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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Nov 2012
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Sep 2012
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Jul 2012
Volume 20, Issue 3 - May 2012
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Mar 2012
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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Model-based Sensor Fault Detection Algorithm for EMB System
Hwang, Woo-Hyun ; Yang, I-Jin ; Huh, Kun-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.001
The brake-by-wire technology is a new automotive chassis system that allows standard braking operations by electronic components with lighter weights and faster response. The brake-by-wire units such as EMB (Electro-Mechanical Brake) are controlled by electronic sensors and actuators and, thus, the fault diagnosis is essential for implementation. In this study, a model-based fault diagnosis system is developed for the sensors based on the analytical redundancy method. The fault detection algorithm is verified in simulations for various faulty cases. A test bench is built including the EMB unit and the performance of the proposed fault diagnosis system is evaluated through the experiment.
A Study on Manufacture and Control of a Self Manufacturing Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Kim, Hack-Sun ; Jeong, Chan-Se ; Yang, Soon-Young ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 8~13
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.008
In this paper, Hybrid Electric Vehicle is directly designed and manufactured for base study of HEV's system and Green Car. Foundation design consists of power train design and the frame design. The power train concept includes motor, engine, generator and battery. And the concept of the frame is the single-seat of this self-made HEV. A frame installed in hybrid system contains suspension, steering wheel, seat, accelerating pedal, brake pedal, clutch handle and various chassis parts with bearings. Electromagnetic clutch is equipped to transmit engine power to drive axle. The control algorism make using LabVIEW to control of an engine and a motor depending on drive condition. A parallel type hybrid system is manufactured to control operation of a motor and an engine depending on vehicle speed.
Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity Estimation on Inclined Road
Lee, Sang-Yeob ; Kim, In-Keun ; Lee, Dong-Hun ; Huh, Kun-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 14~19
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.014
On-line and real-time information of the longitudinal velocity is the essential factor for the Advanced Vehicle Control Systems such as ABS(Anti-lock Brake System), TCS(Traction Control System), ESC (Electronic Stability Control) etc. However, the longitudinal velocity cannot be easily measured or calculated during braking maneuvering. A new algorithm is presented for the estimation of the longitudinal velocity with the measurements of the vehicle longitudinal/lateral acceleration, steering angle and yaw rate. The algorithm is designed utilizing the Extended Kalman Filter based on the 3 degree of freedom vehicle model. In order to compensate for the biased sensor signal on the inclined road, the inclined angle is also estimated. The performance of the proposed estimation algorithm is evaluated in field tests.
An Experimental Study on the NH
-SCR of NO
over a Vanadium-based Catlayst
Jeong, Hee-Chan ; Sim, Sung-Min ; Kim, Young-Deuk ; Jeong, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Woo-Seung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 20~27
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.020
-SCR characteristics of
over a V-based catalyst are experimentally examined over a wide range of operating conditions, i.e.,
, with a simulated diesel exhaust containing
. The influences of the space velocity and oxygen concentration on the standard-SCR reaction are analyzed, and it is shown that the low space velocity and high oxygen concentration promote the SCR activity by ammonia. The best
efficiency is obtained with a
ratio of 0.5 because of an enhanced chemical activity induced by the fast-SCR reaction, while at the
ratios above 0.5 the
activity decreases due to the slow-SCR reaction. The oxidation of ammonia begins to take place at about
and the reaction products, such as
, are produced by the undesirable oxidation reactions of ammonia, particularly at high temperatures above
decomposes to NO and
at temperatures above
decomposition and ammonia oxidation reactions deteriorate significantly the SCR catalytic activity at high temperatures.
A Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Single Cylinder Reciprocating Compressor by Joint Simulation of Flexible Multi-body Dynamics and Electromagnetic Circuit
Sung, Won-Suk ; Hwang, Won-Gul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 28~38
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.028
The characteristics of vibration and noise of a compressor used for electric appliances have significant influence on the quality of the products. For improvement on the quality of electric appliances, investigations for understanding the dynamic behaviour of the compressor are essential. Since Virtual Lab for the dynamics model and MAXWELL for the electromagnetics model are separate software programs with no interface, the joint simulation of the models could not be performed. This study suggests a way to develop the compressor model capable of the joint simulation with MATLAB/SIMULINK linking a flexible multi-body dynamics model, a torque model, and an electricity control model. The compressor model is found to be able to perform I/O data transfer among the sub-models and joint simulation. The simulation results of the flexible body and rigid body dynamics models were compared to check availability of the joint simulation system. In addition, the simulated vibration and driving torque of the compressor mechanisms were compared with measurements. Through the simulations, the influence of springs and LDT on the dynamic behaviour of the compressor was examined. This study examines the influence of the dynamic behaviour of the compressor mechanisms through joint simulation of the flexible multi-body dynamics model and electromagnetic circuit allows analysis.
Reduction of a Numerical Grid Dependency in High-pressure Diesel Injection Simulation Using the Lagrangian-Eulerian CFD Method
Kim, Sa-Yop ; Oh, Yun-Jung ; Park, Sung-Wook ; Lee, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.039
In the standard CFD code, Lagrangian-Eulerian method is very popular to simulate the liquid spray penetrating into gaseous phase. Though this method can give a simple solution and low computational cost, it have been reported that the Lagrangian spray models have numerical grid dependency, resulting in serious numerical errors. Many researches have shown the grid dependency arise from two sources. The first is due to unaccurate prediction of the droplet-gas relative velocity, and the second is that the probability of binary droplet collision is dependent on the grid resolution. In order to solve the grid dependency problem, the improved spray models are implemented in the KIVA-3V code in this study. For reducing the errors in predicting the relative velocity, the momentum gain from the gaseous phase to liquid particles were resolved according to the gas-jet theory. In addition, the advanced algorithm of the droplet collision modeling which surmounts the grid dependency problem was applied. Then, in order to validate the improved spray model, the computation is compared to the experimental results. By simultaneously regarding the momentum coupling and the droplet collision modeling, successful reduction of the numerical grid dependency could be accomplished in the simulation of the high-pressure injection diesel spray.
Correlation Analysis of TPA Output Variables in a Pneumatic Active Engine Mount System
Park, Hyeol-Woo ; Lee, Jae-Cheon ; Choi, Jae-Yong ; Kim, Jeong-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 46~52
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.046
A PAEM(Pneumatic Active Engine Mount) system has been developed to improve NVH performance of a SUV in idle state. Control objective to attenuate the vibration of a vehicle should be determined prior to the design of control algorithm. This study presents the correlation analysis of output variables of PAEM system by means of TPA(Transfer Path Analysis) using experimental data obtained by vehicle test. The analysis results show that the vibration of vertical direction is more serious than those of longitudinal and lateral direction of the vehicle, and that the correlation between the vibration of front seat rail and that of steer wheel is highest. In conclusion, the vibrations of front seat rail and steer wheel in vertical direction should be considered as the control objectives of the PAEM.
Characteristic Comparison of Brushless Motor Type for EPS System
Lee, Min-Hwan ; Kim, Il-Yong ; Lee, Choong-Sung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 53~60
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.053
As enforced by the regulation on the improving fuel efficiency and increased the demand on green technology, many interests are focused on electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Thus the technology development in electrification of vehicle operation system, including steering and braking field, is actively progressive. Especially electric power steering substitutes for hydraulic power steering rapidly in the market, which is more complex and bigger in packaging volume compared with electric power steering system. The core component in electric power steering system is a motor, which is required to be silent and powerful to guarantee required system performance. Brushless synchronous motors are widely used and many variations of the motors are introduced in the market, while the performance of each type is not well defined or studied for electric power steering system. In this paper, recent developments in brushless synchronous motor are reviewed and compared applying finite element analysis in electromagnetic field. As results, each characteristic of different types of brushless synchronous motors is compared and summarized for optimized selection in electric power steering system.
A Study on Cooling Performance of In-wheel Motor for Green Car
Jung, Jung-Hun ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Hong, Jung-Pyo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 61~67
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.061
The in-wheel motor used in green car was designed and constructed for an electric direct-drive traction system. It is difficult to connect cooling water piping because the in-wheel motor is located within the wheel structure. In the air cooling structure for the in-wheel motor, a outer surface on the housing is provided with cooling grooves to increase the heat transfer area. In this study, we carried out the analysis on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the in-wheel motor under the effects of motor speed and heat generation. In order to check the problem of heat release, the analysis has been performed using conjugate heat transfer (conduction and convection). As a result, flow fields and temperature distribution inside the in-wheel motor were obtained for base speed condition (1250 rpm) and maximum speed condition (5000 rpm). Also, the thermo-flow characteristics analysis of in-wheel motor for vehicles was performed in consideration of ram air effect. Therefore, we checked the feasibility of the air cooling for the housing geometry having cooling grooves and investigated the cooling performance enhancement.
A Study on the Characteristics of Combustion according to Injection Strategy in DISI Engine
In, Byung-Deok ; Park, Sang-Ki ; Lee, Ki-Hyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 68~76
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.068
Recently, the important issues of gasoline engine are to reduce the fuel consumption and emission. Thus, many researchers are studying the technology to solve these problems. One approach of these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified change combustion with various injection strategy. In this study, the combustion characteristics of DISI engine accrding to injection strategy were examined. The effect of injection timing on lean limit A/F were investigated using dual DISI single cylinder. The results show that the engine operation region of dual DISI type engine is larger than that of PFI and DISI type engine cases. Especially, late injection is very effective to extend the operation region more than any other injection timings. In addition, the results show that when the DISI injection ratio is increase, leam limit A/F is improved. It means that the dual injection system car meet with emission regulations and reduce the fuel consumption. Also, combustion pressure of dual injection system is much higher than PFI and DISI injection.
Robust Design of the Disc Brake Pad Shape for Reduction of Uneven Wear
Park, Jin-Tack ; Choi, Nak-Sam ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 77~87
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.077
In this paper, the method and its effectiveness to decrease the uneven wear of the brake pad were proposed. A finite element analysis was performed to analyze the pressure distributions on the contact surfaces. The optimum brake pad shape was determined by a robust design using the Taguchi method. The effectiveness of the optimum design was clarified by the wear tests with a dynamometer.
Effect of Intake Pressure on Emissions and Performance in Low Temperature Combustion Operation of a Diesel Engine
Lee, Sun-Youp ; Chang, Jae-Hoon ; Lee, Yong-Gyu ; Oh, Seung-Mook ; Kim, Yong-Rae ; Kim, Duk-Sang ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 88~94
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.088
One of the effective ways to reduce both
and PM at the same time in a diesel CI engine is to operate the engine in low temperature combustion (LTC) regimes. In general, two strategies are used to realize the LTC operation-dilution controlled LTC and late injection LTC - and in this study, the former approach was used. In the dilution controlled regime, LTC is achieved by supplying a large amount of EGR to the cylinder. The significant EGR gas increases the heat capacity of in-cylinder charge mixture while decreasing oxygen concentration of the charge, activating low temperature oxidation reaction and lowering PM and
emissions. However, use of high EGR levels also deteriorates combustion efficiency and engine power output. Therefore, it is widely considered to use increased intake pressure as a way to resolve this issue. In this study, the effects of intake pressure variations on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine operated in LTC regimes were examined. LTC operation was achieved in less than 8%
concentration and thus a simultaneous reduction of both PM and
emission was confirmed. As intake pressure increased, combustion efficiency was improved so that THC and CO emissions were decreased. A shift of the peak Soot location was also observed to lower
levels were kept nearly zero. In addition, an elevation of intake pressure enhanced engine power output as well as indicated thermal efficiency in LTC regimes. All these results suggested that LTC operation range can be extended and emissions can be further reduced by adjusting intake pressure.
The Development and Implementation of Model-based Control Algorithm of Urea-SCR Dosing System for Improving De-NOx Performance and Reducing NH
Jeong, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Woo-Seung ; Park, Jung-Kwon ; Lee, Ho-Kil ; Oh, Se-Doo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 95~105
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.095
The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system is a highly-effective aftertreatment device for NOx reduction of diesel engines. Generally, the ammonia (
) was generated from reaction mechanism of SCR in the SCR system using the liquid urea as the reluctant. Therefore, the precise urea dosing control is a very important key for NOx and
slip reduction in the SCR system. This paper investigated NOx and
emission characteristics of urea-SCR dosing system based on model-based control algorithm in order to reduce NOx. In the map-based control algorithm, target amount of urea solution was determined by mass flow rate of exhaust gas obtained from engine rpm, torque and
for feed-back control NOx concentration should be measured by NOx sensor. Moreover, this algorithm can not estimate
absorbed on the catalyst. Hence, the urea injection can be too rich or too lean. In this study, the model-based control algorithm was developed and evaluated on the numerical model describing physical and chemical phenomena in SCR system. One channel thermo-fluid model coupled with finely tuned chemical reaction model was applied to this control algorithm. The vehicle test was carried out by using map-based and model-based control algorithms in the NEDC mode in order to evaluate the performance of the model based control algorithm.
A Study on the Collision Behavior of Fairy Cycle to Vehicle
Kang, Dae-Min ; Ahn, Seung-Mo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 106~111
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.106
Recently the usage of bicycle has increased steeply in Korea owing to traffic culture of well- being. In a car to bicycle accident investigation, the throw distance of bicycle is very important factor for reconstructing of the accident. The variables that influence on the throw distance of bicycle can be classified into the factors of vehicle and bicycle. Simulations and collision tests in actual car to bicycle accident were executed for obtaining throw distance of bicycle. The simulations were done by PC-
and for actual crash tests sand bags were used for the behavior of bicyclist instead of dummy. Factors considered were vehicle velocity and the moving angles of bicycle, also the types of bicycle and vehicle were fairy cycle and automobile, respectively. From the results, the throw distances of a head-on tire collision of
direction was longer than that of tire crash test of
direction, and the throw distances of a head -on frame crash test of
direction was longer than that of frame crash test of
direction. In addition restitution coefficient between vehicle and bicycle was estimated as about 0.1 with based on actual crash tests. Finally the increaser vehicle velocity the longer the throw distances of bicycle, and the results of simulation were relatively good agreement to the experimental results.
Modeling and Controller Design of the Electronic Wedge Brake
Han, Kwang-Jin ; Huh, Kun-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 112~118
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.112
The electronic wedge brake is one of the brake-by-wire systems with a self-energizing effect. The electronic wedge brake has faster response than the conventional hydraulic brake and requires only about one-tenth the power to operate. However, the electronic wedge brake cannot be implemented unless the self-energizing effect is reliably controlled. The self-energizing mechanisms may result in unintentional lock up and are very sensitive to environment and parametric variations of the friction coefficient. In this study, the electronic wedge brake is modeled into dynamic equations, and a sliding mode controller is designed based on the model. The performance of the proposed controller is verified in simulations.
A Study on Battery SOC Estimation by Regenerative Braking in Electric Vehicles
Zheng, Chun-Hua ; Park, Yeong-Il ; Lim, Won-Sik ; Cha, Suk-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 119~123
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.119
In traditional vehicles, a great amount of energy is dissipated by braking. In electric vehicles (EVs), however, electric motors can be controlled to operate as generators to convert kinetic and potential energy of vehicles into electrical energy and store it in batteries. In this paper, the relationship between regenerative braking factor and battery final SOC is derived and the final SOC from the relationship is compared to that from simulation. Two types of braking algorithms are introduced and applied to an EV, and the final SOC derived from simulation is compared to that derived from the relationship.
Multi-objective Optimization of an Injection Mold Cooling Circuit for Uniform Cooling
Park, Chang-Hyun ; Park, Jung-Min ; Choi, Jae-Hyuk ; Rhee, Byung-Ohk ; Choi, Dong-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 124~130
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.124
An injection mold cooling circuit for an automotive front bumper was optimally designed in order to simultaneously minimize the average of the standard deviations of the temperature and the difference in mean temperatures of the upper and lower molds for uniform cooling. The temperature distribution for a specified design was evaluated by Moldflow Insight 2010, a commercial injection molding analysis tool. For efficient design, PIAnO (Process Integration, Automation and Optimization), a commercial PIDO tool, was used to integrate and automate injection molding analysis procedure. The weighted-sum method was used to handle the multi-objective optimization problem and PQRSM, a function-based sequential approximate optimizer equipped in PIAnO, to handle numerically noisy responses with respect to the variation of design variables. The optimal average of the standard deviations and difference in mean temperatures were found to be reduced by 9.2% and 56.52%, respectively, compared to the initial ones.
Thermohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Turbocharger Journal Bearing Involving the Mixture of Water within Engine Oil
Chun, Sang-Myung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 131~140
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.131
In this study, using the governing equation for thermohydrodyamic lubrication involving the homogeneous mixture of incompressible fluid derived by based on the principle of continuum mechanics, it is discussed the effects of water within engine oil on the performance of high speed journal bearing of a turbocharger. The governing equations are the general equations being able to be applied on the mixture of Newtonian fluid and non- Newtonian fluid. Here, the fluid viscosity index, n of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is supposed to be 1 for the application of the journal bearing in a turbocharger lubricated with the mixture of two Newtonian fluid, for example, water within engine oil. The results related with the bearing performance are shown that the bearing friction is to decrease and the side leakage and bearing load increase as increasing the water content in an engine oil.
A Fatigue Related Equation with Shape and Loading Factors Representing Effect of Thickness in Al 2024-T3 Alloy Sheet
Kim, Seung-Gwon ; Lee, Ouk-Sub ; Jang, Joo-Sup ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 141~146
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.141
Aluminum alloys have been used with various thicknesses suitable for light weight of structure. It is known that the thickness effect of material is an important factor affecting fatigue crack propagation under constant fatigue stress condition. In this work, we presented the behavior of fatigue crack propagation in thin plate compared to thick plate Al 2024-T3 alloy with referred thickness effect in a correlative equation determined by the shape factor and the loading factor. We chose two factors that are used in the correlative equation with considering that the experiments were carried out under a constant fatigue stress condition. The thickness ratio of thin plate compared to thick plate and the equivalent effective stress intensity factor ratio depending on thickness were chosen as shape and loading factors. A correlative equation is utilized to determine the equivalent effective stress intensity factor range of thin plate and identify the degree of increasing phenomenon of fatigue life in thin plate compared to thick plate.
An Experimental Study on Filtration Efficiency and BPT Characteristics by PM Loading in Partial-diesel Particulate Filter
Oh, Kwang-Chul ; Lee, Kyung-Bok ; Lee, Chun-Beom ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 1, 2012, Pages 147~154
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.1.147
The number of vehicles applied diesel engine are rapidly rising for fuel economy. Accompanying this trend, application of an after-treatment system is strictly required as a result of reinforced emission regulation. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system is considered as the most efficiency method to reduce particulate matter (PM) by car makers but also in retrofit market. In recently, various kinds of partial flow DPF are widely used for proper filtration performance and reducing of pressure drop but it is difficult to define the characteristics of these filters because the filtration mechanism is obscure according to the status of these systems. In this paper we investigated the characteristics of cell open type DPF according to the status of filter especially, PM loading. The PM loading mass in the p-DPF are predicted from increase of differential pressure of DPF and the trend of filtration efficiency so that we can measure filtration efficiency and Balance Point Temperature (BPT) of this p-DPF according to PM loading.