrian-ground drag factor, the pre-collision vehicle speed and road gradient. The model including road gradient is derived analytically for reconstruction of pedestrian collision accidents, and evaluates the vehicle speed from the pedestrian throw distance. The model coefficients have physical interpretations and are determined through direct calculation. This work shows that the road gradient has a significant effect on the evaluation of the vehicle speed and must be considered in accident cases with inclined road. In additions, foreign/domestic empirical cases and multibody dynamic simulation results are used to construct a least-squares fitted model that has the same structure of the analytical one that provides an estimate of the vehicle speed based on the pedestrian throw distance and the band within which the vehicle speed would be expected to be in 95% of cases.
On-road Investigation of PM Emissions of Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, Urea-SCR)
Lee, Seok-Hwan ; Kim, Hong-Seok ; Park, Jun-Hyuk ; Cho, Gyu-Baek ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 92~99
To measure the traffic pollutants with high temporal and spatial resolution under real conditions, a mobile emission laboratory (MEL) was designed. The equipment of the mini-van provides gas phase measurements of CO, NOx,
, THC (Total hydrocarbon) and number density & size distribution measurements of fine and ultra-fine particles by a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and a condensation particle counter (CPC). The inlet sampling port above the bumper enables the chasing of different type of vehicles. This paper introduces the technical details of the MEL and presents data from the car chasing experiment of diesel bus equipped with aftertreatment system. The dilution ratio was calculated by the ratio of ambient NOx and tail-pipe NOx. Most particles from the diesel bus were counted under 300 nm and the peak concentration of the particles was located between 30 and 60 nm. The total PM number emission from diesel bus equipped with DPF was 10 orders of magnitude lower compared to those emitted from base diesel bus. And the total PM number emission from diesel bus equipped with SCR was comparable to the particle emission from base diesel bus.
A Study on Weight-reduction Design of a Hybrid Bodyshell Made by Substituting Underframe Material in a Box-type Carbody
Cho, Jeong-Gil ; Koo, Jeong-Seo ; Jung, Hyun-Seung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 100~112
This paper studied on a theoretical approach to predict structural performances and weight -reduction rates of hybrid bodyshells in case that the material of underframe structure is substituted. To choose other light-weight materials to be substituted for the original underframe material, compressive, bending and twisting deformations are considered under constant stiffness and strength conditions, which derive some new weight-reduction indices from a structural performance point of view. Next, these weight-reduction indices were verified using the finite element analyses of some simplified examples. It is shown that the derived indices to estimate the weight-reduction can be utilized as a good criterion for material substitution of the underframe at a basic design stage.
Deformation and Residual Stress of Automotive Frame by Welding
Park, Tae-Won ; Kim, Kee-Joo ; Han, Chang-Pyung ; Lee, Young-Suk ; Lim, Jong-Han ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 113~117
The frame for automotive assembly can be deformed and remained on the residual stress due to high temperature thermal attacks when in welding. The frame deformation can be made to problems when in assembly with body and the residual stress can affect the negative effect on durability performance of the automobile. In order to analyze the frame deformation, the simplified test frame which had the similar shape (form) of the real automotive frame was fabricated. The contactless optical 3D scanner was used for the shape difference measurement of the frame between before and after the welding. The FE-model of the test frame was composed and the heat transfer and thermal stress simulation were performed. The simulated results were compared with the measured results for the reference of the frame design. The deformation shape of the frame by simulation was in good agreement with that by the experimental measurement.
A Study on
Reduction in a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle Equipped with a SCR Catalyst
Park, Young-Joon ; Hong, Woo-Kyoung ; Ka, Jae-Geum ; Cho, Yong-Seok ; Joo, Jae-Geon ; Kim, Hyun-Ok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 118~124
To reach the Euro-6 regulations of PM and
for light-duty diesel vehicles, it will be necessary to apply the CDPF and the de-
catalyst. The described system consists of a catalytic configuration, where the CDPF is placed downstream of the diesel engine and followed by a urea injection unit and a urea-SCR catalyst. One of the advantages of this system configuration is that, in this way, the SCR catalyst is protected from PM, and both white PM and deposits become reduced. In the urea-SCR system, the injection control of reductant is the most important thing in order to have good performance of
reduction. The ideal ratio of
molecules is 1:1 based on
consumption and having
available for reaction of all of the exhaust
. However, under the too low and too high temperature condition, the
reduction efficiency become slower, due to temperature window of SCR catalyst. And space velocity also affects to
conversion efficiency. In this paper, rig-tests were performed to evaluate the effects of
concentrations, gas temperature and space velocity on the
conversion efficiency of the urea-SCR system. And vehicle test was performed to verify control strategy of reductatnt injection. The developed control strategy of reductant injection was improved over all
reduction efficiency and
consumption in urea-SCR system. Results of this paper contribute to develop urea-SCR system for light-duty vehicles to meet Euro-5 emission regulations.
Prediction of Wear Rate for Rubber Track by Using Frictional Energy Analysis
Kang, Jong-Jin ; Cho, Jin-Rae ; Jeong, Weui-Bong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 125~133
The wear of rubber track being in contact with the road surface is an important subject because it decreases the traction performance and the operating efficiency of tracked vehicle. For the above reasons, many attempts have been made to quantitatively calculate the rubber track. However, it depends on the experimental methods which are highly time- and cost-consuming. Therefore, the numerical simulation approach is highly desirable, but it needs to model the complex geometry and the material behavior in details as well as the interaction with the road surface. In this study, the rubber track and its material behavior are elaborately modeled since these factors are very important in the prediction of the wear rate of the rubber track. Accordingly to the studies on the rubber wear by previous investigations, it has been found that the wear is greatly influenced by the frictional energy. The frictional energy of rubber track is computed by utilizing the 3D finite element analysis of the rubber track, and the wear rate is evaluated making use of the frictional energy and a wear model.
A Study on the Effect of Automotive Engine Performance by Using Carbon Nano Colloid Cooling Water
Yi, Chung-Seob ; Lee, Byung-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 134~142
Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Exhaust pipes with circular fin were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (
) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition,
concentration in the exhaust was measured. The designs adopted in this study were about exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them direct surface force measurement in water using a nano size colloidal probe technique. The direct force measurement between colloidal surfaces has been an essential topic in both theories and applications of surface chemistry. As particle size is decreased from micron size down to true Carbon nano Colloid size (<10 nm), surface forces are increasingly important. Nano particles at close proximity or high solids loading are expected to show a different behavior than what can be estimated from continuum and mean field theories. The current tools for directly measuring interaction forces such as a surface force apparatus or atomic force microscopy (AFM) are limited to particles much larger than nano size. This paper use Water and CNC fluid at normal cooling system of EGR. Experimental result showed all good agreement at Re=
by free convection and Re=
by forced air furnace.
Evaluation of Hybridization in FCVs Based on Equivalent Fuel Consumption
Zheng, Chun-Hua ; Shin, Chang-Woo ; Park, Yeong-Il ; Cha, Suk-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 143~147
Operating points of a fuel cell system (FCS) can be shifted to its high-efficiency region by hybridization in a fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV), so the hydrogen can be saved. In this paper, the hydrogen consumption of an FCHV is compared to that of a fuel cell vehicle (FCV). A power management strategy is applied to the FCHV and the related simulation is carried out. The concept of equivalent hydrogen consumption is introduced in order to consider the effect of the difference between initial and final battery SOC on the total hydrogen consumption.
Structural Safety Analysis of Clutch System
Cho, Jae-Ung ; Han, Moon-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 19, issue 5, 2011, Pages 148~155
This study analyzes stress, fatigue and vibration at clutch on the rotation of wheel. Eigenfrequencies from 1'st to 6'th order about clutch assembly are shown with the vibration at more than 800Hz. Maximum equivalent stress is shown with the frequency of 800Hz in case of the harmonic vibration applied with force. Among the cases of nonuniform fatigue loads, 'SAE bracket history' with the severest change of load becomes most unstable but 'Sample history' becomes most stable. In case of 'Sample History' with the average stress of 0MPa to
MPa and the amplitude stress of 0MPa to
MPa, the possibility of maximum damage becomes 3.23%. This stress state can be shown with 6 times more than the damage possibility of 'SAE bracket history' or 'SAE transmission'. The structural result of this study can be effectively utilized with the safe design of clutch.